id,title,nid,first_type,second_type,body 1,"Urdu Bayans By Subject",5254,,,"" 2,"English Islamic lecturers & Talks By Scholor",5253,,,"" 3,"English Islamic lecturers & Talks By Subject",5256,,,"" 4,"Dars and Tafseer e Quran - English",5257,,,"" 5,"Urdu Bayan Bayanaat & Taqreers by Subject",5260,,,"" 6,Audio,5272,,,"" 7,"Urdu Islamic Books",5276,,,"" 8,"Urdu Bayan By Ulama",5277,,,"" 9,"Urdu Bayans and Taqreers By Ulama",5278,,,"" 10,"15 Adaab of Masjid",5279,,,"Mufti-e-Azam Hadhrat Maulana Muhammad Shafi’ Usmani (Rahimullah) writes the following chapter in his Tafseer “Maa’riful Qur’an”: Scholars have named fifteen items as etiquettes of the mosques. They are: On entering the mosque one should greet the people already sitting there, with salam and if there is no one then say ‘Assalamu ‘Alayna Wa ‘Ala Ibadallahi-Saliheen’(but this is required when those present in the mosque are not offering their extra prayer or reciting Qur’an. If they are busy in any of these acts, then he should not greet them.) After getting in the mosque one should offer two Rak’ats as tahiyyah tul-masjid. (This is required at a time when offering prayers is not prohibited, that is the time of sun rise, sun set or when sun is directly overhead.) Should not carry out any transactions of sale or purchase in the mosque. Should not carry any weapons in the mosque. Should not make an announcement for the search for any of his lost items. Should not raise his voice in the mosque. Should not discuss worldly affairs in the mosque. Should not quarrel with any one in the mosque. Should not try to force his way into a row where there is no room. Should not cross over in front of someone offering prayer. Should avoid spitting or blowing of nose in the mosque. Should not crackle fingers in the mosque. Should not play with any part of the body. Should keep clean of any filth, and should not take a baby or an insane along in the mosque. Should keep busy in remembrance of Allah abundantly. After listing these fifteen etiquettes Qurtubi has remarked that whoever has fulfilled these requirements has done justice with the mosque, and it has become a place of charm and security for him. I have written a booklet on etiquettes and formalities of mosques under the title “Adaab-e-Masjid” (in Urdu). Anyone interested in the subject can consult it. " 11,"Adaab of Visiting the Sick",5280,,,"While visiting the sick earns much reward, the proper Aadaab (etiquettes) must also be observed. Hereunder are some aadaab which are mentioned in and deduced from various Ahadith: * Visit the sick only for the pleasure of Allah, to earn the rewards mentioned and to console the person. * Do not lenghten the visit. It has been stressed in the Ahadith that the visit should be short. If the sick person himself desires that the visitor should remain longer, there is no harm in it. * Commence the visit by asking about the health of the person. Talk light hearted things and cheer the person up.It is also narrated that one should mention to him that he will Insha Allah recover and have a long life. Do not speak of such things which will make him despondent or grieve him further. One should mention the incidents of the pious people regarding how they reacted during illness. * Mention to the person that illnesses cause the forgiveness of one’s sins. * Do not cry or express grief in the prescence of the patient. * It is preferable to place one’s hand on the forehead of the sick person and make dua for him. Learn the duas that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) made for the sick and recite the same. There is great blessings in these duas. * Besides making dua for him, one should also request dua for oneself from the sick person. * Encourage the patient to engage in Salaah, Zikr, Durood, etc. (It should be noted that the sick person is never absolved of his Salaah. If he cannot perform his Salaah standing, he should do so while sitting. If this also is not possible, then he should do so in a reclining position. If it is not possible to perform Wudu, Tayamum should be performed. The relevant Masail should be learnt from the Ulama or from authentic literature). * If the person is in hospital, abide by the times and rules of the hospital. * If the doctors have recomended that the patient should not be spoken to, do not insist on speaking to him. * If the patient is being visited at home, ensure that the visit is at an appropriate time. " 12,"Shukr (Gratefulness)",5281,,,"Allah Taala says: Rasulullah (saws) said: “If happiness reaches him (the believer), he is grateful.” THE NATURE OF SHUKR Accepting that all benefit is from the True Benefactor (Mun’im Haqeeqi), the effect of which is to be happy with the Benefactor and be ever ready to render obedience to Him, is the meaning of Shukr. The meaning of Shukr envisages: Acceptance of the fact that all benefit is from Allah, the True Benefactor (Mun’im Haqeeqi). This acceptance induces: 1. Happiness with the Benefactor. 2. Eagerness to execute the commands of the Benefactor and to abstain from his prohibitions. One should consider all benefit, goodness and pleasant conditions as the bounties of Allah and regard these to be in greater measure than what one really deserves. Praise is to be offered to Allah and His bounties should not be employed in evil and sin. His favours should be used in obtaining His Pleasure. This is the true meaning of Shukr. This conception of Shukr will be comprehended only when one has realized the purpose underlying creation and the functions of the various aspects of creation. For instance, the eye is a ni’mat of Allah Ta’ala. Its shukr is to employ it correctly–to employ it in only lawful avenues, e.g. making tilaawat of the Qur’aan Majeed, acquiring knowledge, studying the wonderful creation of Allah so as to gain lesson and realize the greatness and splendour of Allah Ta’ala, etc. The shukr of the eye further demands that it be restrained from glancing at and viewing objects which Allah Ta’ala has prohibited. Similarly, the ear is a ni’mat. Its shukr is to employ It correctly, e.g. in listening to the thikr of Allah, to such talks which remind one of the Aakhirat, and to prevent it from listening to evil, nonsensical and futile talk. The tongue is a ni’mat. Its shukr is to employ it in thikr, in expressing hamd, thanaa and shukr of Allah, and to restrain it from complaining in adversity and from all evil generally. It is highly inappropriate and sinful for such a worthless slave as man to complain about any condition which Allah Ta’ala, the True King, has imposed on him. A word of shukr emanating from the tongue is recorded as an act of obedience. Mere expression of shukr with the tongue unaccompanied by the true state of shukr of the heart is only lip-service. It is essential that along with verbal expression of shukr, the heart should value and honour the ni’mat of The Benefactor. Mere verbal shukr will be like the outer-casing, like the outer-covering which is its external form. The rooh (soul and essence) of shukr is that the honour and appreciation of the Mun’im (Benefactor) and the ni’mat (the bounty) are ingrained in the heart. The initial stage of shukr is at the intellectual level. In other words, it is the correct understanding of the true meaning of shukr and the realization of the honour of the Benefactor. The final stage of shukr is the manifestation of its effect on one’s body, movements and all states. In short, all the beliefs, acts of worship, mundane acts, moral and social life of the shaakir (the one who is truly grateful to Allah) will be in conformity with the Shariat. ACQUIRING SHUKR Shukr is acquired by contemplating the bounties of Allah Ta’ala. Every ni’mat is to be related to Him. By degrees such meditation will imbue the Love of Allah in the heart, the result of which will be the attainment of the perfect stage of Shukr." 13,"Turn to Allah",5282,,,"Almost every house faces a problem either directly or indirectly. In spite of that our position is that we only discuss the situation and comment on it. Our city (Karachi) is going through difficult times these days. Every one is worried and restless. Almost every house faces a problem either directly or indirectly. In spite of that our position is that we only discuss the situation and comment on it. But, are there any among us who are really concerned and who turn to Allah and pray to Him to correct the situation? “O Allah! We are faced with difficulty. The consequences of our sins have overwhelmed us. O Allah! Be merciful to us and remove the worrying condition from us”. NO POINT IN COMMENTING In 1971. East Pakistan was lost and Pakistani Muslims suffered an unparalleled disgrace. Ninety thousand of their army were taken captive. They surrendered arms before the Hindus. All Muslims were sad because of that. At that time, I had the honour to visit Mawlana Doctor Abdul Hayy (Rah) with my elder brother Mawlana Mufti Muhammad Rafi Usmani (rah). We found there that people who were present discussed the situation and passed comment blaming someone or other. When they had discussed the situation for some time. Mawlana Doctor Abdul Hayy (rah) asked them if they had arrived at a decision. Did the discussion provide them any advantage in this world or the next? INSTEAD, MAKE A SUPPLICATION He said to them, “You could have spent the time making a supplication to Allah - O Allah! We face a difficulty because of our misdeeds. O Allah! Foregive us! Remove this difficulty from us! Remove the consequences of our misdeeds from us! Convert the ignominy into an honourable situation - If you had made the supplication, it is not unexpected of Allah that He would have approved your petition. Even otherwise, you would have earned reward for making the supplication, and a blessing for the Hereafter. You only wasted your time.” It was then that we realised that we are involved in this wasteful behaviour every day. We only discuss and comment. We have forgotten to pray to Allah for our needs. How many of us can we count who turned to Allah and implored Him to remedy the situation, how many offered the Salah Al Hajah, the prayer for fulfillment of need, and petitioned Him: “O Allah! I offer my prayers. Let your Mercy remove the punishment from us.” Perhaps, someone may have done that. Most of us are involved in commenting and in backbiting and slander. As a result, we are being more sinful. TURN TO ALLAH In such circumstances, we must all turn to Allah and make our supplications. If anyone has any means in his power and authority then he must employ that. If he does not have authority over the means then let him pray to Allah. That is within the ability of all of us. We are forgetting to turn to Allah. We must recall that when Pakistan was being created, there was much turmoil and mischief in the land. At that time, in every house in Deoband and other cities people recited the verses of the . Quran (the ayate Karimah) [LaLailaha illa anta subhanaka inni khuntu min Az Zalimeen] without any one having appealed to them to do so. Every Muslim did it on his , own finding it necessary to do that. Women recited the verses and made supplications within their homes, “O Allah! Let the Muslims come out of this difficulty!” The result was that Allah rescued the Muslims from their predicament. WE DO NOT OPEN OUR EYES We see today turmoil in our city. Dead bodies lie before our eyes. But, we are unmoved. We do not turn to Allah. We do not know of people reciting the verses of the Quran within their homes or making supplications to Allah. On the contrary, dead bodies are everywhere, death is before us, but our Muslims are in their homes, ties down before their television sets. Under the circumstances, are we not inviting punishment from Allah? We arc unwilling to stop sinning, and reluctant to give up disobedient behaviour. BE MERCIFUL TO YOURSELVES AND DO IT For the sake of Allah, have mercy on yourselves. Turn to Allah, every Muslim can do it. Let each of them offer two rak’at, prayer for the fulfillment of needs’, ft will not lake much time, say two minutes. Then, it will take another three minutes to make the supplication. Let us” give these five minutes for our people, our nation and stand before Allah. If we cannot do that, why do we say that we are saddened by the situation? Let us resolve to continue praying two raka’at Salah Al Hajah, and making supplication to Allah as long as this situation lasts. Further, let us be merciful to ourselves and remove the instruments of disobedience from our homes and save ourselves from sin. Let us stop disobedience and sin, and pray to Allah humbly weeping. Let us recite the noble verse of the Quran: O Allah, there is no god but You. You are without blemish. I have been of the wrong doers. Let us, repeat again and again, “O Peace” Instead of wasting our time on discussing the situation and commenting on it, let us turn to Allah. May He grant us that ability! Aameen! [”Discourses on Islamic Way of Life (Vol:10)” by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (damat barkatuhum)]" 14,"Adaab of Visiting the Sick",5283,,,"While visiting the sick earns much reward, the proper Aadaab (etiquettes) must also be observed. Hereunder are some aadaab which are mentioned in and deduced from various Ahadith: * Visit the sick only for the pleasure of Allah, to earn the rewards mentioned and to console the person. * Do not lenghten the visit. It has been stressed in the Ahadith that the visit should be short. If the sick person himself desires that the visitor should remain longer, there is no harm in it. * Commence the visit by asking about the health of the person. Talk light hearted things and cheer the person up.It is also narrated that one should mention to him that he will Insha Allah recover and have a long life. Do not speak of such things which will make him despondent or grieve him further. One should mention the incidents of the pious people regarding how they reacted during illness. * Mention to the person that illnesses cause the forgiveness of one’s sins. * Do not cry or express grief in the prescence of the patient. * It is preferable to place one’s hand on the forehead of the sick person and make dua for him. Learn the duas that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) made for the sick and recite the same. There is great blessings in these duas. * Besides making dua for him, one should also request dua for oneself from the sick person. * Encourage the patient to engage in Salaah, Zikr, Durood, etc. (It should be noted that the sick person is never absolved of his Salaah. If he cannot perform his Salaah standing, he should do so while sitting. If this also is not possible, then he should do so in a reclining position. If it is not possible to perform Wudu, Tayamum should be performed. The relevant Masail should be learnt from the Ulama or from authentic literature). * If the person is in hospital, abide by the times and rules of the hospital. * If the doctors have recomended that the patient should not be spoken to, do not insist on speaking to him. * If the patient is being visited at home, ensure that the visit is at an appropriate time. " 15,"15 Adaab of Masjid",5284,,,"Mufti-e-Azam Hadhrat Maulana Muhammad Shafi’ Usmani (Rahimullah) writes the following chapter in his Tafseer “Maa’riful Qur’an”: Scholars have named fifteen items as etiquettes of the mosques. They are: On entering the mosque one should greet the people already sitting there, with salam and if there is no one then say ‘Assalamu ‘Alayna Wa ‘Ala Ibadallahi-Saliheen’(but this is required when those present in the mosque are not offering their extra prayer or reciting Qur’an. If they are busy in any of these acts, then he should not greet them.) After getting in the mosque one should offer two Rak’ats as tahiyyah tul-masjid. (This is required at a time when offering prayers is not prohibited, that is the time of sun rise, sun set or when sun is directly overhead.) Should not carry out any transactions of sale or purchase in the mosque. Should not carry any weapons in the mosque. Should not make an announcement for the search for any of his lost items. Should not raise his voice in the mosque. Should not discuss worldly affairs in the mosque. Should not quarrel with any one in the mosque. Should not try to force his way into a row where there is no room. Should not cross over in front of someone offering prayer. Should avoid spitting or blowing of nose in the mosque. Should not crackle fingers in the mosque. Should not play with any part of the body. Should keep clean of any filth, and should not take a baby or an insane along in the mosque. Should keep busy in remembrance of Allah abundantly. After listing these fifteen etiquettes Qurtubi has remarked that whoever has fulfilled these requirements has done justice with the mosque, and it has become a place of charm and security for him. I have written a booklet on etiquettes and formalities of mosques under the title “Adaab-e-Masjid” (in Urdu). Anyone interested in the subject can consult it." 16,"Shia Beliefs",5285,637,,"By: Moulana Zia-ur-rahman Farooqui Shaheed (Rahimahullah) - Translated By: Moulana Abdurrahman Ishaq Peace and blessings be to Prophet Muhammad whenever his name is mentioned. INTRODUCTION Nabi mentioned in the Hadith a period which will dawn upon the Ummah wherein holding firm to Iman (for the people of that period) will grasping burning coal. Without doubt the words of Nabi have proved to be true and we find our Iman under attack from all sides. One such attack has been launched by the Shi'ah in the disguise of, ""The call of unity"", which has left a staggering question in many a minds; ""Why do the Ahlus Sunnah not accept this incitation to unite?"" The answer is simple: Only when the fundamental beliefs of two parties are similar can a common tent of unity be erected. The Qur'an clearly states:

Peace and blessings be to Prophet Muhammad whenever his name is mentioned.

INTRODUCTION

Nabi mentioned in the Hadith a period which will dawn upon the Ummah wherein holding firm to Iman (for the people of that period) will grasping burning coal. Without doubt the words of Nabi have proved to be true and we find our Iman under attack from all sides. One such attack has been launched by the Shi'ah in the disguise of, ""The call of unity"", which has left a staggering question in many a minds; ""Why do the Ahlus Sunnah not accept this incitation to unite?"" The answer is simple: Only when the fundamental beliefs of two parties are similar can a common tent of unity be erected. The Qur'an clearly states:



""They wish that you should compromise (in religion out of courtesy) with them so they too would compromise with you. And obey not every such worthless person who swears much.""
Under no circumstances should the people of Iman compromise on the aspects of their religion. If the pillars of a structure are tampered with, it is bound to bring destruction. Similarly, when the fundamental beliefs of our religion are compromised, then Islam and its pureness will be washed away. This booklet is the translation of a lecture delivered by Moulana Dhiaurrahman Faruqi (Rahimahullah) which outlines the differences between the Ahlus Sunnah and the Shi'ah. It also depicts a clear picture of how it is impossible for the two to unite. This book also proves that the Shi'ah do not belong to the Muslim brotherhood. But rather, they are from amongst the enemies of Allah and Allah commands us thus:

"" O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies as friends..."" I pray to Allah that He makes this booklet a means of guidance for the entire Ummah. May He also greatly reward all those who assisted in making this publication possible. Ameen.
09 Jumadal Ukhra 1420 19 September 1999

This is a lecture delivered on 6 October 1991 in Multan by Moulana Zia-ur-Rehman Farooqui (Shaheed) Rahimahullah


THE VERDICTS OF THE ULAMA REGARDING THE SHI'AH

The verdicts passed by the Ulama regarding the Kufr of the Shi'ah are neither foreign nor strange. Moulana Haq Nawaz (Rahimahullah) had very boldly announced the Kufr of the Shi'ah form every possible platform and stage and he backed his claim with extremely weighty proofs. He had not undertaken a new task by regarding the Shi'ah to be Kuffar. The kufr of the Shi'ah is proven in the Qur'an. Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) has clearly counted the Shi'ah amongst the Kuffar substances it with the Ayah:



""... that He may burn through them the hearts of the disbelievers
Similarly Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jaiani (Rahimahullah) in his book, Ghuniyatut Talibin, has announced the Kufr of the Shi'ah. Imam Ahmad bin Hambal (Rahimahullah) has not only announced their Kufr but went as far as saying that the Taubah (Repentance) of the Shi'ah cannot be accepted. It is known that the Taubah of a Jew and Christian is acceptable, but according to him, the Shi'ah is such a Kafir that his Taubah cannot be accepted. Shaikhul Islam Imam Ibn Taimiyah (Rahimahullah) in his unparalleled book, Minhajus Sunnah - which was written as a reply to a Shi'ah - indicated towards the Kufr of the Shi'ah. However in his other work, As-Sarimul Maslul Ala Shatimir-Rasul, he has explicitly mentioned the Kufr, Irtidad and Nifaq of the Shi'ah. We also find the following words of Imam Malik, Ahmad bin Hambal and Abu Hanigah Rahimahumullah recorded:



""He who denies the Suhbah (Companionship) of Abubakr ( with the Prophet) is a Kafir."" After listening to all these opinions of the Ulama one should not hesitate in regarding the Shi'ah to be Kuffar. Some people argue the fact that Imam Abu Qiblah (a person who turns towards the Qiblah of Islam when praying- a Muslim) as a Kafir. Such people do not realize what is meant by these Ahlul Qiblah. If a person says that by Ahlul Qiblah are meant all those who face the Ka'bah in prayers, then the question arises: Which Qiblah did Abu Jahl and Abu Lanhab follow? When Abu Jahl and Abu Lanhab also followed the same Qiblah and made Tawaf of the same Ka'bah, then they should also be regarded as Muslims. Therefore, being from Ahlul Qiblah does not necessarily mean being a Muslim, rather it refers to those people who Ibnu Taimiyah had mentioned in his definition:

"" The Ahlul Qiblah are those who are concurrent with the necessities of Deen."" On the other hand the Shi'ah are such Kuffar who deny the necessities of Deen. Following in the footsteps of Ibn Taimiyah was the great figure and personality of Mujaddid Alfe Thani (Rahimahullah). He clearly announced the Kufr of the Shi'ah in his book viz; Raddur Rifdhah.


WHY ARE THE SHI'IAH KUFFAR ? THE FIRST REASON

Shah Waliullah (Rahimahullah) in his book, Izalatul Khifa, in 12 occasions passed the judgment of Kufr against the Shi'ah and counted them amongst the rejecters of Khatmun Nubuwwah. In his lat will he made the bequest that the Shi'ah should never be regarded as Muslims because they are deniars of Khatmun Nubuwwah. A dream of his is mentioned in the Kitab, Fuyoozul Haramain, wherein he says: ""I saw Nabi in a dream. I asked him: ""O Rasulullah ! What is your opinion with the regard of the Shi'ah?"" Rasulullah replied: ""To understand the position of the Shi'ah (in Islam) a study of their beliefs in Imamah is sufficient."" He further says: ""On the following day I once again studied the Shi'i belief with regard to Imamah and came to the conclusion that the Shi'ah are the greatest opponents and deniers of the Khatmun Nubuwwah.."" Now it is left upon us to decide whether we regard a person who denies Khatmun Nubuwwah to be a Mu'min or not?


THE SECOND REASON

If we further study we will find even more intense and severe reasons for regarding the Shi'ah to be Kuffar, like the doctrine of Bada, the belief of Raj'ah etc. However, there is one such belief that can never be denied. It is the duty of every Muslim to unveil this Kufr of the Shi'ah and remove the cover of Taqiyyah. This belief is none other than their belief in the alteration of the Qur'an. They claim that they present Qur'an was altered on behalf of the drunk Khulafa (referring to Abubakr, Umar and Uthman r.z).
Allah mentioned in Ayah of the Qur'an: (Surah 12, Verse 49)


""Then thereafter will come a year in which people will have abundant rain and in which they will press (wine and oil)."" Maqbool Delawi writes this Ayah in his Tafir and says the word



originally ought to be read as



Using this word of the Qur'an Dehlawi writes that the Qur'an was tampered with due to the drunk Khulafa. This is recorded in his translation of the Qur'an. Another Shi'i scholar says in his translation of the Qur'an that the word



in the following verse of the Qur'an:

"" Verily we have revealed the Thikr (Qur'an) and surely We will guard it (from corruption),"" does not refer to the Qur'an. In fact it refers to Rasulullah . He interprets this verse in two ways:

1) If it refers to Rasulullah , then it means that Allah sent him down and protected him from being assassinated.
2) If it does refer to the Qur'an, then this does not necessitate the protection of every single copy of the Qur'an is in the possession of Ali. Similarly Muhammad bin Ya'qoob Kulanini in his book Usuluh Kafi* (This id one of the most authentic Shi'ah books. Just as the Muslims have 6 authentic books of Hadith, the Shi'ah have 4 such books which are called Usulul Arba'ah or Sihah Arba'ah. They are :
1) Al Jamiul Kafi which is divided into three parts; a) Usulul Kafi in 2 volumes. This mentions the Shi'i beliefs b) Furoo'ul Kafi in 5 volumes. book deals with the Masail (laws of Fiqh) and c) Raudhatul Kafi in 1 volume. This book mentions the lives of their A'immah. Al Jamiul Kafi enjoys the very same status as Shahihul Bukhari. The second book of the Shi'ah Arba'ah is Tahthibul Ahkam. The third is Al Istibsar and the fourth is Manla Yahdhuruhul Faqiah. Besides these 4 books, some Shi'ah may be accepting some books whilst rejecting others. Nevertheless these are such authentic books of that these books be studied. All the different Shi'ah sects also accept these books to be the most authentic.) says that the present Qur'an is an altered version of the original Qur'an which consist of 17,000 verses. It is a known fact that the present Qur'an only contains 6,666 verses. From this it is clarified that the difference with the Shi'ah is not merely based on their referring to Abubakr and Umar as Kafir. In fact, one of the fundamental differences is the rejection of the present Qur'an. They regard it to be incomplete. The footnotes of these books clearly mention that the Qur'an was tampered with by the drunkards viz. Abubakr, Umar and Uthman and it contains no reality and essence. If the Shi'ah are asked that if this position of the Qur'an in your opinion, then why do you recite it? Maqbool Delawi replies: ""We are compelled to do this by the order of the Imam. The Imam had instructed that we should hold onto this ""incorrect"" Qur'an until we receive the original copy.""


THE THIRD REASON

The third reason for the Shi'ah being kuffar is that they believe the status of their 12 A'immah to be higher than that of every single Nabi. This belief of theirs is mentioned in their foundational book, Usoolul Kafi. It is mentioned therein in the Chapter ""Kitabur Risalah"" that the status of Muhammad and the remaining Ambiya is lesser than that of the 12 A'immah. These are beliefs of the Shi'ah which are mentioned in their most authentic books which cannot be denied by them. Khomeini in his book, Al-Hukumatul Islamiah, says that the 124,000 Ambiya could not attain the status which their 12 A'immah have attained. In this belief of theirs, the Shi'ah are in reality negating Khatmun Nubuwwah ( finality of the prophet hood of Muhammad .


THE FOURTH REASON

The fourth reason for regarding the Shi'ah to be Kuffar is that they have counted Abubakr and Umar (and the rest of the Sahabah (r.z) as renegades. Muhammad bin Ya'qoob Kulanini explicitly writes in his book Usoolul Kafi that Abubakr and Umar never recited the Kalimah sincerely. They are Kuffar and inhabitants of Hell! After bolding such a belief, can the Shi'ah ever be regarded as Muslims? Usoolul Kafi also records the belief that a great number of the Sahabah of the Prophet did not accept the faith of Islam sincerely with the exception of four Sahabah who are: 1) Ammar bin Yasir 2) Miqdad bin Aswad 3) Salman Farsi 5)Abu Dhar Ghifari (r.z).
Besides these the rest of the Sahabah accepted Islam hypocritically in the greed for power. In this book Kashful Asrar, with extreme audacity and courage, Khomeini has written that Umar was an outright Kafir and infidel! Such is the Kufr that is blurted against that very companion of the Prophet concerning whom Rasulullah said :



""Had there been a prophet to come after me, it would have been Umar.""

Maqbool Dehlawi writes in his Tafir that Allah has used the words :



in the Qur'an which means that ""Shaytan said...""
He says that these words wherever they appear, refers to Umar bin Khattab. At another place in Kashful Asrar Khomeini writes that Abubakr, Umar, Uthman and Abu Ubaidah attached themselves to the Prophet for the sole reason of attaining power and leadership. Had they been promised the throne of power by falsifying the Prophet , they would have verily falsified him. He also wrote that Abubakr and Umar and those who were with them merely connected themselves to Rasulullah in hope of leadership but their hearts were completely distant form him! At another place in the same book Khomeini wrote another statement of Kufr. He says, ""I do not accept that being to be Allah who gave the Khilafah to such immoral persons like Uthman and Mu'awiyah"". That very Uthman who was the son in law of Rasulullah ! The very Uthman whom Rasulullah gave his daughter to ! When, the first daughter passed away, then Rasulullah gave his second daughter. When she also passed away, then Rasulullah said: ""O Uthman! if I had any more daughter, I would have given them in your marriage"". O Muslims! That Uthman who before the advent of Islam never consumed liquor, never swore any of his enemies and so was mercilessly martyred, is called a Kafir! (today after 1420 years.)


THE BELIEF OF RAJ'AH

Another Shi'i scholar, Mulla Baqir Majlisi, writes in his book, Haqqul Yaqeen, concerning the belief of Raj'ah. Raj'ah is that belief of the Shi'ah wherein they claim that whenever the Imam wishes he can bring any person back to life. Under this chapter he writes that when the Mahdi appears, then he will make Tawaf of the Ka'bah. After making Tawaf, he will leave for Madinah. Standing in front of the Raudhah (grave) of the Prophet, he will ask the two graves which are situated next to Rasulullah's grave. The people will reply: ""These are the graves of Abubakr and Umar"". The Imam will ask : ""Who buried them beside the Prophet ? The people replied: ""They were buried here because they were the close and special companions of the Prophet ."" The Imam will advance and demolish the walls of the Raudah. He will then dig the graves of Abubakr and Umar, exhume their bodies and bring them back to life. He will then address them saying: ""O Abubakr and Umar! Every sin of adultery, consumption of liquor and immorality that was committed on earth until this day, was because of the two of you! Had you given Ali his rights, none of these sins would have occurred!"" Upon this Abubakr and Umar will plead for forgiveness but the Imam will strip Abubakr and Umar of their Kafin, hang them on the gallows of Madinah and last them. This punishment will continue until the day of Qiyamah! O Muslims! Can we remain silent after such blatant lies of Kufr are uttered? This literature is not being published against any person's mother, father or brother. It is being published against that Siddiq who was appointed by the Prophet as his substitute on the Musalla (prayer mat)! O people! let us ask ourselves: Does our Imam permit us to remain silent after so much of Kufr has been exposed to us? The accursed Shi'ah author, Ghulam Husain Najfi, wrote a book viz, Tuhfah Hanafiyah. By the oath of Allah, such Kufr has been written in this book which is not ever, worth of being mentioned. In this book he has debased and sworn the Sahabah. He has abused their mothers and sisters. He has written that a person who writes the names of Abubakr, Umar and Uthman on his private part will be deserving of great rewards!


THE BELIEF OF TAQIYYAH

To futher propagate their religion the Shi'ah veil themselves behind the sheets of Taqiyyah (holy hypocrisy) and go about claiming to be Muslims. When they are asked about their rejection of Abubakr and Umar (r.z) then they curb the topic by saying that we do accept them (their status) but after that of Ali. A question is many times posed that what is the reason that many years back the Shi'ah participated in all such gatherings and conferences which were arranged by the Ahlus Sunnah and today they are being branded as Kuffar? Previously the Shi'ah and the Ahlus Sunnah worked together against any opposition party and today they have become Kuffar? The slogan of 'KAFIR KAFIR, SHI'AH KAFIR' was never heard before. Today it is being heard all over, what is the reason for this discord and disunity? To understand the answer we should remember one point. Usoolul Kafi which is the fundamental Shi'ah book for records a (fabricated) narration. Mullah Baqir Majlisi writes: ""Imam Ja'far Sadiq has mentioned that the Ameerul Mumineen (Ali r.z) has said that let every Shi'ah follower of mine hear my (following) bequest: ""He who conceals his religion will be granted respect by Allah and he who disclose it will be humiliated."" So the Shi'ah have been practicing upon this advice for the past 1,410 years. All their fundamental beliefs were recorded in book such as Usoolul Kafi etc. These books were not printed of published. Only the original scripts exists and these were safely stored. In this way the beliefs and ideas of the Shi'ah were kept a secret. If the secrets of the Shi'ah were brought to the surface and exposed from the very beginning, then they would never enjoyed the title of being ""Muslims"" in any era under the ruler ship of any Muslim empire. They would have been holding that very reputation of Kufr which the Christians, Jews and Hindus hold today. The doctrine of Taqiyyah has been flashed out very beautifully so as to encourage mankind to practice upon it. It is mentioned in the Shi'ah books:



"" He who does not practice Taqiyyah is not a true believer!"" In other words a person will be highly rewarded for speaking such lies (according to Shi'ah religion) because speaking such lies (practicing upon Taqiyyah) is highly commendable. This was clearly attested to by their leader Khomeini when in came into power in 1979. A book containing 700 of his speeches has been published and in the 3rd speech he has mentioned: ""It was the claim of the Imam that he who concealed his religion would be granted respect and he who exposed it would be disgraced. However, Allah has granted me such position and power today which was never enjoyed by Shi'ah before. Therefore I have abrogated the law and order of the A'immah. It is my order today that the Shi'ah should proclaim and announce their religion because lies in this."" It is for this reason that all those books which were veiled behind the curtains of Taqiyyah were now published in large numbers and in numerous languages and freely distributed in the Republic of Iran. When these books reached the corners of the world and crossed the eyes of the Ulama, then the reality and true colors of Khomeini and Shi'ism became manifest. Some of the many false beliefs of the Shi'ah which are recorded in these books are: a) Allah speaks lies.
b) The Prophet departed from this world unsuccessful.
c) He (the Prophet ) will pledge allegiance to the (naked) Mahdi.
d) A'ishah had committed adultery whilst married to the Prophet .
e) Abubakr and Umar will be hanged on the gallows of Madinah and,
f) Abubakr and Umar and Uthman were Kuffar and immortal people.
After learning these beliefs and many others the Ulama begin announcing the Kufr of Khomeini and the Shi'ah. Books were published from Egypt, Lebanon, India, Pakistan and all over the world condemning Khomeini and exposing his Kufr. From the above we have learnt that Khomeini was the first person to have exposed and ordered the exposure of the Shi'ah religion and its Kufr.


THE SHI'AH HISTORICALLY

If we scrutinize the Shi'ah from a historical angle as well, we will not find a single era which was free of their mischief. For example,
1. In the first era of Islam, they had a hand in the assassination of Umar, Uthman and Husain Radiallahu anhum.
2. Going further into the 8th century, who were the traitors to Salahuddin Ayyubi? Salahuddin was fighting against the Christians and the Shi'ah weaved into the opposition party against him.
3. Who was Ibnul Alkami? He invited foreign forces to Baghdad to overthrow the Muslims government.
4.When Ibn Taimiyah opposed the Tartars, then who supported them?
5. Who opposed Sultan Tipu when he came into the battlefield?
6. Leaving aside all these historic events, let us see the Mujahideen of Afghanistan. They were on the verge of conquering Kabul on two occasions when the Shi'ah became an obstruction and prevented those from taking place. The Shi'ah hold the same opinion as the Americans regarding the Mujahideen. After losing the blood of 150,000 Mujahideen, the Iranian like the Americans encouraged reconciliation with Zahir Shah. In other words they encouraged wastage of the precious blood of 150,000 Mujahideen.


THE AHLUS SUNNAH AND ALI (R.Z)

We find that the Shi'ah claim Ali (r.z). Hasan (r.z) and Husain (r.z) to be their A'immah. Fatimah (r.z) is a highly respectable figure amongst them. None amongst the Ahlus Sunnah has ever debased or written any filth against anyone of those great respectable personalities. However, when the Ahlus Sunnah regard Abubakr (r.z) as their pride and honor, then we find that Shi'ah have written 360 books condemning him and the rest of the Sahabah (r.z).


THE SHI'AH AND ABUBAKR (R.Z)

The Shi'ah have written a book named Shaikh Thaqifah. This book was published in Karachi. The title of this book is Abubakr and there is the picture of a dog at the bottom. O people! No one ever depicts us in such disgusting ways but the Khalifah of the Prophet is abused in such way that under his name the photo of a dog is placed? O people! what answer will you give on the day of Qiyamah if Abubakr complains to the Prophet saying: ""I has sacrificed all my wealth for you, I had given my daughter in your marriage but such an era has come in the world when my name written with the picture of a dog and the Ummah was asleep?


RUQAYYAH AND UTHMAN (R.Z)

Ghulam Husain Najfi has written a book wherein he has defamed the character of the daughter of the Prophet . He has written that after the demise of the Prophet's daughter Raqayyah, Uthman had intercourse with her. Such filth will never be tolerated even against any enemy and there it is being mentioned regarding the son in law and daughter of the Prophet !


ANNOUNCING THE SHI'I KUFR

When the media of Iran announces Abubakr and Umar to be Kuffar, when it announces Uthman to be an immortal person then why is it that no Muslim state replies to this? Had we been in possession of such means we would have definitely replied to them. We are compelled to come out onto the roads and streets to fulfill this duty. It was on the basis of the fulfillment of this very duty that the children of our leader (Haq Nawaz Rahimahullah were made orphans, his wife a widow and himself descended the depths of the grave at such a young age. I have faith that just as he left the world I will also definitely leave the world some day. I also knew that my life is never more exalted than that of Abubakr. I am prepared to tolerate all sorts of punishments whilst disclosing and announcing the Shi'ah Kufr but I will never tolerate the defamation of the character of the Sahabah. Either I will remain on this earth or the enemy will prevail!


MOULANA HAQ NAWAZ RAHIMAHULLAH

When this book (the title of which had the picture of a dog under the name of Abubakr r.z
) was published and it reached the hands of Moulana Haw Nawaz, he studied it and kept weeping the whole night. The following day he announced in a gathering saying: ""O Allah! send your curses upon Haq Nawaz if after the publication of this book he sleeps peacefully."" Why is it that Haq Nawaz was taken to task, why was he rebuked and taunted when he announced the Kufr of the Shi'ah? He did not make nay of these claims from his own side. He did not fabricated any of the basis of that Kufr which is recorded in their own books. Similarly in who after learning the above mentioned beliefs counted the Shi'ah amongst amongst Muslims. What is the reason that people spend all their efforts in fighting for issues relating to this world but when Abubakr is abused, the daughter of the Prophet are abused then not a single hair on the body stands?


THE SIPAHE SAHABAH

The Sipahe Sahabah has vowed to fight and combat all such kufr and literature which is being published. The fight of the Sipahe Sahabah is not based on any greed for status of political power. The Sipahe Sahabah has realized its religious duty and obligation of raising the voice of truth from every possible avenue against the filthy literature and words used against the noble personalities of the Sahabah. The Sipahe Sahabah will keep on fulfilling this task and, Insha Allah soon a time come when all such Kufr will be eradicated from the surface of this earth. Amin.


THE PURPOSE AND OBJECT OF SIPAHE SAHABAH

* To propagate the oneness of Allah and to protect the finality of prophet hood of Nabi .
* To utilize all efforts and strength for the promotion of the Khilafaur Rashidah (the Khilafah of the righteous of Nabi .)
* To make every possible effort for the protection of the honor of the Sahabah (r.z).
* To enlighten the forthcoming generation with regard to the Sahabah (r.z), the Khulafa ar-Rashideen, the Ahlus-Bait and the rest pf the pious personalities of Islam.
*To endeavor and strive for the protection is Islam and for the service of society.
*To take part in those efforts which are related to the rectification and upliftment of the society and public welfare.


DEMANDS OF THE SIPAHE SAHABAH

* To honor the sanctity of the Sahabah and the Ahlus Bait (r.z). Laws should be enacted to protect their honor.
* The institution of the Khilafatur Rashidah.
* The death sentence be imposed against those who accuse the Sahabah (r.z) and the Ahlul Bait of infidelity.
* All types of curses, absurdities and blasphemies against the Sahabah (r.z), be it in writing or verbal, banned completely.
*The gatherings of the Shi'ah wherein they mourn and lament, be restricted to their places of worship.
*Withdrawal of all the illegal cases and accusations made against numerous members of the Sipahe Sahabah.


EXPLANATION OF ARABIC TERMS USED IN THIS BOOKLET

A'immah Plural of Imam (see Imam below)
Ambiya Plural of Nabi (see Nabi below)
Ayah Verse (of the Qur'an)
Bada A belief of the Shi'ah that Allah commits errors and forgets.
Imam Leader (of the Muslims)
Imamah The post of leadership
Iman Faith
Irtidad Apostasy
Kafir Disbeliever
Kafin The shroud used to cover the dead; a grave cloth
Khalifah The successor of the Prophet Muhammad
Khatmun Nabuwwah The seal of prophet hood; Muhammad
Khulafa Plural of Khalifah (see Khalifah above)
Kuffar Plural of Kafir (see Kafir above
Mu'min Believer (in the faith of Islam)
Nabi Prophet
Nifaq Hypocrisy
Qiblah Direction (of to Ka'bah to which the Muslims turn to prayer)
Qiyamah The Day of Resurrection
Rajah A doctrine in the Shi'ah religion which means that their will return before Qiyamah. The entire Ummah will pledge allegiance to him in this period and he will take revenge from some of the Sahabah. Many other tasks will also be fulfilled by him in this period.
Sahabah Companions of the Prophet Muhammad
Shaytan Devil
Tasfir Commentary (of the Holy Qur'an)
Taqiyah A fundamental of the Shi'ah religion which means that a person should depict himself as a non Shi'ah at the time of need.
Tawaf Circumambulating (of the Ka'bah)
Ulama Plural of Alim; Islamic religious scholars
Ummah Followers

" 17,"English Books",5356,637,,"" 18,"English Articles",5365,637,,"" 19,"What is Taqlid or Ittiba?",5366,637,636," Taqlid or Ittiba is Wajib (compulsory) upon Muslims Taqlid or Ittiba is Wajib (compulsory) upon Muslims. Yet there are many Muslims in the present age who have hardly heard of the words Taqlid or Ittiba. Others who may have heard about it, do not fully comprehend its meaning. This has led to people even rejecting Taqlid thereby rejecting a Wâjib. As a general rule, man is suspicious and afraid of that which he does not know. Therefore a proper understanding of the issue of Taqlîd or Ittibâ would dispel the ignorance surrounding it, Inshâ Allah. Taqlid is a part of everyday life Taqlîd or Ittibâ in essence, simply refers to the practice of an unqualified, lay person (in a specific field of specialisation) submitting to and accepting the authority of an expert in that field, without demanding proof and justification for every view, opinion or verdict expressed by such an expert authority. This is a natural state of human existence, practised by millions of people worldwide in every facet of life. The simplest and most tangible example of Taqlîd or Ittibâ is that of a child learning his basic alphabets at school. Every child learning his alphabets is unconsciously practising Taqlîd. A learner driver taking instructions from a driving instructor is practising Taqlîd. People going to a specialist doctor for medical treatment and following his instructions is another glaring example of Taqlîd or Ittibâ. A lay person soliciting a legal opinion from an advocate or following the advice of a tax consultant is another common case of Taqlîd. A client at an engineering firm, asking for the engineer’s advice on complex engineering calculations is yet another instance of Taqlîd or Ittibâ in action. The millions of ‘facts’ in the myriad of sciences such as astronomy, archaeology, etc. are all distinct examples of Taqlîd or Ittibâ Who ever questions the ‘fact’ or asks for proof that the sun is really 93 million miles away from the earth! It is taken for granted that this is the findings of the ‘experts’ in these fields and everyone simply accepts it as such. School teachers teach these to their pupils as ‘gospel truth’ and children learn and memorise these ‘facts’ with the hope of succeeding in their exams. There are countless such examples of Taqlîd or Ittibâ in everyday existence. It is quite clear from the above, that Taqlîd or Ittibâ is a natural way of life, and is not specific to Islam or Islamic Fiqh alone. Taqlid is the easy option for ordinary people In the context of Islamic Fiqh or Law, Taqlîd or Ittibâ simply refers to accepting and following the verdicts of expert scholars of Islamic Fiqh in their exposition and interpretation of Islamic Law, without demanding from them an in-depth explanation of the intricate processes required in arriving at such a verdict, called Ijtihad. It simply means that ordinary folk do not have to do Ijtihâd, i.e. the intricate and complicated procedures involved in deriving Islamic rulings that scholars exercise when issuing a Fatwâ (legal verdict). The duty of ordinary people is to trustingly accept the authority of the learned scholars in this matter and act upon their verdicts. In this sense, Taqlîd is a great blessing for common people, for it is beyond their capacity to understand the extremely complex and complicated mechanics of Ijtihâd. The ability to do Ijtihâd requires many long years of study and erudition and a great deal of exertion (Ijtihâd means to exert one self) in acquiring a mastery of various Islamic sciences, among other varying requirements. Misunderstandings regarding Taqlid Recently, misunderstandings have arisen regarding the issue of Taqlîd. It has become a theme of major debate in many parts of the world among Muslims. This debate has naturally resulted in arguments being promulgated by both the protagonists and the antagonists of Taqlîd. The best way of removing such misunderstanding is to view the original sources of Islam – the Qurân and Hadîth and the teachings of the learned elders of Islam on this subject. After a study of this subject, the correct interpretation and understanding of Taqlîd and Ittibâ would emerge. This would lead to a better understanding and analysis of the arguments and counter-arguments of protagonists and antagonists. Mufti Zubair Bayat" 20,"Al-Albani - A Concise Guide to the Chief Innovator of Our Time ",5367,637,636,"al-Albani is a self-taught claimant to hadith scholarship who has no known teacher in any of the Islamic sciences and has admitted not to have memorized the Book of Allah nor any book of hadith, fiqh, aqida, usul, or grammar. Al-Albani - A Concise Guide to the Chief Innovator of Our Time Nasir al-Albani is the arch-innovator of the Wahhabis and ""Salafis"" in our time. A watch repairman by trade, al-Albani is a self-taught claimant to hadith scholarship who has no known teacher in any of the Islamic sciences and has admitted not to have memorized the Book of Allah nor any book of hadith, fiqh, `aqida, usul, or grammar. He achieved fame by attacking the great scholars of Ahl al-Sunna and reviling the science of fiqh with especial malice towards the school of his father who was a Hanafi jurist. A rabid reviler of the Friends of Allah and the Sufis, he was expelled from Syria then Saudi Arabia and lived in Amman, Jordan under house arrest until his death in 1999. He remains the qibla of the people of Innovation, self-styled re-formers of Islam, and other ""Salafi"" and Wahhabi sympathizers, and the preferred author of book merchants and many uneducated Muslims. Most of the contemporary Sunni scholars warned of his heresy and many of them wrote articles or full-length works against him such as: - The Indian hadith scholar Habib al-Rahman al-A`zami who wrote al-Albani Shudhudhuh wa Akhta'uh (""Al-Albani's Aberrations and Errors"") in four volumes. - The Syrian scholar Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan al-Buti who wrote the two classics al-Lamadhhabiyya Akhtaru Bid`atin Tuhaddidu al-Shari`a al-Islamiyya (""Not Following A School of Jurisprudence is the Most Dangerous Innovation Threatening Islamic Sacred Law"") and al-Salafiyya Marhalatun Zamaniyyatun Mubaraka La Madhhabun Islami (""The `Way of the Early Muslims' Was A Blessed Historical Epoch, Not An Islamic School of Thought"") - The Moroccan hadith scholar `Abd Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Siddiq al-Ghumari who wrote Irgham al-Mubtadi` al-Ghabi bi Jawaz al-Tawassul bi al-Nabi fi al-Radd `ala al-Albani al-Wabi (""The Coercion of the Unintelligent Innovator with the Licitness of Using the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - as an Intermediary in Refutation of al-Albani the Baneful""), al-Qawl al-Muqni` fi al-Radd `ala al-Albani al-Mubtadi` (""The Persuasive Discourse in Refutation of al-Albani the Innovator""), and Itqan al-Sun`a fi Tahqiq Ma`na al-Bid`a (""Precise Handiwork in Ascertaining the Meaning of Innovation""). - The Moroccan hadith scholar `Abd al-`Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn al-Siddiq al-Ghumari who wrote Bayan Nakth al-Nakith al-Mu`tadi (""The Exposition of the Treachery of the Rebel""). - The Syrian hadith scholar `Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda who wrote Radd `ala Abatil wa Iftira'at Nasir al-Albani wa Sahibihi Sabiqan Zuhayr al-Shawish wa Mu'azirihima (""Refutation of the Falsehoods and Fabrications of Nasir al-Albani and his Former Friend Zuhayr al-Shawish and their Supporters""). - The Egyptian Hadith scholar Muhammad `Awwama who wrote Adab al-Ikhtilaf (""The Proper Manners of Expressing Difference of Opinion""). - The Egyptian hadith scholar Mahmud Sa`id Mamduh who wrote Wusul al-Tahani bi Ithbat Sunniyyat al-Subha wa al-Radd `ala al-Albani (""The Alighting of Mutual Benefit and Confirmation that the Dhikr-Beads are a Sunna in Refutation of al-Albani"") and Tanbih al-Muslim ila Ta`addi al-Albani `ala Sahih Muslim (""Warning to the Muslim Concerning al-Albani's Attack on Sahih Muslim""). - The Saudi hadith scholar Isma`il ibn Muhammad al-Ansar who wrote Ta`aqqubat `ala ""Silsilat al-Ahadith al-Da`ifa wa al-Mawdu`a"" li al-Albani (""Critique of al-Albani's Book on Weak and Forged Hadiths""), Tashih Salat al-Tarawih `Ishrina Rak`atan wa al-Radd `ala al-Albani fi Tad`ifih (""Establishing as Correct the Tarawih Salat in Twenty Rak`as and the Refutation of Its Weakening by al-Albani""), and Ibahat al-Tahalli bi al-Dhahab al-Muhallaq li al-Nisa' wa al-Radd `ala al-Albani fi Tahrimih (""The Licitness of Wearing Gold Jewelry for Women Contrary to al-Albani's Prohibition of it""). - The Syrian scholar Badr al-Din Hasan Diab who wrote Anwar al-Masabih `ala Zulumat al-Albani fi Salat al-Tarawih (""Illuminating the Darkness of al-Albani over the Tarawih Prayer""). - The Director of Religious Endowments in Dubai, `Isa ibn `Abd Allah ibn Mani` al-Himyari who wrote al-I`lam bi Istihbab Shadd al-Rihal li Ziyarati Qabri Khayr al-Anam - Allah bless and greet him - (""The Notification Concerning the Recommendation of Travelling to Visit the Grave of the Best of Creation - Allah bless and greet him -) and al-Bid`a al-Hasana Aslun Min Usul al-Tashri` (""The Excellent Innovation Is One of the Sources of Islamic Legislation""). - The Minister of Islamic Affairs and Religious Endowments in the United Arab Emirates Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khazraji who wrote the article al-Albani: Tatarrufatuh (""Al-Albani's Extremist Positions""). - The Syrian scholar Firas Muhammad Walid Ways in his edition of Ibn al-Mulaqqin's Sunniyyat al-Jumu`a al-Qabliyya (""The Sunna Prayers That Must Precede Salat al-Jumu`a""). - The Syrian scholar Samer Islambuli who wrote al-Ahad, al-Ijma`, al-Naskh. - The Jordanian scholar As`ad Salim Tayyim who wrote Bayan Awham al-Albani fi Tahqiqihi li Kitab Fadl al-Salat `ala al-Nabi - Allah bless and greet him -. - The Jordanian scholar Hasan `Ali al-Saqqaf who wrote the two-volume Tanaqudat al-Albani al-Wadiha fi ma Waqa`a fi Tashih al-Ahadith wa Tad`ifiha min Akhta' wa Ghaltat (""Albani's Patent Self-Contradictions in the Mistakes and Blunders He Committed While Declaring Hadiths to be Sound or Weak""), Ihtijaj al-Kha'ib bi `Ibarat man Idda`a al-Ijma` fa Huwa Kadhib (""The Loser's Recourse to the Phrase: `Whoever Claims Consensus Is a Liar!'""), al-Qawl al-Thabtu fi Siyami Yawm al-Sabt (""The Firm Discourse Concerning Fasting on Saturdays""), al-Lajif al-Dhu`af li al-Mutala`ib bi Ahkam al-I`tikaf (""The Lethal Strike Against Him Who Toys with the Rulings of I`tikaf), Sahih Sifat Salat al-Nabi Sallallahu `alayhi wa Sallam (""The Correct Description of the Prophet's Prayer - Allah bless and greet him -""), I`lam al-Kha'id bi Tahrim al-Qur'an `ala al-Junub wa al-Ha'id (""The Appraisal of the Meddler in the Interdiction of the Qur'an to those in a State of Major Defilement and Menstruating Women""), Talqih al-Fuhum al-`Aliya (""The Inculcation of Lofty Discernment""), and Sahih Sharh al-`Aqida al-Tahawiyya (""The Correct Explanation of al-Tahawi's Statement of Islamic Doctrine""). Among Albani's innovations in the Religion: 1- In his book Adab al-Zafaf he prohibits women from wearing gold jewelry - rings, bracelets, and chains - despite the Consensus of the Ulema permitting it. 2- He claims that 2.5% zakât is not due on money obtained from commerce, i.e. the main activity whereby money circulates among Muslims. 3- He absolutely prohibits fasting on Saturdays. 4- He prohibits retreat (i`tikaf) in any but the Three Mosques. 5- He claims that it is lawful to eat in Ramadan before Maghrib as defined by the Law, and similarly after the true dawn. 6- He compares Hanafi fiqh to the Gospel. 1 7- He calls people to imitate him rather than the Imams of the Salaf such as the founders of the Four Schools, and his followers invalidate the hadiths that contradict his views. 8- He prohibits the make-up performance of prayers missed intentionally. 9- He claims that it is permissible for menstruating women and those in a state of major defilement (junub) to recite, touch, and carry the Qur'an. 10- He claims over and over that among the innovations in religion existent in Madina is the persistence of the Prophet's - Allah bless and greet him - grave in the mosque. 11- He claims that whoever travels intending to visit the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - or to ask him for his intercession is a misguided innovator. 12- He claims that whoever carries dhikr-beads in his hand to remember Allah Most High is misguided and innovating. 13- He invented a location to Allah Most High above the Throne which he named al-makân al-`adamî - ""the non-existent place."" 14- He claims in Tamam al-Minna that masturbation does not annul one's fast. 15- He published ""corrected"" editions of the two Sahihs of al-Bukhari and Muslim, which he deceitfully called ""Abridgments"" (mukhtasar) in violation of the integrity of these motherbooks. 16- He published newly-styled editions of the Four Sunan, al-Bukhari's al-Adab al-Mufrad, al-Mundhiri's al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib, and al-Suyuti's al-Jami` al-Saghir, each of which he split into two works, respectively prefixed Sahih and Da`if in violation of the integrity of these motherbooks. 17- He said: ""Many of those who interpret figuratively [the Divine Attributes] are not heretics (zanâdiqa), but they say what heretics say,"" and ""figurative interpretation is the very same as nullification (al-ta'wîl `ayn al-ta`tîl)."" 2 18- He suggests that al-Bukhari is a disbeliever for interpreting the Divine Face as dominion or sovereignty (mulk) in the verse ""Everything will perish save His countenance"" (28:88) in the book of Tafsir in his Sahih: ""Except His wajh means except His mulk, and it is also said: Except whatever was for the sake of His countenance."" Albani blurts out: ""No true believer would say such a thing"" and ""We should consider al-Bukhari innocent of that statement."" 3 19- In imitation of the Mu`tazila, tawassul (seeking means), istighâtha (asking for help), and tashaffu` (seeking intercession) through the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - or one of the Awliyâ' he declared prohibited acts in Islam (harâm) tantamount to idolatry (shirk) in his booklet al-Tawassul as did his friends Bin Baz and those who obey them such as al-Qahtani in al-Wala' wa al-Bara' and others, in flat rejection of the numerous sound and explicit narrations to that effect, such as al-Bukhari's narration of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - from Ibn `Umar - Allah be well-pleased with him -: ""Truly the sun shall draw so near on the Day of Resurrection that sweat shall reach to the mid-ear, whereupon they shall ask (istaghâthû) help from Adam - upon him peace -, then from Musa - upon him peace - , then from Muhammad - Allah bless and greet him - who will intercede (fa yashfa`u)... and that day Allah shall raise him to an Exalted Station, so that all those who are standing [including the unbelievers] shall glorify him (yahmaduhu ahlu al-jam`i kulluhum)."" 20- He denies that the name of the Angel of death is `Azrâ'îl and claims such a name has no basis other than Israelite reports, although `Iyad reports the Consensus on the Umma on it in al-Shifa'. 21- Like the rest of Wahhabi and ""Salafi"" innovators he declares Ash`aris, Maturidis, and Sufis to be outside the fold of Ahl al-Sunna and even outside the fold of Islam, although Allah Most High and His Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - praised them! Upon revelation of the verse ""Allah shall bring a people whom He loves and who love Him"" (5:54), the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - pointed to Abu Musa al-Ash`ari - Allah be well-pleased with him - and said: ""They are that man's People."" 4 Al-Qushayri, Ibn `Asakir, al-Bayhaqi, Ibn al-Subki, and others said that the followers of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash`ari - i.e. Ash`aris who were mostly Sufis - are included among Abu Musa's People for in every place that a people are affiliated to a Prophet, what is meant is the followers of that Prophet. As for Maturidis, they are referred to in the narration of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - from Bishr al-Khath`ami or al-Ghanawi with a sound (sahîh) chain according to al-Hakim, al-Dhahabi, al-Suyuti, and al-Haythami: ""Truly you shall conquer Constantinople and truly what a wonderful leader will her leader be [Mehmet Fatih Sultan - Allah be well-pleased with him -], and truly what a wonderful army will that army be!"" Both the leader and his army were classic Hanafi Maturidis and it is known that Mehmet Fatih loved and respected Sufis, practiced tawassul, and followed a Shaykh. Moreover, enmity against Ash`aris, Maturidis, and Sufis, is nifâq and enmity against the Umma of Islam as most of the Ulema of Islam are thus described. 22- In at least five of his books 5 he calls for the demolition of the Green Dome of the Prophet's Mosque in al-Madina al-Munawwara and for taking the Prophet's grave outside the Mosque. 23- He states: ""I have found no evidence for the Prophet's - Allah bless and greet him - hearing of the salaam of those who greet him at his grave"" and ""I do not know from where Ibn Taymiyya took his claim 6 that he - Allah bless and greet him - hears the salaam from someone near."" This and the previous item are among his greater enormities and bear the unmistakable signature of innovation and deviation. 7 24- He considers it an innovation to visit relatives, neighbors, or friends on the day of `Eid and prohibits it. 8 25- He gave the fatwa that Muslims should exit Palestine en masse and leave it to the Jews as it is part the Abode of War (dâr al-harb). 9 26- He advocates in his Salat al-Nabi - Allah bless and greet him -, the formula ""Peace and blessings upon the Prophet"" instead of ""upon you, O Prophet"" in the tashahhud in contradiction of the Four Sunni Schools, on the basis of a hadith of Ibn Mas`ud whereby the Companions used the indirect-speech formula after the passing of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him -. But the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - himself instructed them to pray exactly as he prayed saying: ""Peace and blessings upon you, O Prophet"" without telling them to change it after his death, nor did the major Companions (whose Sunna we were ordered to imitate together with that of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him -), such as Abu Bakr and `Umar, teach the Companions and Successors otherwise! 27- He prohibits praying more than 11 rak`as in Tarawih prayers on the grounds that the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - never did and in blatant rejection of his explicit command to follow the Sunna of the well-guided Caliphs after him. 28- He declares that adding more to 11 supererogatory rak`as in the late night prayer (tahajjud) is an innovation rather than an act of obedience on the grounds that the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - ""never ever prayed one hundred rak`as in his whole lifetime"" 10 although the Ulema agree that there is no prescribed limit to something which the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - commanded without specifically quantifying it, and he - Allah bless and greet him - said in three authentic narrations: ""Know that the best of your good deeds is prayer,"" 11 ""Prayer is a light,"" 12 and ""The night prayer is in cycles of two [rak`as] and when one of you fears the rising of the dawn, let him pray a single one."" 13 It is also established in many authentic narrations collected by Imam `Abd al-Hayy al-Lacknawi in the second part of his Iqamat al-Hujja `ala anna al-Ikthar min al-Ta`abbudi Laysa bi Bid`a that the Companions and Salaf prayed hundreds if not thousands of rak`as in every twenty-four hours! 29- He considers it an innovation to pray four rak`as between the two adhâns of Jumu`a and before Salat, although it is authentically narrated that ""the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - prayed four rak`as before Jumu`a and four rak`as after it."" 14 30- He declares it prohibited (harâm) and an innovation to lengthen the beard over a fistful's length although there is no proof for such a claim in the whole Law and none of the Ulema ever said it before him. 15 31- He gives free rein to his propensity to insult and vilify the Ulema of the past as well as his contemporaries. As a result it is difficult to wade through his writings without being affected by the nefarious spirit that permeates them. For example, he considers previous editors and commentators of al-Bukhari's al-Adab al-Mufrad (""Book of Manners""!) ""sinful,"" ""unbearably ignorant,"" and even ""liars"" and ""thieves."" Of one he says: ""There are so many weak hadiths [in his choice]... that it is an unislamic practice""; of another: ""It is ignorance which must not be tolerated""; of another: ""Forgery and open lie... His edition is stolen [from a previous one]."" 16 Such examples actually fill a book compiled by Shaykh Hasan `Ali al-Saqqaf and titled Qamus Shata'im al-Albani wa Alfazihi al-Munkara al-Lati Yatluquha `ala `Ulama' al-Umma (""Dictionary of al-Albani's Insults and the Heinous Words He Uses Against the Scholars of the Muslim Community""). 32- He revived Ibn Hazm's anti-madhhabî claim that differences can never be a mercy in any case but are always a curse on the basis of the verse (If it had been from other than Allah they would have found therein much discrepancy( (4:82). 17 Imam al-Nawawi long since refuted this view in his commentary on Sahih Muslim where he said: ""If something is a mercy, it is not necessary for its opposite to be the opposite of mercy. No-one makes this binding and no-one even says this, except an ignoramus or one who affects ignorance."" Similarly, al-Munawi said in Fayd al-Qadir: ""This is a contrivance that showed up on the part of some of those who have sickness in their heart."" 33- He expresses hatred for those who read Imam al-Busiri's masterpiece, Qasidat al-Burda, and calls them cretins (mahâbîl) 18, i.e. millions of Muslims past and present including the likes of Imams Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, al-Sakhawi, and al-Suyuti who all included it as required reading in the Islamic curriculum. 19 34- He perpetuates lies if they detract from Ash`aris, such as his remark that Imam Sayf al-Din al-Amidi did not pray, 20 although Dr. Hasan al-Shafi`i in his massive biography entitled al-Amidi wa Ara'uhu al-Kalamiyya showed that the story that al-Amidi did not pray was a forgery put into circulation during the campaign waged by Imam Ibn al-Salah against him for teaching logic and philosophy in Damascus. 35- He perpetuates the false claim first made by Munir Agha the founder of the Egyptian Salafiyya Press, that Imam Abu Muhammad al-Juwayni - the father of Imam al-Haramayn - ""repented"" from Ash`ari doctrine and supposedly authored a tract titled Risala fi Ithbat al-Istiwâ' wa al-Fawqiyya (""Epistle on the Assertion of Establishment and Aboveness""). 21 This spurious attribution continues to be promoted without verification - for obvious reasons - by modern-day ""Salafis"" who adduce it to forward the claim that al-Juwayni embraced anthropomorphist concepts. The Risala in question is not mentioned in any of the bibliographical and biographical sources nor does al-Dhahabi cite it in his encyclopedia of anthropomorphist views entitled al-`Uluw. More conclusively, it is written in modern argumentative style and reflects typically contemporary anthropomorphist obsessions. 36- He derides the fuqahâ' of the Umma for accepting - in their massive majority - the hadith of Mu`adh ibn Jabal on ijtihâd as authentic then rejects the definition of knowledge (`ilm) in Islam as pertaining to fiqh but claims that it pertains only to hadith, 22 although the Ulema of the Salaf explicitly said that a hadith master without fiqh is a misguided innovator! And he defines the `âlim as ""meaning, of course, the `Salafi' `âlim, not the `Khalafi [late Egyptian Shaykh] Ghazali'!"" 23 Al-Qurtubi said: ""One of the knowers of Allah said: A certain group that has not yet come up in our time but shall show up at the end of time, will curse the scholars and insult the jurists."" 24 NOTES 1 In his commentary on al-Mundhiri's Mukhtasar Sahih Muslim, 3rd ed. (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1977, p. 548). This phrase was removed from later editions. Fatawa (p. 522-523) and Mukhtasar al-`Uluw (p. 23f.). 3 Fatawa (p. 523). 4 Narrated from `Iyad by Ibn Abi Shayba and al-Hakim who said it is sahîh by Muslim's criterion, and by al-Tabarani with a sound chain as stated by al-Haythami. 5 Ahkam al-Jana'iz wa Bida`uha, Talkhis Ahkam al-Jana'iz, Tahdhir al-Sajid, Hijjat al-Nabi, and Manasik al-Hajj wa al-`Umra. 6 In Majmu`a al-Fatawa (27:384). 7 In his notes on Nu`man al-Alusi's al-Ayat al-Bayyinat (p. 80) and his Silsila Da`ifa (#203). 8 Fatawa (p. 61-63). 9 Fatawa (p. 18). 10 Fatawa (p. 315-316). 11 Narrated as part of a longer hadith from Thawban with sound chains by Ibn Majah and Ahmad. Malik cites it in his Muwatta'. 12 Part of a longer hadith narrated from Abu Malik al-Ash`ari (Ka`b ibn `Asim) by Muslim, al-Tirmidhi (hasan sahîh), al-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, and al-Darimi. 13 Narrated from Ibn `Umar in the Nine Books. 14 With a fair chain from `Ali and Ibn `Abbas as stated by al-`Iraqi in Tarh al-Tathrib (3:42), Ibn Hajar in Talkhis al-Habir (2:74), and al-Tahanawi in I`la' al-Sunan (7:9). 15 Fatawa (p. 53). 16 Sahih al-Adab al-Mufrad (Introduction, p. 15, 20, 26). 17 Al-Silsila al-Da`ifa (1:76 #57). 18 Introduction to al-San`ani's Raf` al-Astar (p. 24-25). 19 Cf. al-Suyuti, Husn al-Muhadara (Cairo 1293 ed. 1:260) and al-Sakhawi, in A.J. Arberry, Sakhawiana: A Study Based on the Chester Beatty Ms. Arab. 773 (London: Emery Walker Ltd., 1951, p. 5-9). 20 In his notes to Nu`man al-Alusi's al-Ayat al-Bayyinat (p. 88). 21 Mukhtasar al-`Uluw (p. 277). 22 In his notes on al-Qasimi's al-Mash `ala al-Jawrabayn (p. 38). On the hadith of Mu`adh see our May 1999 post titled, ""[4] Probativeness of the Sunna"" and Note 5 in that post. 23 Tahrim Alat al-Tarab (p. 160). 24 Al-Qurtubi, Tafsir (7:191). Wal-'Aqibatu lil-Muttaqin. GF Haddad ©" 21,"Answering Al-Albani's Sifah Salaah al Nabiee (saw) Part 1 of 2",5368,637,636,"This document answers the erroneous claims made by Al-Albani in his book, ""Sifah Salah-al-Nabee"". It is span across two posts, this post is the first, Insha'allah. Moving the Finger in Tashahhud With reference to al-Albani's recently translated book ""The Prophet's Prayer described from the beginning to the end as though you see it (Sifah Salah-al-Nabee)"", al-Albani claimed (pg. 66): ""Further, the Hadith that he would not move his finger does not have an authentic Isnad, as I have explained in Daeef Abi Daawood (175)."" But when I looked this Hadith up in the English Translation of the Sunan of Imam Abu Dawood (1/984, pg. 252) I found that Abdallah ibn al-Zubair (Allah be pleased with him ) said: ""The Prophet (Peace be upon him) used to point with his finger (at the end of tashahhud) and he would not move it."" But lo and behold, this very Hadith has not been listed In ""Daeef Ahadith of Abu Dawud's Sunan"", by his followers; which means to the user of this list that this Hadith is acceptable to them, and is either of the rank of SAHIH or HASAN to the user of this list! Imam Muslim (Rahimahullah) also reported Ibn al-Zubair (Allah be pleased with him) narrating from his father: ""That when the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) sat for supplication, i.e. Tashahhud, he placed his right hand on his right thigh and his left hand on his left thigh, and pointed with his forefinger, and placed his thumb on his (middle) finger, and covered his knee with the palm of his left hand."" (Sahih Muslim, 1/1202, English ed'n.) According to the Hanafi, Hanbali and Shafi'i Madhhabs, one should not continuously make supplications with the fore-finger. It is written in the English translation of Fiqh-us-Sunnah, by As-Sayyid Sabiq, (vol. 1, pg. 157, i.e. the Salafi book of Fiqh): ""Wa'il ibn Hajr (Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) would place his left palm on his left thigh and knee. He would place the end of his right elbow upon his right thigh and would then close his right hand, forming a circle. In another narration it states, he would make a circle with his middle finger and thumb and point with his index finger, and (Wa'il) saw him moving it to make supplications (related by Ahmad)."" Explaining the Hadith, al-Bayhaqi (Rahimahullah) says, ""The implication of 'he would move it' is that he would point with it, not that he would continue to move it."" This would be in agreement with the narration of Ibn az-Zubair (Allah be pleased with him), who reported, ""The Prophet (Peace be upon him) would point with his finger while supplicating, and he would not move it."" This is related by Abu Dawud with a Sahih chain. An-Nawawi also mentioned it. (NB - Both Imams al-Bayhaqi and Nawawi were great Shafi'i scholars of Hadith who followed this Hadith of Ibn al-Zubair, besides so many other scholars of Hadith). Now, there is also a footnote (no 11) by the translator Jamal Zarabozo who said, ""In his notes to Mishkat al-Masabih, al-Albani has discussed the Hadith of Wa'il ibn Hajr and of Ibn az-Zubair. He said that the first Hadith has a Sahih chain. The narrators of the latter Hadith (i.e of Ibn al-Zubair) are all trustworthy. Muhammad ibn Ijlan (a narrator in the chain going back to Ibn az-Zubair) has some weakness due to his memory, but his memory was not so poor as to drop to the rank of hasan (a good Hadith). Therefore, the statement recorded by Sabiq that the chain is Sahih is incorrect (i.e only if you accept al-Albani's classification of Hadith); The important words in the latter Hadith are, 'and he would not move it.' According to al-Albani this addition is irregular and rejected (shadh and munkar)."" And I Say: ""al-Albani's followers have not said that it is shadh and munkar in their Daeef Ahadith of Abu Dawud's Sunan !"" Again referring to Fiqh-us-Sunnah (vol. 1, pg. 158), Sabiq says: ""According to the Shafiyyah, one points with the finger only once, when saying 'except Allah' in the statement bearing witness. The Hanafiyyah raise the finger in the denial part of the Statement (there is no God) and put it back down during the confirmation part (except Allah). The Malikiyyah (see below for the Maliki view) move the finger to the left and to the right until they finish the prayer. The Hanbaliyyah point with the finger every time they mention Allah, as a reflection to the oneness of Allah, and they do not move it."" Another two Hadith on this issue have been related by Imam Muslim (Rahimahullah) in his Sahih: ""Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) reported that when the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) sat for the tashahhud he placed his left hand on his left knee, and his right hand on his right knee, and he raised his right finger, which is next to the thumb, making supplication in this way, and he stretched his left hand on his left knee. Another version on the authority of Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) says: When the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) sat for the tashahhud, he placed his left hand on his left knee and placed his right hand on his right knee, and he formed a ring like (Arabic number 53) and pointed with his finger of attestation. (Also) Ali ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mu'awi reported: Abdullah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) saw me playing with pebbles during prayer. After finishing the prayer he forbade me (to do it) and said: Do as the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) used to do. I said: How did Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) do? He said that he (the Messenger of Allah) sat at tashahhud, placed his right palm on the right thigh and closed all his fingers and pointed with the help of the finger next to the thumb, and placed his palm on his right thigh."" (Sahih Muslim, 1/1203-4, English ed'n) Imam Ibn Abi Zaid al-Qairawani (d. 389 AH; Rahimahullah) who is famed with the title 'little Malik', gave the view of the Maliki Madhhab in his al-Risala (pg. 31) in the following words: ""At the time a worshipper reads the tashahhud, that is the tahiyyah, he places his hands on his thighs. He then folds the fingers of his right hand, but he leaves his index finger unfolded and pointing forward with its side pointing towards his face. There are differences of opinion about the interpretation of the state of the finger. Some believe that, keeping the finger still signifies that Allah is one God. Those who shake it consider it a club with which to ward off the Satan. I consider that the interpretation of that is that it reminds the worshipper that he is in the state of prayer, and that moving the finger shall prevent him from forgetting himself. The worshipper then places his left hand on his left thigh with the palm downwards, he must not move it nor point with it."" Finally, it is written in the English translation of Umdat al-Salik wa Uddat al-Nasik - {This book gives the Shafi'i Madhhab's views} (The Reliance of the Traveller, by Shaykh Ahmad Ibn Naqib al-Misri, d. 769AH/1368 CE; Rahimahullah, trans. Nuh Ha Mim Keller, pg. 142, f8.44): ""One does not move it while it is thus raised (Shaykh Umar Barakat said in his commentary to Umdat al-Salik: following the Sunnah from a Hadith related by Abu Dawud. It is offensive to move it here, though some hold that it is recommended, the evidence for which is also from the Sunnah, in a Hadith related by Bayhaqi, who states both Hadiths are rigorously authenticated (Sahih). Precedence is given to the former Hadith (i.e of Ibn Az-Zubair), which negates moving the finger, over the latter Hadith, which affirms it, because scholars hold that what is sought in prayer is lack of motion, and moving it diminishes one's humility). (I say: al-Albani's comment on the Hadith of Ibn al-Zubair: 'Even if it were authentic, it is negatory, while the Hadith above is affirmatory: the affirmatory takes precedence over the negatory, as is well known among the scholars' [see pg. 66 of Sifah Salah an-Nabee] is of no consequence to what most of the Fuqaha (Jurisprudents) have said from amongst the Hanafi, Shafi'i and Hanbali scholars, but his opinion is only supported by the Malikiyyah, so do not be confused). The Prophet's moving it was merely to teach people that it was permissible (and Shaykh Abdal-Wakil Durubi said: 'As it was the Prophet's (Peace be upon him) duty to distinguish for his Community the acts that were offensive from those that were unlawful, and he was given the reward of the obligatory for doing such offensive acts'). Moreover, Bayhaqi says that the meaning of 'moving it' in the latter Hadith is simply raising it, so there is no actual contradiction)."" From the above discussion we may briefly say in summary that al-Albani labelled the Hadith of Abdallah ibn al-Zubair as being DAEEF according to what he said in 'Sifah-Salah an-Nabee, (pg. 66), but his followers have not labelled it as being DAEEF in 'Daeef Ahadith of Abu Dawud's Sunan'!! Also according to Jamal Zarabozo's quotation from al-Albani's checking of Mishkat ul-Masabih, this same Hadith was of the rank of HASAN, and not DAEEF as he had said in 'Daeef Abi Dawood (no 175)'; is this not a grave contradiction? We should rather accept the checking of such great memorizers of Hadith like the Imam's Bayhaqi and Nawawi (Allah's mercy be upon them). Allah knows best. The Placing of Hands With regard to the placing of the hands below the navel in Salah (see Sifah Salah an-Nabee, appendix 4, pg. 102-103, English ed'n), al-Albani has declared all the Hadith that reached him on this issue to be Daeef, due to the presence of the narrator Abdar-Rahman ibn Ishaq al-Wasiti al-Koofi. This may be true due to what the scholars of Hadith have said, but he has either overlooked the fact that there are many other Ahadith which order the placing of the hands below the navel, or has deliberately not bothered to mention them to his readers who are usually unaware of this fact! Al-Albani claims on page 12 of the same book : ""To place them on the chest is what is proved in the Sunnah, and all that is contrary to it is either Daeef or totally baseless."" But he contradicts himself on page 102-103 of the same book by saying: ""What further points to its weakness (i.e. the Hadith of Abdar-Rahman ibn Ishaq) is that contrary to it has been narrated on the authority of Ali (Allah be pleased with him) with a better Isnad: the Hadith of Ibn Jareer al-Dabbi an (from) his father, who said, 'I saw Ali holding his left arm with his right on the wrist, above the navel (I say: The statement above the navel, does not mean on the chest, but literally above the navel and below the chest, since this is the opinion of the Shafiyyah scholars like Bayhaqi, Nawawi, Muslim and so on) - this Isnad is a candidate for the rank of HASAN; Baihaqi (1/301) firmly designated it to be Hasan, and Bukhari (1/301) designated it with certainty while giving it an abridged, ta'leeq form."" Is this not a clear contradiction from within the same book? And this is not all my dear reader... Al-Albani claimed that it was found in Bukhari (1/301), but when I examined the Sahih al-Bukhari (Vol. 1, Chapter. 6, no. 707, pg. 396, English ed'n), I did not find this narration of Ibn Jarir al-Dabbi (Allah be pleased with him), but instead a Hadith from Sahl ibn Sa'ad (Allah be pleased with him) who said: ""The people were ordered to place the right hand on the left forearm in the prayer."" Abu Hazim said, "" I knew that the order was from the Prophet (Peace be upon him)."" [see also Muwatta of Imam Malik, section 9.15, no 50, pg 70, English trans'n by A. Abdarahman and Y. Johnson for a very similar narration]. According to the author of Ja'al Haqq, Shaykh Ahmad Khan, there is not even one Hadith in the Sahih collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim which specify where the hands should be placed! Now you have just read above that al-Albani classified the Hadith of Ibn Jarir al-Dabbi to be HASAN, but when I found this very Hadith in the Sunan of Abu Dawood (1/756, pg. 194, English ed'n) and cross referenced it to the list, ""Daeef Ahadith of Abu Dawud's Sunan."" I found that his followers listed it as being DAEEF!! Imam Abu Dawood (Rahimahullah) said after relating the Hadith from Ibn Jarir al-Dabbi: ""Sa'id ibn Jubair narrated the words: 'above the navel'. Abu Mijlaz reported the words: 'below the navel'. This has also been narrated by Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him). But that is not strong."" The latter quote is one which al-Albani failed to mention in ""Sifah Salah an-Nabee!"" Note also that al-Albani said with regard to the placing of the hands on the chest (see Sifah Salah an-Nabee, pg. 12, in the footnote): ""In fact, Imam Ishaq ibn Rahwaih acted on this Sunnah, as Marwazi said in 'Masaa'il (pg 222): 'Ishaq used to pray witr with us.... he would raise his hands in qunoot, and make the qunoot before bowing, and place his hands on his breast or just under his breast.'"" But when Iread the footnote to Abu Dawood's Sunan (vol. 1, pg. 194, fn. 345, English ed'n), I noticed that the author of Awn al- Mabood (1,275), Shams al-Haqq Azimabadi, claimed that both Abu Ishaq al-Marwazi and al-Hafiz Ishaq ibn Rahwaih (one of Imam al-Bukhari's teachers) held the position that the hands should be folded below the navel! In his Sahih Muslim sharif-Mukhtasar Sharh Nawawi (vol. 2, pg. 28, fn. 23), Wahid az-Zaman (a late scholar of the 'Salafiyya' in Pakistan) also affirmed that the Imam's Sufyan al-Thawri, Abu Hanifah, Ishaq ibn Rahwaih and Abu Ishaq al-Marwazi (Allah's mercy be upon them) all used to place their hands below the navel! So who do you think is quoting correctly, al-Albani or al-Azimabadi and az-Zaman? Here is the full quote from Abu Dawood's Sunan: ""The question of folding hands in prayer below the navel is disputed amongst the jurists. According to Abu Hanifah, Sufyan al-Thawri, Ishaq ibn Rahwaih, Abu Ishaq al-Marwazi (I say: others who held the same view include the Mujtahid's like Ibrahim al-Nakhai, Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman, Abu Yusuf, Muhammad al-Shaybani, Zufar ibn Hudayl and many other scholars, Allah's mercy be upon them), the hands should be folded below the navel. This tradition is followed by them (I say: it is not just this tradition which lends support to placing the hands below the navel, but others as well). According to al-Shafi'i, the hands should be placed below the chest (I say: this is also the opinion of Imam Muslim, according to the chapter heading used by him: 'The placing of the right hand over the left hand after the first takbir in prayer below the chest and above the navel and then placing them opposite the shoulders in prostration' -see Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pg. 220, English ed'n). Al-Nawawi says that this is the view of the majority of the jurists (this may have been in Imam Nawawi's day, but it is well known that through out the centuries of Islam in aggregate, most of the Ulama as well as the common folk have been placing their hands below the navel, by Allah's decree and will). Two statements have been attributed to Ahmad ibn Hanbal (see al-Albani's Sifah Salah an-Nabee, footnote on pg. 51). According to the third view ascribed to him he does not give any preference to any of these two views. One has the choice of placing the hands. Malik is also reported to have held two different views. According to the second, he held that one should leave the hands in their natural position without folding them. One should not fold them placing one on the other."" NB- The most authoritative position of Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) has been recorded in al-Mudawwana al-Kubra, by Qadi Sahnoon (d. 240 AH). This book contains the most authentic positions of al-Imam Malik and his illustrious disciples, namely Imam ibn al-Qasim and Imam ibn Wahb. Qadi Sahnoon recorded the declarations of Imam Malik directly from Imam ibn al-Qasim, hence there is no real doubt in my mind that whatever has been recorded in this book is the Madhhab of al-Imam Malik, and usually the amal (practise) of the people of Madinah in his day. In al-Mudawwana (vol. 1, pg. 75-76), Imam Malik has been recorded to have said, ""Putting the right hand on the left in salah, I have no knowledge of it in the compulsory (fard) prayer, it is thus disliked (makrooh). But in the supererogatory (nafl) prayer there is no harm (in folding the hands), it is left to the individual to decide."" This statement from Imam Malik is a strong proof against those who claim that Imam Malik only prayed with his hands at his sides, after he received a severe beating (see The Evolution of Fiqh, pg. 70, by A.A. Bilal Philips)! Al-Albani has only 'checked' six Hadith which allow the placing of the hands below the navel (see his 'Sifah', pg. 102, Appx. 4). But there are more than 6 other Hadith (which allow the placing of the hands below the navel) which he has not bothered to mention/check; may be he has not come across them! One of such Hadith is very similar to what al-Albani mentioned in ""Sifah Salah an-Nabee,"" pg. 11: ""We, the company of Prophets, have been commanded to hasten the breaking of the fast, to delay the meal before the fast, and to place our right arms on our left arms during prayer [from Ibn Hibban and Diyaa', with a Sahih Isnad according to al-Albani]. The version I have is related by Sayyidina Ali (Allah be pleased with him): ""Three things are from the habits of Prophethood: To hasten the breaking of the fast, to delay the Sehri (pre-fast meal) as late as possible, and to place one's right hand on top of the left hand below the navel (transmitted by Hafiz Ibn Shaheen)."" To finish, As-Sayyid Sabiq quoted Imam Tirmidhi (Rahimahullah) as saying in Fiqh-us-Sunnah (vol. 1, pg 132): ""Knowledgeable Companions (Allah be pleased with them all), their followers and those that came after them believed that one should put his right hand over the left during prayer, while some say above the navel and others say below the navel."" Raful-Yadain : The Raising of Hands in Prayer Another point I wish to raise concerns the long disputed issue of raising the hands in prayer (salah). It is a well known fact that al-Albani and the generality of people amongst the 'Salafiyya' have made a mountain out of a molehill, and have brewed a storm in a tea cup with regards to this issue, such that many of them are bold enough to accuse those who do not raise their hands in Salah (i.e. after the initial raising called Takbir-Tahrimah) of not following the Sunnah, as well as going to the disgusting length of openly detesting and despising those who do not raise their hands after the first Takbir! I must also admit that among those who do not raise their hands in the subsequent stages of Salah, usually the ignorant people have accused those who raise the hands in the other stages of Salah to be 'Wahabbi's!' This is due to ignorance and pride of both sides, which usually stems from the lack of knowledge of the opinion of our great Mujtahid Imam's, and the Ahadith based evidences used by the research scholars in their respective defence of either raising or not raising the hands in the other stages of Salah. Our brothers and sisters who accuse those of raising the hands in the other stages of prayer should ask themselves: ""Were the great Imam's like al-Shafi'i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah's mercy be upon them) Wahhabi's?"" I pose this question because it is well known that both of the latter named Imam's used to practise Raful-Yadayn after the initial Takbir, besides many other Companions and successors (Tabi'een), may Allah be pleased with them all! It is a well known fact from the Mutawateer Ahadith (a report of a large number of narrators whose agreement upon a lie is inconceivable) available to us, that the Holy Prophet (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) used to raise his hands when pronouncing the initial Takbir in Salah. Sayyid Sabiq stated in his Fiqh-us-Sunnah (vol. 1, pg 129): ""Says Ibn al-Mundhir, 'All scholars agree that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) raised his hands at the beginning of his prayer.' Commenting upon this report, Ibn Hajar (al-Asqalani) says, 'The Prophet's raising his hands at the beginning of his prayer has been narrated by fifty companions, including the ten who were given the tidings of Paradise.' Al-Bayhaqi related that al-Hakim said, 'I do not know of any Sunnah other than this one which is accepted by the four rightly guided Khalifahs, the ten companions who were given the tidings of Paradise, and other Companions scattered across many lands."" (NB-In my own experience, the only people I have met who do not raise their hands in any stage of the Salah have been the remnants of a Kharijite sect called the Ibaadiyah, nor do they fold their hands in Salah). Now, the difference in opinion stems on the question of whether the raising of the hands is necessary in the other stages of Salah, like when going into Rukoo, standing up from Rukoo, in between the prostrations (sajdah) and when standing up for the third rakah in Salah... Al-Albani said in ""Sifah Salah an-Nabee, pg. 42, fn. 4"": ""The raising of the hands is reported as Mutawateer from him (Peace be upon him), as is the raising of the hands on straightening up after Rukoo. It is the Madhhab of the three Imams Malik, Shafi'i and Ahmad, and of the majority of scholars of Hadith and Fiqh. Imam Malik practised it right up to his death, as reported by Ibn Asakir (15/78/2). Some of the Hanafi's chose to do it, among them Isam ibn Yusuf Abu Asamah al-Balkhi (died. 210 A.H.), a student of Imam Abu Yusuf, as has been explained in the introduction."" I wish to say to the bias of al-Albani, ""You have quoted a portion of the truth correctly, but have also blundered in one of your opinions!"" It is absolutely true that the great Mujtahid Imams like al-Shafi'i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah's mercy be upon them) recommended the raising of the hands in the other subsequent stages of Salah, but it is a mistake to say that the great Imam of Madinah, Malik ibn Anas (Rahimahullah) ""practised it right up to his death"" as al-Albani claims, by quoting from Imam Ibn Asakir (a Shafi'i scholar of Hadith, and a staunch defender of Imam Abu'l Hasan al-Ashari, he wrote a work entitled 'The Exposure by al-Imam Abu'l Hasan al-Ashari of Mischievous untruths, d. 571 AH; Rahimahullah). For the real and authoritative view of Imam Malik and his followers, one must study the books written by the Maliki Madhhab, and then quote their opinions! I say this due to the sensible advice given to me by one of my friends in a written communication. He said: ""One lesson you should learn from all this is not to, for example, take Hadith from someone who is mainly specialized in Fiqh or some other subject, or take Hanafi dalils (evidences used to give legal verdicts) from someone who is not a specialist in the Hanafi madhhab's methodological bases and evidences, or take a Hanbali scholar's word about some ruling in a different madhhab, or take Hadith knowledge from scholars who make large numbers of mistakes, and so on. In general, one does not take an accounting problem to a shoe salesman."" For the most authentic view and stance of Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) and his disciples please refer to the appropriate title and discussion later, but as for what al-Albani quoted from Imam Ibn Asakir (Rahimahullah), then I say the authenticity of this report needs to be checked, since al-Albani has failed to classify it himself in his ""Sifah Salah an-Nabee,"" (does this not mean that he wants his readers to 'blindly' accept his verdicts?), and even if Hafiz Ibn Asakir's reference proves to be Sahih, then there is no doubt in my mind that this statement coming from Imam Malik must be rejected in favour of the real position of Imam Malik himself. The statements that I shall be quoting in favour of Imam Malik's authoritative opinion, comes directly from his most famous disciples, where as the reference coming from Ibn Asakir as given by al-Albani, was recorded well over 300 years after the death of Imam Malik (NB- Imam Malik passed away in the year 179 AH; while Imam Ibn Asakir was born in the year 499 AH)! As you have read above al-Albani stated that the Imam's Shafi'i and Ibn Hanbal (Allah's mercy be upon them) performed Raful-Yadayn, but one should also know that on the other hand, the great Mujtahid's amongst our Pious-Predecessors, like Abu Hanifah, Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman, Ibrahim al-Nakhai, Alqama, Aswad (two famous disciples of the great Companion Abdallah ibn Masood), Abu Yusuf, Muhammad al-Shaybani, Sufyan al-Thawri and many other Ulama (Allah's mercy be upon them all) did not perform Raful-Yadayn, except in the initial Takbir, based on many sound chains of narration! So you may now ask: ""Why the difference of opinion?"" The answer to this small problem is simple; it is only due to preference given to the derived Ijtihad of the available Ahadith on this subject, by individual Mujtahid's of the highest scholarly rank, and not that of the laity amongst the general masses of this Ummah. Since many a scholar has said that it is impermissible to derive legal verdicts from the Qur'an and Sunnah, if one is not qualified to do Ijtihad (see the section on Taqleed), but conversely, what do we see today (see later)? The Imams who held the view that Raful-Yadayn is unnecessary, besides the initial Takbir, have based their views from many authentic Ahadith coming from the Holy Prophet (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim), as well as directly from the great Companions (May Allah be pleased with them all). The fact of the matter is, that in their view the practise of performing Raful-Yadayn in the other stages of prayer have been abrogated, and hence unnecessary in performance. Contrary to this, Imam's like al-Shafi'i, Ibn Hanbal.... believe it to be desirable to perform Raful-Yadayn, and in their view the practise has not been abrogated. Consequently, many of the well known and wise research scholars have said that one's Salah is correct and acceptable by the practise of either mode! So please do not fall into the abyss of ignorance, by accusing and abusing each other of performing Salah incorrectly, since it was not generally the way of our foremost Mujtahid's of the pious generations (see the discussion between Imam al-Azam Abu Hanifah and Imam al-Awzai later)! Al-Albani has said that some of the Hanafi's like Shaykh Isam ibn Yusuf al-Balkhi (Rahimahullah) chose to perform Raful-Yadayn because he did not know the evidence of his Imams who held the view that Raful-Yadayn was unnecessary after the initial Takbir (See ""Sifah Salah an-Nabee, pg xvii,"" and also ""The Evolution of Fiqh, pg. 126"", by A.A. Bilal Philips). I find it strange that Shaykh Isam ibn Yusuf did not know the evidence for not performing Raful-Yadayn, since by simple logic one can deduce the fact that he must have seen his two main Imams (Muhammad al-Shaybani and Abu Yusuf) not performing Raful- Yadayn, and hence he must have been curious enough to ask his Imams for the evidence they used for not performing Raful-Yadayn! What seems more apt in a situation like this, is to say that probably Shaykh Isam ibn Yusuf felt that the evidence for performing Raful-Yadayn was more convincing to him, than the converse evidence for not performing Raful- Yadayn, and Allah knows best. One lesson which can be learnt from this incident, is that if Shaykh Isam ibn Yusuf was a Mujtahid within the Hanafi school, then like all other Mujtahid scholars it is incumbent on him to follow his own Ijtihad, even if it has at times contradicted the founder of the Madhhab he belonged to. Thus, Shaykh Isam had to follow his own Ijtihad. The proof for what I have just said has been agreed upon by most of the scholars who were specialized in the fundamentals (Usool) of Islam. For example, it is written in the book ""Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence"", by Mohammad Hashim Kamali (pg. 370): ""The Ulema of Usul are in agreement that the Mujtahid is bound by the result of his own Ijtihad. Once he has deduced the ruling on a particular issue which is founded in his true conviction and belief, he may not imitate (Taqleed) other Mujtahids on that matter regardless as to whether they agree with him or otherwise. For the Mujtahid, the conclusion that he reaches is tantamount to a divine command which he must observe. It is therefore unlawful for him to abandon it or to follow anyone else in respect of it. But if he had not rendered his own Ijtihad on an issue which is not urgent, and he has time to investigate, then according to some ulema he may imitate other Mujtahid's. However, the preferred view is that he must avoid taqleed, even of one who might be more learned than him. Only the ammi (layman/non-Mujtahid's) who is incapable of Ijtihad is allowed to follow the opinion of others."" (The above author has quoted from Imam Ghazzali's Mustasfa, vol.2 pg. 121; Imam Amidi's Ihkam, vol.4 pg. 204 and from al-Kassab's Adwa, pg. 119). The above quote clears some of the misconceptions held by some people on the role of Mujtahid's in Islam. For example, some people who try to refute the Taqleed of the Mujtahid's, bring forward examples in which the disciples of the four main Imams contradicted the Ijtihad of their Master's on certain points. These people should always remember that if a disciple contradicts the opinion of his master, then this is the result of the natural prerogative bestowed upon him, when he attained the high and honourable grade of Ijtihad. There is a well known story related from the great Imam Abu Hanifah (d. 150 AH; Rahimahullah), who said: ""I follow the book of Allah, and if I find no solution there, I follow the Sunnah of The Prophet (peace be upon him). If I find no solution in either the Qur'an or the Sunnah, I follow whichever of the pronouncements of the Sahabah I prefer, and leave whichever I wish. If there is a pronouncement on a particular matter by any of the Sahabah, I would not adopt any other made by any other scholar. But, if I found a solution only in the opinions of Ibrahim (al-Nakhai), al-Shabi, Ibn Sirin, Hasan al-Basri, Ata (ibn Abi Rabah) or Sa'eed ibn al-Musayyib (they were all Mujtahid's), I would make Ijtihad just as they did."" (vide: ""Usul al-Fiqh al-Islami,"" pg. 64, by Taha Jabir al-Alwani, who reported this account from Tarikh Baghdad, vol. xxxi, pg. 368, al-Intiqa of Ibn Abdal Barr, pg. 142, and Mashayikh Balkh al-Hanafiyah, pg. 190). This report exemplifies the prerogative of a Mujtahid, as well as why Shaykh Isam ibn Yusuf may have held different opinions from his Masters. I must stress, the above discussion only refers to those who can perform Ijtihad, and not to those who are unable to fulfil the conditions recognized by the scholars of Usool for carrying out the duties of a Mujtahid. Those who are not Mujtahid's are bound to the opinions of qualified Mujtahid's, and this is Taqleed. Al-Albani said in 'Sifah Salah an-Nabee', (pg. 105-6): ""About raising the hands on going into Ruku and rising from it, many Ahadith have been narrated from the Prophet (Peace be upon him): they are actually mutawateer in the eyes of the scholars; in fact, raising the hands with every takbir is proven on his authority in many Ahadith; whereas not raising the hands is not authentically related from him except once via Abdallah ibn Masood (Allah be pleased with him), but this is not suitable for putting into practise, for it is naaf (negatory). It is firmly established, in the eyes of the Hanafi's and others, that the muthbit (affirmatory) takes precedence over the naaf (negatory); this is even when the affirmatory is on its own, let alone the case when it is a multitude of narrations, as in this issue! On the basis of this principle, and in the absence of anything contrary, this renders it binding on them to adopt the raising of the hands, and not to stick zealously to the Madhhab after the establishment of proof. However, it is a pity that only a handful of the earlier or later ones have adopted it, so much so that not raising the hands has become a land mark for them!"" The above quote shows the limited and superficial knowledge of al-Albani, in the evidences used by the Hanafi scholars for not performing Raful-Yadayn! It is true that the Ahadith confirming Raful-Yadayn are Mutawateer, but what the reader should also know, is that not performing it has also come down to us in a Mutawateer way! In fact there are more than 50 Ahadith proving the converse of what the ""great scholar,"" al-Albani holds, as well as those who bolster his claims! Al-Albani claims that not raising the hands has come to us authentically only, ""once through Abdallah ibn Masood, but this is not suitable for putting into practise."" To which I reply, why should it not be possible to put into practise the Hadith related by the great Companion Ibn Masood (Allah be pleased with him)? Did he (Allah forbid) lie or fabricate from the Prophet (Peace be upon him)? Please do not forget that there are many other authentic Ahadith to back up the opinion of the Hanafi's (and Maliki's)! Al-Albani only explains this Hadith of Ibn Masood away by bringing in the jurisprudential principle of, ""the affirmative takes precedence over the negatory"", but his argument is fallacious in this case, since I have already said that the Hanafi's believe that the performance of Raful-Yadayn has been abrogated by many other Ahadith, hence the above principle is inapplicable in this case! He claims the Hadith from Ibn Masood (Allah be pleased with him) has been only related authentically once. I say this is incorrect, and only due to his ignorance of all the available routes (Asanid) coming from Ibn Masood. As far as I know he has not listed the Hadith of Ibn Masood to be Daeef, in his checking of Imam Abu Dawood's Sunan, since his followers have not recorded it in their, ""Daeef Ahadith of Abu Dawud's Sunan"". The Hadith in question is from Alqamah (Rahimahullah), who said: ""Abdallah ibn Masood (Allah be pleased with him) said :'Should I pray in the way the Apostle of Allah (Peace be upon him) had performed it?' He said: 'He prayed, raising his hands only once.'"" [Abu Dawood, 1/747, pg. 193, English ed'n]. Since it has not been listed in the above mentioned publication, this means that the above narration is either Sahih, or at least Hasan to the user of the list. Note also, according to Shams al-Haqq Azimabadi, in his book Awn al-Mabood (1,272-73), the above Hadith was regarded to be Hasan by Hafiz Ibn Ma'een (Rahimahullah), and it is well known that Imam Tirmidhi (Rahimahullah) rated it to be Hasan (see Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 2/257, pg. 40-41, edited by Ahmad Muhammad Shakir). The above Hadith has been related from Imam al-Azam Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah), through an absolutely SAHIH chain (all the narrators given below were well known Mujtahid's and absolutely truthful), and here it is: Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah) has related to us from his teacher, Imam Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman (Rahimahullah), who related from his teacher, Imam Ibrahim al-Nakhai (Rahimahullah), who related from his two teachers Imam Alqamah and Imam Aswad (Allah's mercy be upon them), the two distinguished pupils of Ibn Masood (Allah be pleased with him), who related from Ibn Masood (Allah be pleased with him), who related from the Holy Prophet (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim). The reference for this is given after the discussion between Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam al-Awzai (Allah's mercy be upon them), please see below. So my dear reader, I have just proven to you that the Hadith from Ibn Masood has come to us authentically, through at least two authentic routes, as given above. Can you now believe in al-Albani's assertion that it has only come through one authentic narration? As for al-Albani saying, ""However, it is a pity that only a handful of the earlier or later ones (i.e. Hanafi's) have adopted it, so much so that not raising the hands has become a landmark for them!"" I say this statement is due to his ignorance, lack of scholarly deduction and knowledge of the principles and proofs held by the Hanafi's! He claims that it has become a ""landmark"", for the Hanafi's only! I say, ""O 'Shaykh', have you not contradicted yourself by admitting that others besides the Hanafi's do not raise their hands in Salah in the same book?"" Here is al-Albani's admission that it is not just the Hanafi's who have made it a ""landmark""; he said in ""Sifah Salah an-Nabee,"" (footnote to pg 91): ""The Ibaadiyyah have distorted this hadeeth: their scholar Rabee' has related it in his unreliable Musnad with a different wording to justify their view that raising the hands with takbeer invalidates the Prayer! That wording is false, as I have explained in ad-Da'eefah (6044).""!!! This by Allah, is a grave contradiction from within the same book, and tantamount to his admission that besides the Hanafi's, the Ibaadiyyah sect do not also raise their hands! In fact we have on record some scholars who initially used to perform Raful-Yadayn, but later on in their lives they stopped performing it altogether, except for the initial Takbeer; when they had taken into account all the arguments and evidence. Two of such great scholars are as follows:- (A) Imam Abu Ja'far al-Tahawi (d. 321 AH; Rahimahullah): He was a Mujtahid in specific issues (Mujtahid fi al-Masa'il) and also the famous author of the work 'Al-Aqeeda al-Tahawiyya' (The Muslim Belief According to al-Tahawi), which has been translated into English by two different organisations, and many other works on Hadith. He was originally a Shafi'i scholar who gained mastery in Shafi'i Fiqh from his famous uncle Imam al-Muzani (Rahimahullah) [mentioned in Sifah Salah an-Nabee, pg. xvi], who was the famous disciple of Imam al-Shafi'i (Rahimahullah). But later in his life he joined the Hanafi school and hence stopped performing Raful-Yadayn indifference to the Shafi'i view of performing it. Imam Tahawi lived in a time when most of the Hadith had been collected (after Bukhari, Muslim etc), hence he had an ideal opportunity to sift through the Hadith on Raful-Yadayn and he came to the conclusion that Imam Abu Hanifah's (Rahimahullah) view point was more convincing to him, and in this regard he quoted some Hadiths negating the practise of Raful-Yadayn in some of his works. (B) Imam Muhammad Amin ibn Abidin (d.1252/1836; Rahimahullah): He was also originally a Shafi'i scholar who changed his school and became the foremost Hanafi Imam of his time. Hence he also changed his original opinion of performing Raful-yadayn, to not performing it. His most famous work is 'Hashiya Radd al-Mukhtar'. Al-Albani has quoted from him in 'Sifah Salah an-Nabee' (pg's viii, xvii). The View of Imam Malik and his Madhhab on Raf-ul-Yadayn I have already quoted the opinion of al-Albani with regard to his quotation from Imam ibn Asakir. Al-Albani has claimed that Imam Malik used to perform Raful-Yadayn right upto his death. But this is in direct contradiction to what has been related from Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) by his famous disciple, Imam ibn al-Qasim. The foremost book of the Maliki Madhhab in terms of Fiqh is a book called 'Al-Mudawwanah' (A Book of Legal Cases). It is a recension of Qadi Sahnoon (Rahimahullah), containing his questions, answered by Imam Ibn al-Qasim (Rahimahullah). These answers repeat the literal words of Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) by occasional personal interpretation of Ibn al-Qasim himself. It is written in ""al-Mudawwanah"", (vol. 1, pg. 71): ""Imam Malik has said that he does not know of Raful-Yadayn being done in any Takbeer, even when going into (Rukoo) or rising from it, except in the Takbeer Tahrimah (the initial Takbeer), then ibn al-Qasim said that in the opinion of Imam Malik the performance of Raful-Yadayn was Daeef (a weak practice)."" The diligent reader may have noticed that Imam Malik has quoted two Hadith which seems to support the practice of performing Raful- Yadayn, in his celebrated al-Muwatta! The Hadith quoted is as follows, ""Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salim ibn Abdullah from Abdullah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them) that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to raise his hands to the level of his shoulders when he began the prayer and when he raised his head from ruku he raised them in the same way, saying, 'Allah hears whoever praises him, our Lord and praise belongs to You.' He did not raise them in sujud (prostration)."" Also, ""Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to raise his hands to the level of his shoulders when he began the prayer and when he raised from the ruku he would raise them less than that."" (see Muwatta section 3.4, no. 17 and 21, pg. 27, trans. by A. Abdarahman and Y. Johnson). The above Hadith has also been related by Imam's Bukhari and Muslim in their respective collections, besides many other books of Hadith with slight variations in wording and description. The above Hadith has been one of the main proofs used to prove the performance of Raful-Yadayn by some great scholars. But, the Hanafi and Maliki schools put forward some of the following arguments to explain their contention. The Imam Abu Dawood (Rahimahullah) reported a Hadith very similar to the one above, he said that Imam Nafi said on the authority of Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) that when he began his prayer, he uttered the Takbeer (Allah is most great) and raised his hands; and when he bowed (he raised his hands); and when he said: ""Allah listens to him who praises Him,"" (he raised his hands); and when he stood up at the end of two rak'ahs, he raised his hands. He (Ibn Umar) traced that back to the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him). Abu Dawood then said: ""What is correct is that the tradition reported by Ibn Umar does not go back to the Prophet (may peace be upon him)."" Abu Dawood then said: ""The narrator Baqiyyah (found in the Isnad) reported the first part of this tradition from Ubaid Allah and traced it back to the Prophet (may peace be upon him); and the narrator al-Thaqafi reported it from Ubaid Allah as a statement of Ibn Umar himself (not from the Prophet). In this version he said: 'When he stood at the end of two rak'ahs he raised them up to his breasts. And this is the correct version."" Abu Dawood then said: ""This tradition has been transmitted as a statement of Ibn Umar (and not of the Prophet) by al-Layth ibn Sa'ad, Malik,Ayyub, and Ibn Juraij; and this has been narrated as a statement of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) by Hammad ibn Salamah alone on the authority of Ayyub. Ayyub and Malik did not mention his raising of hands when he stood after two prostrations, but al-Layth mentioned it in his version. Ibn Juraij said in his version: I asked Nafi, ""Did Ibn Umar raise (his hands) higher for the first time?' He said, 'No.' I said, 'Point out to me. He then pointed to the breasts or lower than that.'"" (see Sunan Abu Dawood, 1/740, pg. 191, English ed'n). Now, the Hadith related by Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) stated that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) ""used to"" perform Raful-Yadayn; although Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) quoted this particular Hadith it does not necessarily mean that he himself, as well as Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) performed Raful-Yadayn! In fact we have to remember that Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet (Peace be upon him), ""used to"" perform Raful- Yadayn. I say this because we have many other Ahadith which have been related from Abdullah Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him) himself which prove that he did not always perform Raful-Yadayn, as well as indicating that the Holy Prophet (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) himself stopped performing Raful-Yadayn; but Allah knows best! Here follows a few of these Ahadith from Ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with him):- (A) The Imam of Hadith, Abu Awaanah (Rahimahullah) related in his ""Sahih"" (vol. 2, pg. 90) from Sufyan ibn Uyayna, who related from Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, who related from Salim ibn Abdullah, who related from his father Abdullah ibn Umar, who said: ""I saw the Prophet (Peace be upon him) raise both his hands up to the shoulders when starting Salah, but he did not raise his hands when going into rukoo, or when rising from it; not even between the prostrations (sujud)."" (B) The Imam of Hadith and teacher of Imam al-Bukhari, Abdullah Ibn Zubair al-Humaidi (Rahimahullah) related in his ""Musnad"" (2/614, pg. 277) from Sufyan ibn Uyayna, who related from Ibn Shihab al- Zuhri, who related from Salim ibn Abdullah, and he from his father Ibn Umar: ""I saw the Prophet (Peace be upon him) raise both his hands at the beginning of Salah up to his shoulders, but when going into Rukoo and when raising his head from rukoo he did not raise his hands, not even between the prostrations."" (C) The Hanafi scholar of Hadith, Imam Yusuf al-Zaylai (d. 762 AH; Rahimahullah) quoted in his book ""Nasb ar-Rayah"" (vol. 1, pg. 404), a narration from Abdallah ibn al-Kharraz, who related from Imam Malik, who related from Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, and he from Salim ibn Abdallah, who related from Ibn Umar, who said: ""The Prophet (Peace be upon him) raised his hands when beginning Salah, and he never repeated again."" (D) The two well known scholars of Hadith, Imam Tahawi and Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah (Allah's mercy be upon them), related that Imam Mujahid (the disciple of Ibn Abbas; Allah be pleased with them) said: ""I prayed many times behind Ibn Umar, but he raised his hands only once at the beginning."" (see Ja'al Haqq, pg. 55, by Mufti Ahmad Y. Khan) These four narrations give strong evidence in favour of the Hanafi and Maliki views that Raful-Yadayn has been abrogated. So now ask yourselves, ""Can the opinions of al-Albani be relied upon, if he does not base his opinions from the books of the Hanafi and Maliki Schools, plus the proofs used by them for not performing Raful-Yadayn?"" Now, I leave it to you to decipher for yourself, why certain Imams decided to perform Raful-Yadayn and others not to; but before I finish on this issue let me relate to you a famous incident that took place between the Imam's Abu Hanifah and al-Awzai (Allah's mercy be upon them) of Syria, when they met in Makkah. The purpose of the following debate is to show that even though the two great Imams had different narrations to prove their particular opinions, they did not abuse or despise each other in the derogatory way that some of us have become accustomed to! Insha'Allah, we should respect each others opinions, if it has a sound basis from the sources of the Shari'ah. Imam al-Awzai said, ""Why do you not raise your hands just before rukoo and after?"" Imam Abu Hanifah replied, ""There is no recorded word or action of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), to authenticate this (any longer)."" ""How so"", replied al-Awzai, ""When al-Zuhri has reported this to me on the authority of Salim and that of his father (ibn Umar) who said that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) used to raise his hands at the beginning of the Salah and before and after rukoo?"" Abu Hanifah also reported, ""Hammad related to me through Ibrahim, through Alqamah, through al-Aswad, and through ibn Masood, that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), only raised his hands at the beginning of the Salah and did not repeat this action again."" Al-Awzai then suggested that his authorities were more reliable than those of Abu Hanifah, who countered, ""Hammad was more knowledgeable than al-Zuhri, and Ibrahim was more knowledgeable than Salim. And if Ibn Umar is to be credited as a Companion of the Prophet, then al-Aswad has many merits. And the merits of Abdullah ibn Masood speak for themselves."" At this, al- Awzai remained silent. (Vide: 'The Ethics of Disagreement in Islam', pg. 59-60, by Taha Jabir al-Alwani; also see 'Imam Abu Hanifah: Life and Work' pg. 66-67, by Shibli Numani). This incident has also been recorded with slight variations by Hafiz Ibn al-Humam in his 'Fath al-Qadir', and Shah Waliullah Dehlawi's 'Hujjat Allah al-Baligha'. Allah knows best. Continues in Part 2." 22,"Answering Al-Albani's Sifah Salaah al Nabiee (saw) Part 2 of 2",5369,637,636,"Continued from Part 1. The Abrogation of Performing Prayer Sitting: Behind a Sitting Imam This document answers the erroneous claims made by Al-Albani in his book, ""Sifah Salah-al-Nabee"". It is span across two posts, this post is the second, Insha'allah. Continued from Part 1. The Abrogation of Performing Prayer Sitting: Behind a Sitting Imam Al-Albani stated in 'Sifah Salah an-Nabee' (pg. 4): ""He (Peace be upon him) prayed sitting during the illness of which he died. He also prayed sitting on another occasion before that, when he was injured, and the people behind him prayed standing; so he indicated to them to sit, so they sat (and prayed). When he finished, he said, You were going to do as the Persians and the Romans do : stand for their kings who sit. So do not do so, for the Imam is there to be followed : When he makes ruku, make ruku, when he rises, rise, and when he prays sitting, pray sitting (all of you)."" (See Sahih Muslim, 1/824, pg. 227, English ed'n). The above statement made by al-Albani seems to indicate his lack of knowledge about the Hadiths on this rare issue; or to be safe we may say that again he has given us half of the 'story'. According to Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (Rahimahullah), the above command is concerned with the earlier period when the present mode of prayer was made obligatory. The Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) stressed this point with a view to effacing out of the minds of his people the undue respect and reverence which the neighbouring people of Persia and Rome showed to their kings. They kept standing before them in all humility and dared not sit down before them. The Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) did not approve of this type of respect which is against the dignity of man. He, therefore, in contravention of the practises amongst the Romans and the Greeks, ordered them to sit down when the Imam was sitting and not to observe this type of ceremonious respect. But when the sense of human dignity and equality took hold of the minds of the Muslims, then this practise was abrogated and the Muslims were permitted to say their prayer standing behind a sitting Imam, when there is no valid reason for it, as standing in prayer is part of prayer and it should not be abandoned in normal circumstances (Hujjatullah-al-Baligha, vol. 2, pg. 27, quoted in the English translation of Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, fn. 633, pg. 227). The proof against al-Albani's opinion is found in the Sahih collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim; and it is of greater authority as evidence than the Hadith quoted by al-Albani. I say: so much for al-Albani giving his followers the most authentic Sunnah, when he himself has contradicted the authentic Sunnah by not realising that his opinion has been clearly abrogated by a later practise of the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him)! Imam Muslim has a chapter heading titled: 'The Imam is authorised to appoint one as his deputy when there is a valid reason for it (for example, illness or journey or any other), and if an Imam leads the prayer sitting as he cannot do so standing, his followers should say prayer standing provided they are able to do it and there is an abrogation of saying prayer sitting behind a sitting Imam.' (see Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, pg. 228, English ed'n). The actual Hadith that proves our point is found in a long narration reported from Ubaidullah ibn Abdullah ibn Utba (Rahimahullah) from Aisha (Allah be pleased with her); the most important part of the Hadith is as follows: ""Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) was leading the people in prayer. When Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) saw him (the Prophet, peace be upon him), he began to withdraw, but the Apostle of Allah (Peace be upon him) told him not to withdraw. He told his two (companions) to seat him down beside him (Abu Bakr). They seated him by the side of Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) said the prayer standing while following the prayer of the Apostle (Peace be upon him) and the people said prayer (standing) while following the prayer of Abu Bakr. The Apostle (Peace be upon him) was seated."" (for full Hadith see Muslim, 1/832, pg. 228-229 and Bukhari, 1/655, pg. 371-372) NB - Imam Bukhari (Rahimahullah) said, ""The Imam is appointed to be followed. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) in his fatal illness led the people in prayer while he was sitting (and the people were standing)...."" (see Bukhari vol. 1, chapter 51, pg. 370, English ed'n). Imam al-Bukhari (Rahimahullah) also quoted Imam al-Humaidi (Rahimahullah) as saying: ""The saying of the Prophet (Peace be upon him): 'Pray sitting, if he (Imam) prays sitting' was said in his former illness (during his early life) but the Prophet (Peace be upon him) did not order them to sit. We should follow the latest actions of the Prophet (Peace be upon him)"" (see Bukhari, 1/657, pg. 373). Finally, Abdul Hamid Siddiqi said in his footnotes to Sahih Muslim (vol. 1, footnote 632, pg. 226): ""According to Imam Awzai and Imam Malik, this mode is essential in offering (i.e according to al-Albani's opinion). Imam Shafi'i and Imam Abu Hanifah (as well as al-Bukhari, Muslim and many others) are of the opinion that it is not advisable to say prayer sitting behind an Imam who has not been obliged to say prayer in a sitting posture due to illness or some other reason..."" But according to Shams al-Haqq Azimabadi in Awn al-Ma'bood (1,233-234), Imam Malik does not allow anyone to lead the prayer sitting! (see Abu Dawood, vol. 1, fn. 266, pg. 159 English ed'n). Going into Prostration (Sajud): Hands or Knees First? Al-Albani is of the firm opinion that when one goes into Sajdah, he or she should place his hands onto the ground before his knees. He stated in 'Sifah Salah an-Nabee' (pg. 52): ""He (the Prophet, peace be upon him) used to place his hands on the ground before his knees."" Then al-Albani said in the footnote of the same page (pg. 52, fn. 2): ""Ibn Khuzaimah (1/76/1), Daraqutni and Hakim, who declared it Sahih and Dhahabi agreed. All the Ahadith which contradict this are inauthentic. This way has been endorsed by Malik, and similar is reported from Ahmad in Ibn al-Jawzi's al-Tahqeeq (108/2). Also, al-Marwazi quoted with a Sahih isnad, Imam al-Awzai in his Masaa'il (1/147/1) as saying: 'I found the people placing their hands before their knees.' Then al-Albani continued on the same page: ""He used to instruct likewise, saying: When one performs Sajdah, he should not kneel like a camel, but should place his hands before his knees"" (related by Abu Hurayra, see Abu Dawood, 1/839, pg. 215 English ed'n). Al-Albani has quite categorically claimed that the Ahadith which prove that one should place one's knees down before one's hands are all 'Inauthentic' according to his 'classification' standards. But as usual when there seems to be 'contradictory' Ahadith, al-Albani fails to tell his readers that many other scholars of Hadith and even the Mujtahid Imams like Abu Hanifah and al-Shafi'i (Allah's mercy be upon them) are indifference to his view of placing the hands on the ground before the knees! In fact Sayyid Sabiq said in Fiqh-us-Sunnah (vol. 1, pg. 151): ""Most scholars prefer that one place his knees on the floor before his hands. Ibn al-Mundhir related this from Umar (ibn al-Khatab), an-Nakhai, Muslim ibn Yasar, Sufyan al-Thauri, Ahmad (ibn Hanbal, according to one of two views reported from him), Ishaq (ibn Rahwaih) and other jurists including Ibn al-Mundhir himself. Abu at-Tayyeb said that most jurists agree with this. Ibn al Qayyim (al-Jawziyya, the disciple of Ibn Taymiyyah) said: 'When the Prophet, upon whom be peace, prayed, he would place his knees (on the floor) before his hands, then his hands, his forehead and nose. This is what is authentic and has been related by Shuraik from Asim ibn Kaleeb on the authority of his father from Wa'il ibn Hajr (Allah be pleased with him) who said: I saw the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, while prostrating, place his knees (on the floor) before his hands. Upon getting up, he would raise his hands before his knees. I never saw him do otherwise.'"" (see Abu Dawood, 1/837-838, pg. 215). Sayyid Sabiq then gave the opinion of Malik, al-Awzai, Ibn Hazm and Ahmad (according to his other opinion) whose opinions coincide with al-Albani's. The Hadith from Wa'il ibn Hajr and Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with them) can also be found in the English translation of Mishkat- ul-Masabih (see vol. 2, no's 898-899, pg. 172) where it says: ""Abu Sulayman al-Khattabi (d. 388/998; Rahimahullah) said that the tradition of Wa'il ibn Hajr is more sound than this (i.e the Hadith of Abu Hurayra) and it is also said that it is an abrogated one (i.e the Hadith of Abu Hurayra). Also the author of Awnal-Ma'bood (vol 1, 311-312), Shams al-Haqq Azimabadi said in his commentary to Abu Dawood; after quoting the opinions held by some scholars that the hands should be placed before the knees: ""But al-Khattabi is of the opinion that the tradition of Wa'il ibn Hajr is better established because it is supported by several other sound traditions (which have not been quoted by al-Albani). Ibn Khuzaimah (a Shafi'i scholar of Hadith, d. 311/924; Rahimahullah) observes that the tradition of Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) has been abrogated. He reports a tradition on the authority of Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas (Allah be pleased with him): We used to place our hands (on the ground) before our knees, but later on we were commanded to place our knees before our hands!"" The Hadith of Wa'il ibn Hajr is also found in Imam Tirmidhi's Sunan, where Imam Tirmidhi said that the Hadith was Hasan Gharib (see Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 2/268, edited by Ahmad Shakir). The author of Awn al-Ma'bood also said: ""Abu Hanifah, al-Shafi'i and Ahmad (according to his second view) maintain that one should place his knees before his hands. And this seems to more convenient (see Sunan of Abu Dawood, vol. 2, fn. 383-384, pg. 215 English ed'n)."" Taraweeh Prayer: 8 OR 20 Rak'ahs? In a handout by al-Albani's followers in England, by the title ""Some common questions answered"" (dated October 1990), there appeared the following question and answer (No. 22): (a) Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) reports that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) never prayed more than 8 rak'aats in Taraweeh, so how come nobody disapproves of 20? (b) Is it true that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) introduced it? Ans. 22 (a) As regards the Taraweeh prayer - people agree that the Sunnah of the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and the best way is 11 rak'aats. As regards any addition - then this is DISAPPROVED of and DECLAREDASA BID'AH (A bad innovation) by Shaykh al-Albani and by a few earlier scholars - that being reported from Imam Malik, Ibn ul-Arabee and as-San'aanee (see Salat-ut-Taraweeh of Shaykh al-Albani). (b) It is not true that Umar (Allah be pleased with him) either prayed or ordered 20 rak'aats. Rather he ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b to lead the people with 11 rak'aats (al-Muwatta 1/137, with a Sahih Isnad). I do not wish to go into much detail on this issue, but Insha'Allah a separate publication is what is really required, to show which opinion is the most correct. But any way it should be said that the vast MAJORITYof the scholars of Hadith, Fiqh, and even the four Mujtahid Imams are in agreement that 20 rak'ahs are the most appropriate, followed by 3 rak'ahs of Witr, and this is also the opinion of the Imam of the ""Salafiyya"", Ahmad ibn Taymiyya! First, it should be said that the Hadith reported from Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) about 11 rak'ahs is not at all to do with Taraweeh, according to the majority of scholars, but in fact concerns the number of rak'ahs of TAHAJJUDprayer! The Hadith in question is as follows:- Narrated Abu Salama ibn Abdur Rahman that he asked Aisha (Allah be pleased with her), ""How was the prayer of Allah's Apostle (Peace be upon him) in Ramadan?"" She replied, ""He did not pray more than eleven raka'at in Ramadan or in any other month. He used to pray four raka'at - let alone their beauty and length - and then he would pray four - let alone their beauty and length - and then he would pray three rak'aat (witr)."" She added, ""I asked, 'O Allah's Apostle! Do you sleep before praying the Witr?' He replied, 'O Aisha, My eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep.'"" (Bukhari, 3/230, English edn) According to the author of ""Fatawa Rahimiyyah"", Mufti Abdur Rahim Lajpuri (vol. 1, pg. 275); in his defence of 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh: ""The commentator of al-Sahih al-Bukhari and the erudite traditionist, Shaykh Shamsud-Din al-Kermani (d. 786 AH; Rahimahullah) said: 'In the Hadith (above), the Tahajjud prayer is meant. Abu Salama's question and Hadrat Aisha's answer concerned the Tahajjud.' He adds further: 'If the Tahajjud prayer is not meant, then this tradition will be at variance with the tradition that states that the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) led twenty rak'ahs each for two nights, and in the case of such clash the tradition of twenty rakah's which is affirmative (muthbit) shall have precedence because according to the principles of Hadith, the affirmative takes precedence over the negative (naaf)"" (vide: Al-Kawakib ud-Durari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 9, pg 155-156). I say, does this not mean that people who perform 8 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, should pray 20 rak'ahs instead? Since according to the principles of Hadith (as affirmed by al-Albani), ""The affirmative takes precedence over the negative in certain cases."" A great fact that should also be noted by the reader is that the Imam's of Hadith have placed the Hadith from Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) under the section of Tahajjud prayers, which indicates their belief that the Hadith applies to Tahajjud only. The Imam al-Muhaddithin al-Bukhari (Rahimahullah) has placed the Hadith from Aisha under at least two sections of his Sahih, first under the section of '21: The Tahajjud Prayer at Night' (see Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 2, chapter 15, no. 248, English ed'n) and then under the section of '32: The Book of Taraweeh Prayers' (see Sahih al-Bukhari, 3/230, pg. 128 English ed'n). This means that Imam Bukhari believed that the prayer mentioned by Aisha was that of Tahajjud only, and since the Tahajjud prayer is performed also in Ramadan, then Imam Bukhari also quoted the same Hadith under 'The book of Taraweeh prayers', but Allah knows best. Imam Muslim (Rahimahullah) has also placed the Hadith from Aisha under the Tahajjud prayer section (see Sahih Muslim 1/1607, pg. 356, English ed'n). Also Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) has placed Aisha's Hadith under the Book of Tahajjud (see Al-Muwatta, Book 7, section 7.2, no. 9, pg. 5, English ed'n). The Imam Abu Dawood (Rahimahullah) has also placed the same Hadith under the chapter 'On the number of Rak'ahs of the prayer at night (Tahajjud)' (see Abu Dawood 1/1336, pg. 351, English version). Even Imam's Tirmidhi and Nisai (Allah's mercy be upon them) placed Aisha's Hadith under the Tahajjud section (see Tirmidhi, vol. 1, pg. 58 and Nisai, vol. 1, pg. 154). Even one of the most prominent Imams of the 'Salafiyya', Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya placed the aforementioned Hadith in the section of Tahajjud prayers in his book Zaad al Ma'ad (vol. 1, pg. 86)! Mufti Abdur Rahim said about Aisha's Hadith: ""And if this tradition may have been quoted in some book under the devotions of Ramadan along with the Taraweeh. Like the taraweeh, the Tahajjud, too, is a prayer of Ramadan, and because of this affinity, it can be mentioned along with the Taraweeh (as Imam Bukhari did). Hence, supposing it may have been mentioned in some book, it cannot be made thereby a categorical argument. 'When uncertainty creeps in, the argument is falsified.' Moreover, Hafiz al-Hadith Imam Qurtubi's (d. 671/1273; Rahimahullah) statement regarding this Hadith (of Aisha) should not be overlooked that, 'many a man of knowledge considers the aforesaid Hadith mudtarib (i.e. confounded).'"" (vide: Imam Ayni in his Sharh Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 2, pg. 187). In short, the aforesaid report is in no way a proof for eight rak'ahs of Taraweeh. In contradistinction to this, as regards the twenty rak'ahs the Companions Consensus (Ijma-as-Sahaba) has taken place over the approval of Ibn Abbas' Hadith (about 20 Rak'ahs being performed by the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him) and practically the majority of Ulama have accepted it."" (Fatawa Rahimmiyah vol. 1, pg 276-277). Although Aisha (Allah be pleased with her) had said: ""He did not pray more than 11 Raka'at,"" we also have reports from her that the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) also prayed more than 11 Raka'ats! The proof for this was given by her in another narration involving Abu Salama ibn Abdal Rahman (Rahimahullah). Abu Salama asked Aisha about the prayer of the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), she said, ""He observed 13 Raka'ahs (in the night prayer). He observed 8 raka'ahs and would then observe (three rak'ahs of) witr and then observe two raka'ahs sitting (nafl prayer), and when he wanted to bow he stood up and then bowed down, and then he observed two raka'ahs in between the Azan and Iqama of the dawn prayer (i.e. fajr)."" (See Sahih Muslim 1/1603, pg. 357 and also al-Albani's Sifah Salah an-Nabee, appendix 7, pg. 110). So does this not mean that the 'Salafiyya' should perform 13 Raka'ats of Taraweeh in Ramadan? Now, the statement 'the best way is 11 rak'aats' is only the opinion of a small group of the ulama, in fact there are more than 50 opinions to say that the best way is 20 rak'ahs according to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and his Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) practise! What is more interesting to note is that the four great Mujtahids, Abu Hanifah, Malik, Shafi'i and Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah's mercy be upon them) are in agreement that the Taraweeh consists of twenty Rak'ahs. The statement that Imam Malik approved of eight Rak'ahs needs to be proved, most likely this ascription was made to him because he quoted the Hadith which is used to prove eight Rak'ahs of Taraweeh in his al-Muwatta (see Muwatta, 6.2, no. 4, pg. 48) by a small group of scholars. Although Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) quoted this Hadith in his book, it has no bearing on what his actual opinion and practise was, on the contrary Imam Malik believes in thirty-six rak'ahs of Taraweeh (i.e. 20 Rak'ahs and 16 rak'ahs of extra nafl prayers, see later for the official verdict of the Maliki Madhhab)! Also the Hadith which seems to prove 11 Rak'ahs of Taraweeh (including three rak'ahs of Witr) in Imam Malik's Muwatta has been explained away by many other convincing arguments. Recently I came across a booklet by the title, ""Is Taraweeh 20 Rakaats?"" (Published by Madrasah Arabia Islamia, Azaadville, South Africa, author unknown). In this booklet the Hadith quoted from the Muwatta of Imam Malik (Rahimahullah), about 11 rak'ahs of Taraweeh (including three Witr) was quite eloquently analysed. The actual Hadith in question was related by Yahya ibn Yahya al-Laythi, who related from his teacher Imam Malik, who related from Muhammad ibn Yusuf, who said that as-Saaib ibn Yazid said, ""Umar ibn Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Tamim ad-Dari (Allah be pleased with them) to watch the night in prayer with the people for eleven rak'ahs. The reciter of the Qur'an would recite the Mi'in (a group of medium sized surah's) until we would be leaning on our staffs from having stood so long in prayer. And we would not leave until the approach of dawn."" (see above reference in al-Muwatta). It was stated in the aforementioned booklet (chapter 7, pg. 20), after quoting the above narration, ""If we analyse the chain (Isnad) of this Hadith, we notice that Muhammad ibn Yusuf narrates from Saaib ibn Yazid. Muhammad (ibn Yusuf) has 5 students and the narration of each student differs from the next (i.e. the text of the Hadith is different from each student). The five students are: (1) Imam Malik (2) Yahya ibn Qattan (3) Abdul Aziz ibn Muhammad (4) Ibn Ishaq and (5) Abdur Razzaq Their narrations are as follows : (1) Imam Malik says that Umar ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Tamim Dari to perform 11 rakaats. (What practise occurred thereafter is not mentioned, nor is Ramadaan mentioned). (2) Yahya ibn Qattan says that Umar made the people gather with Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Tamim Dari and both of them began performing 11 rakaats. (Hadrat Umar's command is not mentioned, nor is any mention of Ramadaan made). (3) Abdul Aziz (ibn Muhammad) says that we used to perform 11 rakaats in the era of Umar. (Neither is the command mentioned, nor is Ubayy ibn Ka'b or Ramadaan mentioned). (4) Ibn Ishaq says that we used to perform 13 rakaats in Ramadaan during the era of Umar. (Neither is the command of Umar mentioned. Instead of 11 rakaats, 13 are mentioned). (5) Abdur Razzaq says that Umar gave the command of 21 rakaats. (In this narration 21 rakaats are mentioned instead of 11). Besides the narration of Imam Malik (Rahimahullah), 11 rakaats can not be established from the other narrations. Due to this difference, the narrator Ibn Ishaq gave preference to 13 while Ibn Abdal Barr al-Maliki preferred 21 (from the narration of Abdur Razzaq). Therefore this narration is Mudtarib (A Hadith that is transmitted in different manners, so that the contents of each transmission differ, and it is not possible to give preference to any particular transmission) with regards to the number (of rak'ahs) and hence unacceptable. The above was an analysis of Muhammad ibn Yusuf's narration via Saaib ibn Yazid. Now let us examine the narration of Yazid ibn Khaseefah via Saaib (ibn Yazid), which is mentioned in the Sunan al- Kubra of al-Bayhaqi (vol. 2, pg. 496): Abu Zi'b narrates from Yazid ibn Khaseefah, who reports from Saaib ibn Yazid that the people used to perform 20 rakaats in the month of Ramadaan during the era of Umar. Imam Nawawi, Iraqi and Suyuti (all three were great scholars of Hadith) amongst others have accepted the authenticity of this Hadith (see Tuhfatul Akhyaar, pg. 192 and Irshaadus Saari, pg. 74, (by Imam al-Qastallani]). Muhammad ibn Jafar (another narrator in the chain) has quoted the statement from Yazid (ibn Khaseefah) as Abu Zi'b (had). This narration is mentioned in Marifatus Sunan of al-Bayhaqi. Allamah Subki and Mullah Ali al-Qari have stated in Sharh Minhaaj and Sharh Muwatta respectively that the chain of narrators of this Hadith are correct. (Tuhfatul Ahwazee, vol.2, pg 75). From the above narration we can clearly see that both the students of Yazid (ibn Khaseefah), unanimously narrate the fact that during Umar's (Allah be pleased with him) era 20 rakaats was the standard practise. On the contrary, the 5 students of Muhammad ibn Yusuf quote Saaib (ibn Yazid) differently. In such a situation the correct approach would be to rely on the narration of Yazid ibn Khaseefah. However the Ahl al-Hadith (another name for the ""Salafiyya"") have unjustly discarded this narration and adopted the doubtful one of Muhammad ibn Yusuf, which has differing versions. This goes against the principles of Hadith."" Here ends the quote . Another Hadith that is used by the protagonists of eight rak'ahs of Taraweeh has been related by Jabir ibn Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him): ""The Prophet (Peace be upon him) led the people in prayer during Ramadan with 8 rak'ahs and the Witr. We gathered in the Mosque the following night hoping that he would come again. We remained waiting till the next morning (until he came out). The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, 'I feared that the Witr may become incumbent on you.'"" (related by Ibn Nasr al-Marwazi in Qiyamul-Layl, pg. 90, al-Tabarani and Ibn Hibban - see below for the actual Hadith) The above Hadith has been analysed by Shaykh Abdur Rahim in his ""Fatawa"" (vol. 1, pg. 278-9) with the conclusion that the Hadith is Daeef. The Shaykh said: ""The strange thing about this Hadith is that its chain of authorities (Isnad) is not trustworthy. Please examine the statements of the Imams of this science concerning the narrators of this chain. In this chain one narrator is Ibn Hameed Razi, about whom the opinions of the great and august critics of Hadith are as under: (1) 'He is weak.' - Hafiz al-Dhahabi (see his Mizanul I'tidal, vol.3, pp. 49-50) (2) 'He narrates many disowned (munkar ) Hadiths.' - Ya'qub ibn Shaybah (3) 'He is objectionable.' - Imam Bukhari (4) 'He is a liar.' - Abu Zur'ah (5) 'I testify that he is a liar.' - Ishaq Kausaj (6) 'He narrates Hadiths about everything; I have not seen a man bolder than him vis-a-vis God.' - Sauleh Jazrah (7) 'By God! He is a liar.' - Ibn Kharash (8) 'He is not reliable.' - Imam Nisai Now, about the second narrator, Ya'qub ibn Abdullah Ash'ari al-Qummi:- (1) 'He is not strong.' - Daraqutni (see Mizanul I'tidal, vol. 3, pg. 324). About the third narrator, Isa ibn Jariyah:- (1) 'He has had disowned (munkar) Hadiths.' - Ibn Ma'een (2) 'His Hadiths are disavowed.' - Nisai (3) 'His Hadiths are rejected (matruk ).' - Nisai (4) 'His Hadiths are disavowed.' - Abu Dawood - synopsis (5) 'He is counted among the weak.' - (see Mizanul-I'tidal, vol. 2, pg. 311, by Hafiz al-Dhahabi)."" Here ends the quote. Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (Rahimahullah) has reported a similar narration to the above Hadith in his Bulugh al-Maram min Adillat al-Ahkam (no. 396, pg. 159), on the authority of Hafiz Ibn Hibban (Rahimahullah): ""Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah (Allah be pleaed with him): Allah's Apostle (Peace be upon him) prayed during the night in Ramadan; the people waited for him on the next day, but he did not come out; and he said, 'I feared that the Witr might be enjoined on you.'"" Note the above narration does not even state how many rak'ahs were performed by the Prophet (Peace be upon him)!! The above two Hadiths can not be used as justifiable proof in favour of 8 rak'ahs of Taraweeh on their own. Al-Imam Malik (Rahimahullah) has in fact quoted a Hadith which proves the performance of 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh in Ramadan; and that is as follows:- Yahya related to me from Malik that Yazid ibn Ruman said,""The people used to watch the night in prayer during Ramadaan for 23 rak'ahs (i.e 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, followed by 3 rak'ahs of witr) in the time of Umar ibn al-Khattab."" (vide: al-Muwatta, 6.2, No. 5, pg. 48, English ed'n) Although the above Hadith is Munqati (a link is missing in the chain) and has thus been declared to be Daeef by some scholars (including al-Albani), it never the less has been used as proof. Besides, the Hadith has been given a full Isnad (chain) by either Imam Ibn Abdal Barr al-Maliki (d. 463/1071; Rahimahullah) or Shaykh Muhammad Habibullah ibn Mayabi ash-Shanqiti (Rahimahullah), in their thorough research to complete all the chains of transmission (Isnad) which have an incomplete chain; as found in the Muwatta of Imam Malik! In fact the latest edition of the English version of al-Muwatta (translated by A. A. at-Tarjumana and Yaqub Johnson) says (pg. xxxiv): ""Ibn Hajar (al-Asqalani) said, 'The book of Malik is sound by all the criteria that are demanded as proofs in the mursal, munqati (two types of Hadith which have a missing link) and other types of transmission.' Then as-Suyuti followed what Ibn Hajar said here; and said, 'The mursal Hadith in it are a proof with him (i.e. ash-Shafi'i) as well because the mursal is a proof with us when it is properly supported. Every mursal in the Muwatta has one or more supports as will be made clear in this commentary (i.e. Suyuti's commentary on al-Muwatta called Tanwir al-Hawalik). It is absolutely correct to say that the Muwatta is sound without exception.' Ibn Abdal-Barr collected together all the mursal, munqati and mu'addil Hadiths in the Muwatta and said that the total number of Hadiths in the Muwatta which do not have an Isnad are sixty one. He stated that he found the isnads of all of them in other sources with the exception of four Hadiths. The erudite scholar of Hadith, Shaykh Muhammad Habibullah ibn Mayabi ash-Shanqiti says in Ida'a al-Halik that he had found witnesses for these four Hadith and he then mentioned these witnesses. He said, 'Some of the people of knowledge made these isnads complete.' He mentioned from Ibn Abdal-Barr that there was no munkar(rejected) Hadith in the Muwatta, nor anything fundamentally refuted."" In the light of what the erudite scholars of Hadith have said above, we may emphatically state that the apparently 'munqati' Hadith from Yazid ibn Ruman has a complete Isnad; hence it may be used as a proof, since Imam Ibn Abdal-Barr has said that there is, ""No munkar Hadith in the Muwatta nor anything fundamentally rejected."" Hence, many scholars of Hadith and Fiqh have used the above Hadith as a proof in favour of 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh. The quote from ""Some common questions answered,"" also claimed that, ""Rather he (Umar) ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b to lead the people with 11 rakaats."" I say, this is half of the truth, since it is clearly stated in al-Muwatta :""Umar ibn Khattab ordered Ubayy ibn Ka'b AND Tamim ad-Dari ....(see Muwatta, 6.2, no. 4, pg. 48)!! Al-Albani has said that if anyone performs more than 11 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, then he or she is basically committing a Bid'ah (a very bad innovation)! We seek refuge in Allah from such a disgusting statement! Since this tantamountally means that the foremost Imams of the saved sect (al-Firqat an-Najiyyah) of Ahl-al-Sunnah wa'l Jama'ah have been committing a gross innovation (Allah forbid). Al-Albani seems to be implying that the venerable Companions (may Allah be pleased with them and increase their rank), the four great Mujtahid Imams (Allah's mercy be upon them), as well as the foremost scholars of Hadith and Fiqh of the last 1400 years have 'innovated' the practise of 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, if considered in the light of penetrative elaboration, implicitly and covertly! What alternative conclusion can one derive, if the ""Albani Madhhab"" says, ""As regards any addition (to 11 rak'ahs) - then this is disapproved of and declared as a bid'ah by 'Shaykh' al-Albani?"" I ask you, are the so called ""Salafiyya"" in the true path of the original and true Salaf-as-Salihin (the pious predecessors of the first three generations of Islam), when they have declared the practise of 20 rak'ahs to be a bid'ah, even though the Salaf have been reported to have practised 20 rak'ahs? The actual Hadith which states that the Holy Prophet (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) performed 20 rak'ahs of taraweeh has been reported by Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him). He said, ""Verily, the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) in the month of Ramadaan, used to perform 20 rak'ahs and the witr prayer (afterwards) without congregation."" (Reported in al-Sunan al-Bayhaqi, vol.2, pg. 496, Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Kabiri of Imam al-Tabarani, Ibn Aadi in his Musnad, and by Imam Baghawi in his Majmua-as-Sahabah ) Although some scholars have declared this Hadith to be Daeef on its own, it does not mean that it should be whole heartedly rejected; since Daeef does not mean Maudu (fabricated). Please refer to the next section on Daeef Hadiths, and when they are acceptable to scholars for further elaboration. The Hadith related from Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) is supported by many other narrations coming from great Companions like Uthman, Ali, Ibn Masood...(Allah be pleased with them all), as well as their successors (Tabi'in). Besides, some of the scholars of Hadith have even declared some weak Ahadith to be Sahih, if it has a firm basis. It was stated in the book ""Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Maja,"" (pg. 131, by one of the leading ""Salafi"" Shaykhs in Britain, Suhaib Hasan): ""Shafi'i also recognises a weak Hadith as authentic (sahih) if it is found to be accepted by the whole Ummah (see al-Sakhawi: Fath al-Mugith). But he does not accept Malik's view of restricting the practise to the people of Madinah. According to the later scholars of the Hanafi school like Ibn al-Humam, a Hadith will be declared Sahih, if it is supported by the practise of the Ummah (see Abdal Rashid Nu'mani: Ma tamusu ilaihe al-Haja, pg. 18). Among traditionalists, Tirmidhi often remarks, after quoting a less authentic Hadith: 'It is being practised by the people of learning (Ahl al-Ilm).' Suyuti deduces: 'It indicates that the Hadith is supported by the sayings of the people of learning. More than one scholar has said that a Hadith is declared Sahih if supported by the sayings of the people of learning, even if it lacks a proper Isnad (see Suyuti: al-Ta'aqubat, folio 20)."" As stated above, the great research scholar (Muhaqqiq) Hafiz Kamal ibn al-Humam (d. 861/1457; Rahimahullah) had actually said: ""One of the factors from which the authenticity of a Hadith is known is that the learned (Ulama) may conform to it, which is a proof of its being sound (vide: Fath al-Qadir, vol. 3, pg. 349). There are many quotes from scholars which prove a near universal juridical acceptance of 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, but I content myself by quoting a select few from some of the foremost scholars of the Ahl-as-Sunnah, as well as the Imam of the ""Salafiyya"" (when it suits their whims and desires), Ahmad ibn Taymiyya. (1) Shaykh al-Islam Ahmad ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852/1449; R.A.) The Hafiz of Hadith, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani has reproduced from Imam Rafi'i (Allah's mercy be on him): ""For two nights the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) led twenty rak'ahs of prayer each night; on the third night the people gathered but the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) did not come out. Then the next morning, he told the people, 'It so occurred to me that it would be made obligatory for you, and you would not be able to discharge this obligation.'"" After reproducing this tradition, Hafiz Ibn Hajar said: ""All the traditionalists (Muhaddithin) are unanimous about the soundness of this report."" (see Talkhis al-habir fi takhrij ahadith al-Rafi'i al-Kabir, vol. 1, pg. 119, by Hafiz ibn Hajar). (2) Imam al-Azam Abu Hanifah (d. 150 AH; Rahimahullah) It was stated in Fayd ul-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari (by Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri): ""Imam Abu Yusuf (Rahimahullah) asked Imam Abu Hanifah (Rahimahullah), 'Did Hadrat Umar (Allah be pleased with him) have any compact from the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) for 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh?' The Imam replied, 'Hadrat Umar was not one to invent on his own; certainly he had some proof with him for this!'"" (also found in Maraqi ul-Falah, pg. 81, by Imam al-Shurunbulali and Bahr ur Ra'iq, vol.2, pg. 66, by Imam ibn Nujaim al-Misri). (3) Imam al-Tirmidhi (d. 279/892; Rahimahullah) Imam Tirmidhi said: ""Umar, Ali as well as other Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) and Sufyan al-Thauri, Ibn al-Mubarak and Imam al-Shafi'i (Allah's mercy be upon them), all believed in 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh, and Imam Shafi'i has stated that he had seen the people of Makkah saying 20 rak'ahs (see Sunan al-Tirmidhi, vol.1, pg. 99). (4) Imam Malik ibn Anas (d. 179 AH; Rahimahullah) It was written in the most authentic book on Maliki Fiqh, al-Mudawwanah (vol.1, pg. 193-94), by Qadi Sahnoon (Rahimahullah): ""Ibn al-Qasim said, 'The rak'ahs (of Taraweeh) with witr are 39.' Imam Malik said, 'This is what the people have agreed upon from amongst the predecessors, and the people have not stopped doing it.'"" (For an explanation of why it was 36 rak'ahs see the quote below from Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri). (5) Hafiz Ibn Humam (d. 861/1457; Rahimahullah) Allamah Ibn Humam asserts that it has been established from genuine authority that the Companions and their Successors (tabi'in) used to say twenty rak'ahs of Taraweeh during the auspicious time of Umar (Allah be pleased with him); this authority of Yazid ibn Ruman has been reported from Sa'ib ibn Yazid that, 'during Umar's auspicious time we used to say twenty rak'ahs.' The genuineness of this authority has been verified by Imam Nawawi in the synopsis (see Fath al-Qadir, vol.1, pg. 407 and Nasb-ur-Rayah, vol.1, pg. 294, by Hafiz al-Zaylai). Hafiz Ibn Humam also said in Fath al-Qadir (vol.1, pg. 470): ""At last unanimity was formed on 20 rak'ahs of prayer and this alone is in succession."" This last statement has also been said in similar words by Ibn Taymiyya in his Minhaj us-Sunnah (vol.2, pg. 224). (6) Imam Ata ibn Abi Rabah (Rahimahullah) The august successor (Tabi'in) and Mufti of Makkah in his time said: ""I have seen the Companions, and other people in Makkah saying 23 rak'ahs, including the witr."" This report is Hasan (good). (see Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, pg. 406, Fath al-Bari, vol.4, pg. 219, of Hafiz Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Qiyam ul-Layl, pg. 91, by Imam Ibn Nasr al-Marwazi). (7) Imam Muwaffaq al-Din Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi (d. 620/1223; R.A) The Imam of the Hanbali's in his time, Ibn Qudama al-Maqdisi, said in his book al-Mughni (vol.1, pg 803): ""There has been the Companion's consensus (Ijma-as-Sahaba) on 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh."" (8) Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (d. 1352 AH; Rahimahullah) It was stated in his published lecture, Tirmidhi al-ma'ruf ba-Arfa'sh-Shazzi (vol.1 pg. 329) :"" Not even one of the the four Imams believes in less than 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh; the practise and belief of the majority of the Companions was also this. Imam Malik (Allah's mercy be upon him) believes in more than 20 rak'ahs; he is positive that they are 36. According to Imam Malik's practise only 20 rak'ahs of Taraweeh will be said in congregation, but the general practise and method of the citizens of Madinah was that during the brief rest interval (after every 4 rak'ahs), when the Imam sat down after 4 rak'ahs, they used to perform 4 more rak'ahs. The men who said the Taraweeh in the sacred mosque at Makkah, used to circumambulate (tawaf) the Ka'ba during this brief recess. The people of Madinah, naturally, could not circumambulate the Ka'ba and hence, instead, they used to perform 16 rak'ahs more (in total) during these brief recesses."" (9) Imam al-Ayni (d. 855/1451; Rahimahullah) Allamah Ayni wrote in his Sharh al-Bukhari: ""The number of rak'ahs in the Taraweeh is twenty. Imam Shafi'i and Imam Ahmed (Allah's mercy be upon them) assert the same thing. Their proof is the report which Bayhaqi has, with genuine authority, narrated from Sa'ib ibn Yazid. The great Companions, including Umar, Uthman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them), as also the revered Successors (Tabi'in), used to perform twenty rak'ahs."" Then he said: ""The most excellent and the most advisable course to conform to is that of the Holy Prophet's and his (Sall Allahu alaihi wa Aalihi wa Sallim) Companions (practise)."" (Umdat ul-Qari Sharh-al-Bukhari, vol. 7, pg. 178). (10) Hafiz Taqi-ad-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya al-Hanbali (d. 728/1328) He has said in his Fatawa Ibn Taymiyya (vol.1, pg. 191): ""It has been proven without doubt that Ubayy ibn Ka'b (Allah be pleased with him) used to lead the Companions, during Ramadan, for 20 rak'ahs and 3 rak'ahs of witr. Hence it is the principle (maslak) of most of the Ulama that this is the Sunnah, because Ubayy ibn Ka'b led 20 rak'ahs of prayer in the presence of the Muhajirin (the emigrants) and the Ansars (the helpers) and not a single Companion repudiated it!"" So please ask yourselves: ""Who are the 'Salafiyya'; are they the people who conform to the way of the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him), his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all), and their successors (this includes the four Mujtahid Imams, Allah's mercy be upon them) consensus on 20 rak'ahs, or is it the likes of al-Albani and his followers?"" May Allah guide them." 23,"Asking for Evidences is a Clear Daleel of Your Ignorance",5370,637,636,"The following comments are not intended to offend anyone, so please don't take them offensively. We love all our brothers, who love Allah and His messenger (mercy of Allah and peace be upon him), and are working sincerely for this deen, no matter which orientation they take. If the following words are seen to be a little harsh on some, it was in view of the serious nature of the times we live in that we felt it was time to get to the point. In the name of Allah. All praise is for Him, our Lord and Protector, and may peace and mercy be upon His final prophet. The following comments are not intended to offend anyone, so please don't take them offensively. We love all our brothers, who love Allah and His messenger (mercy of Allah and peace be upon him), and are working sincerely for this deen, no matter which orientation they take. If the following words are seen to be a little harsh on some, it was in view of the serious nature of the times we live in that we felt it was time to get to the point. The following brief comment arose as a result of my being asked the legal ruling on a certain issue. The questioner also wanted to know the ""evidences"" for the ruling. I realized that they intended to compare the ""evidences"" from different people they asked and come to their own conclusion as to which opinion was ""strongest"". I felt that presenting the ""evidence"" from the Hanafi legal school on this issue to such a layperson was inappropriate. I will try and explain why. I mentioned the ruling from the Hanafi legal school, and said: Such a fatwa, if it comes from one of the four legal schools of ahlis-sunnah wal-jamaa'ah, is the result of the study, research, and ijtihad of hundreds of the greatest scholars of this ummah, who contributed to, and revised the legal rulings of each school. They were masters of the Islamic disciplines, many of whom memorized over one hundred thousand hadiths of the beloved Prophet (mercy of Allah and peace be upon him). Many scholars of the Hanafi legal school reached this respected rank known as 'Guardian (Hafidh) of the Hadith'. In addition to this they were people of the highest levels of piety and fear of Allah, which is absolutely confirmed from their biographies. Therefore we gladly accept the verdicts they gave without having to question them for their ""evidences"", and we do not turn to those who do not submit to the authority of these great scholars of this ummah, and want to examine the ""evidence"" for every ruling, despite the fact most of them have not even had a basic training in the Islamic sciences, or even studied any of the authentic books of hadith with a teacher etc. For such a layperson to ask for ""evidence"" is ridiculous. It's like someone who hasn't even studied GCSE science arguing about the theory of relativity with a professor of physics. Or like someone who has not even the basic knowledge of biology or chemistry arguing with a leading physician about which medicine is better for a particular disease. Such a person would be a laughing stock! Do you think a professor would even pay any attention to him? He wouldn't even waste his time engaging him in a discussion. Such a person, if he really wishes to give his opinions on theoretical physics, should first go and study his GCSEs for two years, then do his A-levels for two years, then get his degree (3 years), then his masters (1-2 years), then a PhD (3-5 years).Then he will be in a position to begin a discussion with the professor! Similar, or worse, is the Muslim who hasn't even studied a basic curriculum in Islamic Law, and yet steps forward to challenge the greatest scholars of Law, of the salaf and khalaf of this ummah! He does not even have the basic tools to understand or evaluate an ""evidence"". Do you think giving opinions on Islamic Law is easier than giving opinions in theoretical physics? The very fact that you ask for ""evidence"" is itself a clear daleel of your ignorance of what the process of ijtihad involves.. Do you think getting an ""evidence"" is as simple as being told a verse of Qur'an or a single hadith? Your job as a layperson or a beginner in the sacred knowledge is not to ask for the legal rulings on an issue along with ""evidences"". Rather, your job is just to ask for the legal rulings alone, from one of the four accepted legal schools, and to know that the rulings are based on a deep knowledge and study of the sources. If you really are interested in the ""evidences"" please step forward to study the sacred knowledge. You are most welcome! Just to get to a basic level will take at least 5-8 years of serious study. That's just a basic graduate; you haven’t even begun to specialize yet! Trust me, the ""evidences"" are there for each of the legal schools. The encyclopaedic reference works which discuss detailed evidences for the rulings of the Hanafi legal school are numerous and well-known, written by great masters of Hadith and Jurisprudence. Please feel free to consult them any time you wish to see the ""evidence"" for a legal ruling. But an untrained person, such as yourself, reading such works will not be able to make sense of them, like a GCSE science student trying to read advanced research papers in quantum physics, or cutting-edge medical research. He'll end up more confused than anything else. It is time to be humble. If you are a GCSE student, you need to study the basics, and accept what your teachers tell you for now. In many years time, if you are an intelligent student, and put in lots of hard work, you may be in a position to discuss complicated theories and form your own opinions. Unfortunately, as part of the reprehensible innovations of modern times, a movement has developed within our ummah which rejects the following of the four established legal schools, and encourages laypersons to question every legal ruling, so they can form their own opinions and forge their own way! (This may well be the sunnah of the American singer, Frank Sinatra, who sang ""I did it my way"", but it certainly isn't the sunnah of the scholars of the salaf.) If you believe that as a GCSE student you can give opinions on quantum theory, then ahlan wa sahlan! You should be warned however that what you are doing is completely haraam ie. giving a fatwa/legal ruling directly from the sources without being qualified to do so. If everyone was automatically qualified to issue/choose legal rulings, it would lead to disruption and chaos in the sacred law. (By the way, just because you are an Arab or speak Arabic doesn't make you an automatically-qualified mufti either!) All disciplines have curricula and methodologies for their study. Islamic Law is one of the most difficult disciplines which takes many years to become proficient in. To become a barrister, for example, you have to get excellent A-level results, then get a Law degree. Even after that you need to pass the Bar examinations. Still that is not enough! You then have to spend a further several years training with a barrister before you are allowed to practice for yourself. This is merely to become a junior barrister! After that how many years of continuing research and experience are required for one to become a QC, or a high-court judge? Strange then it is that every Tom, Dick and Hamza from our ummah considers himself qualified to issue Islamic legal rulings after reading a few verses of Qur'an and a summarized version of al-Saheeh of al-Bukhari! It is a reflection of our deep ignorance of what it is we are dealing with. You haven't even entered Law school and you want to pass legal judgements! You are a GCSE science student and you want to enter a discussion between professors! Be humble! If you want to discuss issues of Islamic Law, go and sit at the feet of the scholars, the inheritors of the prophets (may peace be upon them), and study with them. Learn from their good character as well as their knowledge, purify yourself, so that you may become a worthy recipient of the light that is the sacred knowledge. If you have spent your life studying engineering or medicine, or pursuing business ventures, instead of seeking the sacred knowledge, and now, in your older age, you have decided to get a bit ""religious"", start coming to the masjid, and so on, please don't think you can do a ""crash course"" in the deen by reading ""Fiqh us-Sunnah"" or the Tafseer of Mawdudi, and come to a level where you can debate with the scholars. Please leave the matters of the deen to those who actually did spend their youth and sacrifice many years of their lives to the study of the sacred disciplines. As one of my teachers often says: ""this is the deen, not teen (fig)!!"" This is the deen you're dealing with! It's not the plaything of every common person. It is our western conditioning that makes everyone arrogant enough to believe they can give their opinions on all issues, from theology to Islamic Law. The plain truth is you are not in any position to evaluate ""evidences"" for a legal ruling and come to a conclusion for yourself as to which opinion is the ""strongest"". I remember once entering a discussion with an 18 year old, clean-shaven youth, dressed in jeans and a leather jacket, outside my local masjid. He had started practicing two years previously. He was quite soberly explaining to me how he examines the ""evidences"" put forward by the different legal schools on each ""issue"" and then is able to conclude for himself which is the strongest opinion! The fact that he didn't know a word of Arabic was not enough to deter his scholastic pursuits – he would get everything translated into English of course! Unfortunately, such poor brothers have no idea of how complicated many legal rulings are, and how extensive the discussions between the legal schools on each issue can be. Don't they realize that they are merely ""blindly following"" whichever ""scholar"" has presented to them the information on this particular ""issue"". They haven't even checked the sources themselves, e.g. the reference books of the four legal schools, to see what they say in their discussion on the issue. It is well known that you cannot take Hanafi rulings from a Shafa'i text, or vice versa, because they often give inaccurate presentations of another legal school – you have to go to the texts of the school itself. I'll just give you one simple, commonly-seen, example where the poor brother/sister thinks that they have done a great ""ijtihad"", and come to their ""own"" conclusions on an issue (having realized that all the four legal schools got it wrong for the last 1424 years). This is the issue of where to place the hands in the prayer. It is quite usual now to see Muslims praying while placing their hands on their chests or necks rather than the traditional above-or-below the navel position, which was the practice of the Muslims for over a thousand years until recent times. Indeed all four legal schools agree that the hands should be just above or below the navel – definitely not on the chest (except for women in the Hanafi school), and especially not on the neck! (Some of the Maliki's hold that the sunnah is to place the hands at the sides). However the young mujtahids of the 21st century know better. Obviously all those great legal experts of the four schools didn't have access to ""Fiqh us-Sunnah"", that essential guide for all budding mujtahids! It's even available in a handy translated version for non-Arabic mujtahids! You simply flick open the relevant chapter on: ""Sunnah acts of prayer, The Position of the Hands"" (vol.1 p.132) and you will discover that al-Tirmidhi narrates an hadith that the Prophet (mercy of Allah and peace be upon him) prayed with his hands on his chest, and that al-Tirmidhi grades this hadith ""as hassan"". Also you will read that a similar hadith is found in ""The Saheeh"" of Ibn Khuzayma, and that Ibn Khuzayma ""considers it as sahih"". That's it! The young mujtahid has done his job! Obviously there are sahih hadiths about this! (Don't know who that Ibn Khuzayma guy is…but he sounds important!) The four legal schools got it all wrong! Thereafter the brother is seen in the local masjid placing his hands high up on his chest, looking rather scornfully at those who obviously ""blindly"" follow the legal schools. Now let's have a closer look at the ""evidences"" given above in ""Fiqh us-Sunnah"". We make some startling discoveries. First of all, those who actually studied ""al-Jaami'"" of al-Tirmidhi itself would realise that al-Tirmidhi does NOT even mention an hadith that the Prophet (mercy of Allah and peace be upon him) prayed with his hands on his chest! Let alone grade it as hassan!! A very serious mistake on the part of the author of ""Fiqh us-Sunnah"". Second major mistake: although Ibn Khuzayma (may Allah have mercy on him) does mention an hadith of the Prophet (mercy of Allah and peace be upon him) placing his hands on his chest, he DOES NOT consider it to be saheeh. In fact Ibn Khuzayma makes no comment on the authenticity of the hadiths that he narrates in his book. But those who know Ibn Khuzayma's methodology will see that all indications are that he did not consider this narration as sound. First of all he does not mention placing the hands on the chest in the chapter heading of that chapter (which is his usual method of indicating his understanding of the legal implications of the narrations in the chapter). Secondly, he places the narration at the end of the chapter, which also indicates its weakness. Anyhow, a look at the chain of narrators of this hadith will show that it contains Mu'ammal ibn Isma'il, who most scholars of hadith say is a weak narrator, pointing out that he had a terrible memory! Imam al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) actually says he is ""munkar al-hadith"", meaning his hadith are totally rejected! There are also further criticisms of this narration possible but we will not delve into these right now, for fear of losing our intended brevity. Now we see the problem. The young mujtahid was not really a mujtahid after all! He was the worst type of ""blind follower"". He read a chapter from ""Fiqh us-Sunnah"" and accepted what he read ""blindly"", all the while thinking that he had done a great ijtihad! Imagine how many more mistakes this book contains. And it is one of the most popular books nowadays amongst Muslims! The type of mistakes pointed out above are serious errors. One of our teachers said that these are not the type of slips you would see sometimes in the writings of scholars. Rather they indicate a real ignorance in the author that is inexcusable. At the end of the day, the reality is that you are a muqallid, whether you know it or not. The choice simply remains as to whom you follow: is it going to be the author of ""Fiqh us-Sunnah"", or al-Albaani, or one on the four legal schools. Don't get me wrong, studying evidences for legal rulings is not wrong in itself, but it has a certain context and place. Other comments may be made regarding these matters, but we will suffice with what has been stated, praying to Allah that He covers us all in His mercy and guides us to the truth in all matters, and enables us to follow it, and act according to what pleases Him at all times. And may peace and the mercy of Allah be upon His beloved messenger, his family, and all his companions. And all praise is to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Written by, servant of the sacred knowledge, Ridhwan ibn Muhammad Saleem. Damascus, Ramadhan 1424 H." 24,"Sh. Murabtal Haajs Fatwa on Following One of the Four Accepted Madhhabs",5372,637,636,"Amongst the most important replies that I have given, is my reply concerning the one who has deviated to the point where he censures the importance of studying the branches [furu'] of jurisprudence, Amongst the most important replies that I have given, is my reply concerning the one who has deviated to the point where he censures the importance of studying the branches [furu'] of jurisprudence, (Translated by Hamza Yusuf Hanson) In the name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Amongst the most important replies that I have given, is my reply concerning the one who has deviated to the point where he censures the importance of studying the branches [furu'] of jurisprudence, and we seek refuge in Allah from the deviation of such a wandering deviant. Would that he simply had claimed independent reasoning (ijtihad) for himself only, and Allah is his reckoner, but abandoned the call of Muslims to leave that which is incumbent upon them. In our reply to such a one, we make mention what the scholars of the methodological bases of Islamic jurisprudence (usuli’un) and the Imams of jurisprudence themselves have said about such a matter. As for my labelling him a deviant, it is only because he has desired to impose upon common people the precious rank of absolute independent reasoning [ijtihad], about which Muhammad an-Nabigha said, And ijtihad in the land of the Moroccans, The western phoenix has taken to flight with it. I say in reply, that the following of qualified scholarship (taqlid) is an obligation on anyone other than an absolute mujtahid. I shall make mention of all his prerequisites if Allah wills. [Sidi Abdullah Ould Hajj Ibrahim] has said in his Maraqi as-Sa’ud: “[taqlid] is necessary for other than the one who has achieved the rank of absolute ijtihad. Even if he is a limited [mujtahid] who is unable [to perform absolute ijtihad].” Commenting on this line, [Sidi Abdullah] said in Nashru al-bunud, “It means that taqlid is an obligation on anyone who is not an absolute mujtahid, even if he has achieved the limited rank of ijtihad muqayyad . . . [until he says], ‘And ask the people of the reminder, if you yourselves do not know.’” By using the line of Muhammad an-Nabigha above, I am in no way claiming that all ijtihad has been severed in every land; how [could I say such a thing] when [Sidi Abdullah] says in Maraqi as-sa’ud: “The earth will never be void of a mujtahid scholar until its very foundations shake.” He also said, “[Regarding] the necessity of binding to a specific madhhab, the [scholars] have mentioned its obligation upon anyone falling short [of the conditions of ijtihad].” He says in Nashru al-bunud, “It means that it is incumbent for whoever falls short of achieving the rank of absolute ijtihad to follow a particular madhhab.” Again, in Maraqi as-Sa’ud, Sidi Abdullah says, “The consensus today is on the four, and all have prohibited following [any] others.” He says in Nashru al-bunud, “This means that the consensus of the scholars today is on the four schools of thought, and I mean by the schools of Malik, Abu Hanifa, Shafi’i and Ahmad. Indeed, all of the scholars have prohibited following any other school of an independent and absolute mujtahid since the eighth century when the school of Dawud adh-Dhahiri died out and until the 12th Century and all subsequent ones.” In the chapter concerning inferential reasoning, from Maraqi as-sa’ud, [Sidi Abdullah] says, “As for the one who is not a mujtahid, then basing his actions on primary textual evidence [Qur’an and hadith] is not permissible.” He says in Nashru al-bunud, “It means that it is prohibited for other than a mujtahid to base his actions upon a direct text from either the Book or the Sunna even if its transmission was sound because of the sheer likelihood of there being other considerations such as abrogation, limitations, specificity to certain situations, and other such matters that none but the mujtahid fully comprehends with precision. Thus, nothing can save him from Allah the Exalted excepted following a mujtahid. Imam al-Qarafi1 says, ‘And beware of doing what some students do when they reason directly from the hadith, and yet they don’t know their soundness, let alone what has been mentioned [by the Imams] concerning the subtleties involved in them; by doing this, they went astray and led others astray. And whoever interprets a verse or hadith in a manner that deviates from its intended meaning without proof [dalil] is a kafir.’” As for the conditions of the absolute and independent ijtihad, they are mentioned in the Maraqi as-sa’ud in the following line and what follows: “And that [word ‘faqih’2] is synonymous with the [word] ‘mujtahid’ coupled with those things which bear upon [him] the burden of responsibility, Such as his being of extreme intelligence by nature, and there is some debate about one who is known to reject juristic analogy [qiyas] He knows the [juristic] responsibilities through intellectual proofs unless a clear transmitted proof indicates otherwise. [Sidi Abdullah] says [in his commentary] Nashru al-bunud, “This means that among the conditions of ijtihad is that [the mujtahid] knows that he must adhere to the intellectual proof which is the foundational condition [al-bara’atu al-asliyya3] until a transmitted proof from a sacred law indicates otherwise.” He then goes on to mention the other conditions of a mujtahid: [The sciences of] grammar, prosody, philology, combined with those of usul and rhetoric he must master. According to the people of precision, [he must know] where the judgements can be found without the condition of having memorized the actual texts. [All of the above must be known] according to a middle ranked mastery at least. He must also know those matters upon which there is consensus. [Moreover, he must know] things such as the condition of single hadiths and what carries the authority of great numbers of transmissions; also [knowledge of] what is sound and what is weak is necessary. Furthermore, what has been abrogated and what abrogates, as well as the conditions under which a verse was revealed or a hadith was transmitted is a condition that must be met. The states of the narrators and the companions [must also be known]. Therefore, you may follow anyone who fulfils these conditions mentioned above according to the soundest opinion. So, consider all of the above-mentioned, and may Allah have mercy upon you, and [may you] see for yourself whether your companion is characterized by such qualities and fulfils these conditions—and I highly doubt it. More likely, he is just pointing people to himself in his demands that the people of this age take their judgements directly from the Book and Sunna. If, on the other hand, he does not possess the necessary conditions, then further discussion is useless. In Muhammad ‘Illish’s, Fath al-‘Ali al-Malik, there are many strong rebukes for those who wish to force people to abandon the study of the judicial branches and take directly from the Book and the Sunna. The actual text of the question put to him is as follows: “What do you say about someone who was following one of the four Imams, may Allah the Exalted be pleased with them, and then left claiming that he could derive his judgements directly form the Qur’an and the soundly transmitted hadiths, thus leaving the books of jurisprudence and inclining towards the view of Ahmad bin Idris? Moreover, he says to the one who clings to the speech of the Imams and their followers, “I say to you ‘Allah and His Messenger say’, and you reply ‘Malik said’ and ‘Ibn al-Qasim said’ or ‘Khalil said.’” To this, Imam ‘Illish replies: “My answer to this all this is as follows: Praise be to Allah, and Prayer and Safety be upon our Master Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah. It is not permissible for a common person to abandon following the four Imams and take directly from the textual sources of the Qur’an and the hadiths for the simple reason that this entails a great many conditions that have been clarified in the books of usul. Moreover, these conditions are rarely met by the great scholars, especially in these last days in which Islam has become a stranger just as it began a stranger.” Ibn ‘Uyyana, may Allah be pleased with him, has said, “The hadiths are a source of error except for the jurists.” What he means is that people, other than the scholars, might interpret a tradition based on an apparent meaning, and yet [the hadith may] have another interpretation based on some other hadith that clarifies the meaning or some proof that remains hidden [to the common people]. After a long discussion, he remarks, “That as for their saying, ‘How can you leave clear Qur’anic verses and sound hadiths and follow the Imams in their ijtihads, which have a clear probability of error,’” His answer to them is as follows: “Surely the following of our [rightly guided] Imams is not abandoning the Qur’anic verses or the sound hadiths; it is the very essence of adhering to them and taking our judgements from them. This is because the Qur’an has not come down to us except by means of these very Imams [who are more worthy of following] by virtue of being more knowledgeable than us in [the sciences of] the abrogating and abrogated, the absolute and the conditional, the equivocal and the clarifying, the probabilistic and the plain, the circumstances surrounding revelation and their various meanings, as well as their possible interpretations and various linguistic and philological considerations, [not to mention] the various other ancillary sciences [involved in understanding the Qur’an] needed. “Also, they took all of that from the students of the companions (tabi’in) who received their instruction from the companions themselves, who received their instructions from the Lawgiver himself, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, divinely protected from every mistake, who bore witness that the first three generations of Muslims would be ones of virtue and righteousness. Furthermore, the prophetic traditions have also reached us through their means given that they were also more knowledgeable than us through their means given that they were also more knowledgeable than those who came after them concerning the rigorously authenticated (sahih), the well authenticated (hasan), and the weak (da’if) channels of transmission, as well as the marfu’u4, mursal5, mutawatir6, ahad7, mu’dal8 and gharib9 transmissions. “Thus, as far as this little band of men is concerned, there is only one of two possibilities: either they are attributing ignorance to Imams whose knowledge is considered by consensus to have reached human perfection as witnessed in several traditions of the truthful Lawgiver, upon him be prayers and peace, or they are actually attributing misguidance and lack of din to Imams who are all from the best of generations by the testimony of the magnificent Messenger himself, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Surely, it is not the eyes that are blind, but blind are the hearts in our breasts. As for their saying to the one who imitates Malik, for example, “We say to you ‘Allah says’ or ‘the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, says’ and you reply, ‘Malik says’, or ‘Ibn al-Qasim says’, or ‘Khalil says’, for example,” our response is that the follower who says, “Malik says . . . etc.,” means that, “Malik says based on his deep understanding of the Word of Allah, or of the words of the Messenger, or of those firmly adhering to the actions of the companions, or of the tabi’in who understood clearly the Word of Allah and the word of the Messenger of Allah or took their example from the actions of His Messenger.” And the meaning of [a follower] saying “Ibn al-Qasim said . . .” is that he has [faithfully] transmitted what Malik said based on his understanding of the Word of Allah or of what Ibn al-Qasim himself understood from the word of Allah the Most Exalted. And the meaning of him saying, “Khalil said . . . .”, for example, is that he is transmitting only from those [Imams] aforementioned. As for Malik and Ibn al-Qasim, they are both Imams whose spiritual and judicial authority is agreed upon by unanimous consensus of this Umma; and they are both from the best of generations. As for the one who leaves their leadership and says, “Allah said and His Messenger said . . . ,” he has relied solely on his own understanding despite the fact that he is incapable of having any precision in the verses and hadiths that he quotes since he is unable even to provide chains of transmission [with any authority], let alone that he lacks knowledge concerning the abrogated, the absolute and the conditional, the ambiguous and the clarifying, the apparent and the textual, the general and the specific, the dimensions of the Arabic and the cause for revelation, the various linguistic considerations, and other various ancillary sciences needed. So, consider for yourself which is preferable: the word of a follower who simply quotes the understanding of Malik, an Imam by consensus—or the word of this ignoramus who said “Allah said and His Messenger said . . . .” But it is not the sight that goes blind, but rather the hearts in our breasts. Furthermore, know that the origin of this deviation is from the Dhahiriyya10 who appeared in Andalucia [Muslim Spain] and whose power waxed from a period until Allah obliterated all traces of them until this little band of men set about to revive their beliefs. Imam al-Barzuli said, “The first one ever to attack the Mudawwana11 was Sa’id bin al-Haddad .” If you consider carefully the above-mentioned texts, you will realize that the one who censures you from following [the Imams] is truly a deviant. And I am using the word “deviant” to describe them only because the scholars [before me] have labelled this little band and their view (madhhab) as deviant. Moreover, you should know that those who condemn your adherence to the Imams have been fully refuted by Muhammad al-Khadir bin Mayyaba with the most piercing of refutations, and he himself called them, in his book, “the people of deviation and heterodoxy.” He called his book, Refuting the people of deviation of heterodoxy who attack the following [taqlid] of the Imams of independent reasoning, and I used to have a copy but no longer do. So, my brother, I seriously warn you from following the madhhab of these people and even from sitting in their company, unless there is an absolute necessity, and certainly from listening to anything they have to say, because the scholars have declared their ideas deviant. Ibn al-Hajj says in his book, al-Madkhal, “Umar ibn al-‘Aziz said, ‘Never give one whose heart is deviant access to your two ears, for surely you never know what may find fixity in you.’” I ask Allah to make you and me from those who listen to matters and follow the best of them. Murabtal Haaj, Mauritania Footnotes 1. Ahmad ibn Idris Shihabudin as-Sanhaji al-Qarafi al-Maliki was born in Egypt in the seventh Century, and died there in the year 684. He was one of the greatest Maliki scholars who ever lived and is especially known for his work in methodology and law (usul al-fiqh). He was a master of the Arabic language and has remarkable works in grammar. His book adh-Dhakhira is a magisterial 14 volume work recently published in the Emirates, that looks at Maliki fiqh with proofs from usuli sources. He is buried in Qarafi in Egypt near Imam as-Shafi’i. May Allah have mercy on them both. [BACK] 2. Sidi Abdullah says in his commentary on this line that the faqih is synonymous with mujtahid in the science of usul. There are different types of faqih. A faqih according to the scholars of usul is anyone who has achieved the rank of ijtihad. According to the scholars of furu’u, a faqih is anyone who has reached the level of knowledge in which he can give valid juristic opinion. This latter definition is important considering endowments that are given to fuqaha. See Nashur al-bunud `ala maraqi as-sa’ud, kitab al-ijtihad fi al-furu’u (1409 Hijrah. Beirut: Maktabat al-Kutub. p.309) [BACK] 3. The foundational condition is that a human being is not asked by Allah to do anything other than those things which have a firm proof through the transmission of the prophets, peace be upon them, and that the human being is only accountable for those things in which there is clear responsibility. All other matters are considered permissible because of the lack of a proof indicating their impermissibility. [BACK] 4. The transmission (sanad) goes to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) the hadith came from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). [BACK] 5. A tabi’i related it from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace); a companion (sahabah) is missing from the line of the transmission. [BACK] 6. The hadith comes from so many sources that it is an absolute proof. [BACK] 7. A hadith, that at some point in the line of transmission, has only one narrator. [BACK] 8. Two people in a row are missing in the chain of narrators. [BACK] 9. The narrator of the hadith is trustworthy, but no one else related the hadith. [BACK] 10. The Dhahiriyya followed Daw’ud ad-Dhahiri’s madhhab. [BACK] 11. Mudawwana: Imam Malik’s work of fiqh. [BACK]" 25,Taqleed,5373,637,636,"by Faqeehul Ummah Hazrat Mufti Mahmood Hasan Gangohi Sahib (Rahmatullahi Alaihe) Some unacquainted people regard Taqleed as apostasy and they spread an atmosphere of malice and controversy amongst the Muslims and especially in the youngsters. Some Non Muqallid go as far as writing about it as polytheism. Hence, after one of our Deeni brothers read it out from a book in English and drew our attention towards it, a desire grew in my heart to make our youngsters aware of the significance of Taqleed in the Shari'ah. So that they do not become a prey to misunderstanding, divergence and confusion and so that they do not have a misconception regarding our Imams, that they had adopted a path which was detached from the Qur'aan and Ahadeeth. When in reality, after understanding the objective and the meaning of the Qur'aan and Sunnah, they simplified it into the form of Fiqha and Masa'il and then they offered it to the Ummah, which is in actual fact obeying the Qur'aan and Sunnah. For this reason, the Ummah owes a debt of gratitude to them, (May Allah reward them with the best of all rewards). Therefore, concerning this, I found that the answers of Faqeehul-Ummah, Hazarat Sheikh, Sayyidi wa Murshidi, Mufti Mahmood Hasan, Gangohi rahmatullahi alaihe in Fatawa-e-Mahmoodia Vol.1, regarding the significance of Taqleed in the Shari'ah, to be sufficient and adequate. I brought it to the attention of respected Molvi Mohammad Asad rahmatullahi alaihe, to render the English translation. Maasha-Allah, he translated it into English in a very short period of time with great care and effort. May Allah bless him with barakah in his knowledge and deeds and may he accept this current composition and make it beneficial for us and a treasure for us in the hereafter, Aameen. (Mufti) Moosa bin Ahmad Badat (sahib) Batley, U.K. 26, Safar 1420 A.H QUESTION: What is the significance of Taqleed in Shari'ah and if Taqleed is important then why is the Taqleed of an individual considered so important? What is the harm in following one particular Imam for a certain mas’alah then following another Imam regarding something else? Why do the Ulama prevent this, even when the masaalik of all the four Imams are accepted? ANSWER: The original source of guidance is the Qur'aan but generally it is the fundamental principles and Masa'il which are integrate precepts, stated in the Qur'aan. It was the duty of the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) to explain in full the details and particulars: 'To make clear the issues that were sent to the people.' (Bayanul-Qur'aan) EXAMPLE NO. 1: It is stated in the Qur'aan: 'Establish Salaah.' The full details concerning Salaah are related to us by the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) for instance, how many Rakaats there are in each Salaah? after which rakaat should qa'dah be performed? In which Rakaat is only Surah Fatiha read and in which rakaat is an additional Surah read? In which salaah is qira'at done loudly and when is it done quietly? etc. It is difficult to understand all this directly from the Qur'aan. EXAMPLE NO. 2: It is stated in the Qur'aan: ‘Pay Zakaah.' All the details on how the Zakaah is calculated on silver, gold, goats, cows, camels etc. have been found in the Ahadeeth. The Qur'aan has not mentioned anything in regard to this. EXAMPLE NO. 3: It is stated in the Qur'aan: 'And pilgrimage to the house is a duty unto Allah for mankind, for those who can.' The details on how Tawaaf should be done and how many rounds there are in one tawaaf, the Masa'il of Arafat, Mina, Muzdalifah and Rami etc, have all been explained by the prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam). To understand the Qur'aan, it is firstly important to acquire the intelligence of Ahadeeth. It is impossible to understand the Qur'aan whilst neglecting Ahadeeth. The Ummah has been commanded to derive guidance from the Qur'aan under the explained instructions of the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam). In this respect, the obedience of the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) means the obedience of Allah: 'Whoever so obeys the Prophet, has indeed obeyed Allah.' (Bayanul-Qur'aan) Therefore it is mentioned in the Ahadeeth 'Perform salaah in the manner that you have seen me perform.' (Bukhari Sharif Vol.2 pg.1076). The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) did not say, pray the way you understand from the Qur'aan. DIFFERENT TYPES OF AHADEETH: Some things were mentioned verbally by the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) himself, they are called ‘Hadith-e-Qawli'. Some things were shown practically, which are known as ‘Hadith-e-Fe'Ii' and there are those things which were done in front of the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) or were brought to his attention but he did not reject or deny them, instead he preferred to remain silent, which supports their confirmation. This is called 'Taqreer'. These three types of Ahadeeth are a source of guidance for the Ummah. QIYAS: There are also some things which the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) was asked. He answered, then he set a question for the same person, knowing that the answer was quiet apparent and that he would know it. After the person replied, the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) explained that the question you asked falls under the same ruling as this. EXAMPLE: Somebody inquired that since Hajj is due upon my mother, would it be sufficient if I were to perform it on her behalf ? The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) replied in the affirmative. Then he asked the same person that if she took a loan from somebody and you paid it off, would it be acceptable or not ? He replied that yes it would be acceptable. The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then said that paying off the loan of Allah would more readily be acceptable. It has been narrated from Hazarat Abdullah ibn Abbas (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) that a woman came to the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) (and said): ""My mother vowed to go for Hajj, but she died before she could go. Therefore can I perform Hajj on her behalf?"" The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) replied, ""Yes you can perform Hajj on her behalf. Tell me, “If your mother had debts, would you have paid them off?"" She answered, ""Yes"" The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, ""Fulfill Allah's right, for Allah is more worthy that his right be fulfilled."" Bukhari Sharif Volume 2 pg.1088 In Shari'ah this is known as Qiyas, Ijtihad, Istinbaat and I'tibaar. Teachings of this nature are substantiated from the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam). Its conditions and details can be found in the books of Usool. It is needed when a Mas’alah cannot be clearly understood from the Qur'aan and Ahadeeth. The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) sent Hazarat Mu'aaz ibn Jabal (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam)as a Qadhi to Yemen. He gave him a lot of counselling and went a long way with him to bid him farewell. He also asked him ""According to which law will you make your judgements?"" He replied, ""According to the Qur'aan."" The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then inquired. ""What if you do not find it in the Qur'aan?"" He answered, ""Then according to the Sunnah of Rasoolullah ?"" Then he asked, ""What will you do if you do not find it in the Sunnah either?"" He replied, ""I will do Ijtihad."" The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) showed signs of happiness and was in full support of this decision and he thanked Allah for this selection. When the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) decided to send Hazarat Mu'aaz (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) to Yemen, he asked him, ""How will you make a ruling when a case is brought to you?"" He replied, ""I will rule according to the Qur'aan. ""The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then inquired, ""What, if you do not find it in the Qur'aan?"" He answered, ""Then according to the Sunnah of Rasoolullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) , He then asked, ""What will you do if you do not find it in either the Sunnah of Rasoolullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) or in the kitabullah?"" Hazarat Mu 'aaz (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said, ""I will do, Ijtihad by my opinion and will not leave any deficiency in it."" The Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) then struck his hand on the chest of Hazarat Mu'aaz (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and said, ""All praise is for Allah who gave the Rasool of Rasoolullah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) the ability of that with which the Rasool of Allah (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) is pleased with."" IJTIHAAD: When a mas'alah cannot be clearly found in the Qur'aan and Ahadeeth, the analogies and evidences have to be considered to find out its decree. This is known as Ijtihad and Qiyas, as can be understood from the afore mentioned. If this is agreed upon, it is called Ijma'a. That is why the Ulama of Usool have written that Qiyas does not establish the decree, but it just makes it evident. A ruling which existed in the Qur'aan or Ahadeeth, but was not quite apparent for the common people to understand, a Mujtahid having done Qiyas on its analogies or by analysing evidently, implicitly or by way of necessity, would make it evident. Imam Bukhari rahmatullahi alaihe has compiled a specific chapter regarding this. TAQLEED: Whoever does not have the capability of Ijtihad, following a Mujtahid becomes compulsory for him. This is known as Taqleed. This is why Hazarat Mu'aaz (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) was sent as a Qadhi, so that the Masa'il and rulings he derives from the Qur'aan, Ahadeeth and Ijtihad would be implemented. Following these three would in fact mean obeying the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam). It has been narrated from Hazarat Abu Hurraira (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) that the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) said ""Whoever obeyed me has indeed obeyed Allah and whoever disobeyed me has indeed disobeyed Allah,"" or he said, ""Whoever obeyed the Ameer has indeed obeyed me and whoever disobeyed the Ameer has indeed disobeyed me."" THE TYPES OF MASA'IL: There are two different types of masa'il. Firstly, those that have been mentioned in the `Nas` (Qur'aan or Ahadeeth). Secondly, those which have not been mentioned in the Qur'aan or Ahadeeth. There are two forms of the first type. The first form is that the Nas will only be ruling in the positive or only in the negative. The second form is that there are two types of Nas regarding the same Mas’alah. In some we need a ruling in the positive and in others in the negative. For example, from some we find out about Ameen-bil-Jahr and from some we find out about Ameen-bis-sir. Some inform us about Raf'ul-yadaayn, whilst others tell us about Tark-ul-raf'a. There is also two types of these Masa'il as well. One is when historic evidence or other circumstances indicate that one Nas has preference over the other. The other type is, when it is not known which Nas has preference over the other and which comes first and which comes second. In total these are of four types; FIRST: Those Masa'il which only have one type of Nas. No Qiyas or Ijtihad will be done, neither will there be Taqleed of anybody. Instead the Nas will be acted upon. SECOND: Those masa'il which have two types of Nas and it is also known which comes first and which comes second. Generally, the first one will be abrogated, while the second one will be acted upon. There is no need for Qiyas, Ijtihad or Taqleed in this type either. THIRD: Those masa'il where there are two types of Nas and it is not known which comes first and which comes second. FOURTH: Those masa'il regarding which there is no Nas at all. These last two types will be under one of the two situations. Either a person is acting upon it or he is not acting upon it and wondering around freely. Well, there is no permission for this. 'What does man think that he will be left in vain? 'So do you think that we have created you for play?' This is not the case, you have to obey our commands in every aspect. Well, what is he then going to act upon? In the third type, which Nas does he act upon? If he acts upon one, the other gets left out. He cannot appoint a Nas on his own behalf. He does not have the knowledge of which Nas came first and which second, so that he could cancel the first and act upon the second. In the fourth type, there is no Nas at all. So without knowledge what is he going to act upon? Allah says in the Qur'aan, 'Do not act upon anything without knowledge and research.' This leaves no choice but to do Ijtihad. It is necessary in the third type because one of the Nas has to be appointed to be acted upon, and in the fourth type because the ruling has to be found. This is also quite obvious that not everybody has the capability and capacity to do Ijtihad and Istinbaat. This verse of the Qur'aan makes this clear as well. Allah says: 'If they had referred it to the Messenger and to those who have authority amongst them, the proper investigators would have known it from them (direct).' Anybody can claim to make a decision, regardless of its being right or wrong, but only he will be called a Mustanbit and Mujtahid, whose Istinbaat is in accordance to the shari'ah. If it is not, then he will be known as a Muqallid. Hence it is important for a Mujtahid to do Ijtihad in these two types and as for the Muqallid, it is important for him to do Taqleed. Even if the Mujtahid makes an error, he will not be deprived of reward and if his Ijtihad is correct then he will be entitled to double reward. Likewise it has come in Bukhari Sharif Vol 2 pg.1092. A DOUBT: Why is the Taqleed of the four Imams (Imam Abu Haneefah, Imam Shaf'ae, Imam Maalik and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal rahmatullahi alaihim) done, even though there were many Mujtahideen amongst the Sahaba (RA), Tabi'een and the Tab'i-Tabi'een? What is the harm in doing Taqleed of anybody else, especially those Sahabah whose virtues have been mentioned profusely in many Ahadeeth. ANSWER: The answer to this is that indeed the Sahabah (RA) have a higher status than the four Imams. The reason for doing Taqleed of the four Imams is not because they are thought to be greater than the Sahabah (RA), but when doing Taqleed it is important to acknowledge the masa'il in which Taqleed is done. Today, there are vast amounts of details and explanations present about the masa'il, compiled and collected in the Mazahib of the four Imams, from Kita-but-Taharah to Kitabul-Fra'idh, including Ibadah, Dealings etc. In short each and every Mas’alah in all the fields and spheres has been collected. These type of detailed and compiled Mazahib cannot be found from the Sahabah, Tabi'een or the Tab'i-Tabi'een. So if one was to do Taqleed of anybody apart from the four Imams, then how would he do it? This is why Taqleed of the four Imams alone, has been chosen. Allah bestowed upon the four Imams the knowledge of the Qur'aan and Ahadeeth in depths and the complete skills of Istinbaat to this extent that they had access to all the Ahadeeth of the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam), which proliferated throughout the world by the Sahabah (RA). It is possible that there might have been a narration that one of them knew about but the other did not, but there could not possibly be a narration that none of them knew about. Hazarat Shah Waliullah Muhadith Dehivi rahmatullahi alaihe has written in Sharhul- Mu'at-ta, (page 6) about the spreading and circulation of Ahadeeth and about Madina Tayiba, being the headquarters of knowledge. He writes: 'These four Imams are such that their knowledge has encompassed the whole world and those four Imams are Imam Abu Haneefah (rahmatullahi alaihim), Imam Shaf'ae (rahmatullahi alaihim), Imam Maalik (rahmatullahi alaihim) and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahmatullahi alaihim)'. QUESTION: Why is it important to do Taqleed of only one Imam? What harm is there in following one Imam for one mas'alah, then another Imam for some other mas'alah, the way it was in the time of the Sahabah and the Tabi'een. They were not dependent on one individual in following the whole Mazhab? ANSWER: In the time of the Sahabah, virtue and prosperity had the upper hand and generally there was no part in deen for fulfilling personal desires. That is why when someone inquired about a Mas’alah, he asked with a good intention and he would act upon it as well, regardless of whether he liked it or not. In later times, this was not the case. Instead, people started having the urge to ask one mas'alah from a certain Alim and if the answer was against their desires, they would walk off to another Alim in search of ease. Still not content with this, they were stricken with a growing concern about how they could find a way out in every Mas’alah which would satisfy them. It is apparent that this can not be the motive for the search of truth. Sometimes this can cause a lot of damage. For example, a person made wudhu then touched his wife. Somebody following the Mazhab of Imam Shafi'ee (rahmatullahi alaihe) said to him ""Repeat your wudhu because touching your wife breaks the wud-hu."" He replies, ""I do Taqleed of Imam Abu Hanifa (rahmatullahi alaihe) and wudhu does not break in his opinion of this situation."" Then this person vomits. Somebody following the Mazhab of Imam Abu Hanifa (rahmatullahi alaihe)says to him, 'Repeat your wudhu because vomit breaks the wudhu in the opinion of Imam Abu Hanifa (rahmatullahi alaihe)."" He replies, ""I am following the Mazhab of Imam Shafi'ee (rahmatullahi alaihe) and in his view, wudhu does not break by vomiting."" Now, this persons salaah is not valid in accordance with the Mazhab of Imam Abu Hanifa (rahmatullahi alaihe) or Imam Shafi'ee (rahmatullahi alaihe) This is known as Talfeeq which is void and not permissible, by unanimous decision. Following in this manner is in actual fact doing Taqleed of neither of the Imams. Instead it is fulfilling personal desires, which is forbidden in the Shari'ah. It leads a person astray and away from the path of Allah. Allah says in the Qur'aan, ‘And do not follow your personal desires, for they will lead you astray from the path of Allah.' (Bayanul-Qur’aan) This is why it is important to do Taqleed of only one Imaam. The Qur'aan has associated obedience with repentance, ‘And follow the path of he who turns towards me,' (Bayanul-Qur’aan) On this basis, any individual who had strong presumption about Imam Abu Hanifa (rahmatullahi alaihe), that he was repentant correct and that his Ijtihad was in accordance with the Qur'aan and Ahadeeth, he chose to do his Taqleed. Anybody who had the same thought regarding Imam Sha-fi'ee (rahmatullahi alaihe), Imam Malik (rahmatullahi alaihe) or about Imam Ahmad (rahmatullahi alaihe), he started doing his Taqleed. Now, this is incorrect to leave one's own Imam whenever a person feels and start following a different Mazhab, because without permission of the Shari'ah it becomes Talfeeq and fulfilment of personal desires. In result of which a person is lead astray. Hence, Molana Mohammad Hussain Sahib has written in his compilation Ishaa'atus-Sunnah Vol 11 No.2 pg.53. After opposing Taqleed for a very long period of time and then becoming affected with bitter experience for not doing Taqleed, he writes, ""We found out from 25 years of experience that those people who abstain from entire Mujtahids and Taqleed, they end up saying farewell to Islam. Some become Christians whilst others end up without any Mazhab at all. Rebellion and disobedience of the Shari 'ah is a petty result of this freedom."" (Sabeelur-Rashaad pg.12) This is why those learned Ulama who have deep insight of the Qur'aan and countless treasures of the traditions of the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and the Sahabah, in front of their eyes. Whose hearts are enriched with the fear of Allah and whose lives are enlightened with the lamp of the Sunnah of the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam), still choose to do Taqleed, despite having these qualities and virtues. It would not be an exaggeration if it was said that these Ulama reached such a status only through following the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and doing Taqleed of the pious servants of Deen and the great Mujtahideen WAS SHAH WALIULLAH A MUQALLID? QUESTION: What do the Ulama and the Muftis say about the following Mas’alah. Was Shah Waliullah a Muqallid or not? If he was a Muqallid then what was his Maslak? Here some people say he was not a Muqallid. Please give reference from some authentic source. ANSWER: Hazarat Shah Waliullah Sahib (rahmatullahi alaihe) was enriched with the treasures of a vast amount of knowledge, deep concerns, high morals, righteous behaviour, purified mind, cleansed heart, strong connection and true saintliness. Whenever any doubts arised, instantly it was solved through Nabawi Ruhanyat as if all the traditions were in front of him. He was well aware of the Mazahib and had full experience of the Imams of Ijtihad regarding the principles of Istinbaat and the derivation of masa' il. He was well versed in the science of collaboration between two traditions and was a Hafiz of Naasikh and Mansookh etc. Considering all this, he did not have the need to do Taqleed but the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) compelled him to do so. There were other thing as well apart from Taqleed which he was forced to do against the urge of his nature. He passed away in 1176 A.H. and it was the same year that he taught Bukhari Sharif for the last time. He wrote the Sanad out for Molvi Cheraagh Sahib with his pen, which still exists in Khudaa Baksh Library in Patnaa along with the Bukhari Sharif itself. On the Sanad he wrote 'Hanafi' with his name. It has also got Hazarat Shah Rafi-ud-deen's certification on it, to prove that it was written by his father, along with Shah Alam's stamp of confirmation as well. From this we can tell that he stayed a Hanafi till the end. Nobody has the authority to say that he became a Ghair Muqallid. Of course he used to collect them according to his capability and discuss the strength and weakness of the proofs, which might have left doubts in some people. WHAT SHOULD A MUQALLID DO IF THERE IS A HADITH CONTRADICTING THE SAYING OF AN IMAM? QUESTION: What do the Ulama and the Muftis say about this mas'alah. If in the opinion of Imam A'zam (rahmatullahi alaihe) something is regarded as unlawful and there is a Sahih Hadith contradicting Imam Sahibs (rahmatullahi alaihe) opinion. The narrators are approximately more than four in number and they are all reliable. They all narrate exactly the same proof from the Prophet (Sallaho Alaihe Wassallam) and the Hadith is also in Bukhari Sharif. So in this situation what do you say about an individual who rejects Imam Sahibs opinion and follows the Hadith? ANSWER: It can be possible that there is a Hadith in Bukhari Sharif against the mas'alah stated by Imam A'zam (rahmatullahi alaihe), but this can never be possible that Imam Sahib (rahmatullahi alaihe) has stated a Mas’alah without any evidence. At least think about this that even in the view of Imam Sahib, it is not permissible to do Qiyas when there is a Sahih Hadith in existence. Then saying that Imam Sahibs opinion is merely just a Qiyas, which is against the Hadith, is completely incorrect and against the principles of Imam Sahib and it is also slanderous. An opinion is decided upon, first by finding out the cause of a certain masalah (Illah) which can be found in the Nas. So that those Masa'il which have no Nas, but have the same cause, can be ruled the same as the ones which have a Nas. The benefit of this is that the decree of the Nas becomes more general. Imam Bukhari rahmatullahi alaihe has also confirmed this in his Bukhari Sha-rif. Hence, in whichever mas'alah there is already a Nas, the Qiyas and opinion of Imam A'zam rahmatullahi alaihe has no part to play. Instead the Nas will be acted upon. Some short sighted people just pick up one Hadith and start saying that Imam A'zam's rahmatullahi alaih's certain opinion is against this Hadith. This is because of their ignorance or enmity. Sahih Bukhari, collectively has been given preference, but that does not mean that each and every Hadith of Bukhari Sharif has priority over each and every Hadith of the other books of Ahadeeth. It can be possible that some Ahadeeth in other books have been given preference over Bukhari Sharif, upon which Imam A'zam's rahmatullahi alaihe opinion is based. Sheikh ibn Hamaam rahmatullahi alaihe has discussed this in Fath-hul-Qa deer. It has been stated in Umdatul-Qari Sharhul-Bukhari Vol 8 pg.51: Imam Bukhari's rahmatullahi alaihe claim, that all the Ahadeeth are Sahih, is not worth attention because definite evidence is needed to make an entire claim. Therefore, declaring that Imam A'zam's rahmatullahi alaihe view is against Hadith and merely is an opinion, is itself a declaration without any evidence. It contradicts the evidence itself, which originates from lack of knowledge or enmity. TAQLEED FOR A MUHAQIQ ALIM AND CHANGING FROM ONE MAZHAB TO ANOTHER QUESTION NO. 1: What is the meaning of Taqleed in the terminology of the Fuqahaa? ANSWER NO. 1: A person who can be trusted that his ruling will be in accordance with the evidence. Accepting his word and not asking him for proof is Taqleed, (Likewise it has been mentioned in Aqdul-Jayyid.) QUESTION NO. 2: In reality, is it accepted by the Ulama that a person who is a Mujtahid himself cannot do Taqleed of anybody else, with the understanding of, ""What is Taqleed? Taqleed is the action of a person who doesn't know the evidence of the action."" ANSWER NO. 2: The preferred ruling is that, it is permissible for a Mujtahid to do Taqleed of another Mujtahid because Ijtihad is fractional. (Likewise is has been explained in Shami.) QUESTION NO. 3: If a person does not hold the status of a Mujtahid, but he is an AIim of the Qur'aan and Sunnah and not only does he have deep knowledge of Sunnan-e-Nabawia, but he also understands the detailed fiqhi masa'il of the different Mazahib and knows which should be given preference. What is the ruling of his doing Taqleed of the Imams of the different Mazahib? Is it important for him to stay connected with one Mazhab all the time and under no circumstances can he follow a different Mazhab, even though it may be regarding the same mas’alah? Or is it alright to take all the evidence of the different Mazahib into consideration and then act upon the one that is more closer to Qur'aan and Ahadeeth. ANSWER NO.3: When he is not capable of doing Ijtihad although he might have deep knowledge, it is still important for him to do Taqleed of an individual. It is not right for him to follow another mazhab on the basis of his own opinion. Talfeeq is Bil-Ijma'a void and not permissible. (Likewise it has been stated in Dur-rul-Mukhtar.) Whilst being deprived of Ijtihad, making a statement about a mas’ala that it is in accordance with the Qur'aan and Sunnah, is beyond his status. QUESTION NO.4: For instance, if somebody has started to follow one Mazhab, can he totally or partly follow another Mazhab later on or does he always have to stay with the first Mazhab? ANSWER NO.4: If the trust, on the basis of which a person starts to do Taqleed of an Imam, starts to expire from one Imam, due to vast knowledge and deep understanding, then it is permissible to change Imam’s totally and not partly. Or else, Talfeeq will come into existence which is not permissible. (Likewise it has been stated in Hamwee.) QUESTION NO.5: 'A person who does not have any knowledge of Qur'aan and Sunnah, he is one of the common folk. What is the ruling for such a person to move from one Mazhab to another Mazhab? ANSWER NO.5: This is not permitted. It is fulfilling the desires and it becomes a play. Aqdul-]ayyid, Insaaf, Sabeelur-Rashaad, AI-Iqtisaad, Intisaarul-Haq, Tayseer and At-Taqreer wat-Tahbeer, have all stated the detailed evidence regard-ing this issue. IS IT AGAINST TAQLEED FOR A HANAFI TO FOLLOW SOMEBODY ELSE 'S VIEW? QUESTION: What is the definition of Taqleed? Will a person still remain a Hanafi if he acts upon Imam Abu Yusuf’s rahmatullahi alaihe view or Imam Zufar's rahmatullahi alaihe. Also will he still remain a Hanafi if he acts upon the opinion of Imam Shafi'ee rahmatullahi alaihe or Imam Malik rahmatullahi alaihe at the time of need (for example the mas'alah of Mafqood)? ANSWER: For a Non Mujtahid to follow a Mujtahid, trusting him that he has the proof and evidence for it and he does not ask him for the evidence, is known as Taqleed. The principle of Imam A' zam rahmatullahi alaihe which his students have described in de-tails and from which other masa'il are derived, whether these masa'il are directly from Imam Sahib rahmatullahi alaihe or not, a person who adopts them remains a 'Hanafi'. The views of Imam Sahibs students are in actual fact Imam Sahibs views, regardless of whether they are directly or indirectly from Imam Sahib. Therefore, acting upon them on special occasions does not expel an individual from Hanafiyah. Sometimes, because of changes in occurrences and incidents, the ruling changed in a way that the scholars of the later era understood that if Imam Sahib rahmatullahi alaihe was still alive today, he would have made a certain ruling in a particular mas'alah. Therefore, they decided upon that ruling, regardless of whether that was the view of Imam Shafi'ee rahmatullahi alaihe or an opinion of any other Imam. These type of changes, like the excellence of Hajj, nafl and Sadaqah etc., can be found in the time of Imam Sahib rahmatullahi alaihe himself. Hence, this does not cause any changes in Hanafiyah. Details can be found in Uqood Rasmul Mufti Ii Ibn Abideen." 26,"The Deception of the Devious Salafis",5374,637,636,"When a man wishes to unfetter himself from the restrictions of the Shari'ah and the Sunnah in the present day, the solution for him is to become a so-called salafi. Once he joins the salafi deviant sect, he is free to find expression for his nafsaani opinions. In order to draw unwary and ignorant Muslims into its fold of dhalaal and baatil, the modernists salafis employ deception on a large scale. A salient feature of this sect of baatil is their rejection of the Madahabs of the Salaf-e-Saalihoon. In spite of their rejection of the Madhhaaib of Haqq espoused by the Salaf-e-Saalihoon, these mudhilleen (deviates who lead others astray) seek to bamboozle the unwary and the ignorant by making ostentatious claims for their ""Love"" and ""respect"" for the 'ulema and fuqaha. The masses are ignorant. They lack the knowledge to distinguish between right and left; they do not possess the ability to verify and understand the statements of the fuqaha which these salafi deviates selectively quote to bolster their corruptive arguments. Let us examine one example of the deception they employ to hoodwink the unwary and the ignorant. Taqleed While they decry Taqleed, jeer at it, speak mockingly of it and vilify the muqallideen who follow the 'ulema and fuqaha and the Salaf with epithets such as ""cows"" and ""dogs"", blindly following rulings of others, these salafis cite the very great fuqaha of the Salaf to support their baatil contentions of 'ad mut-taqleed"" or the renunciation of Taqleed or their blind following of their opinions of desire. In substantiation of their claim, they present the well-known statements of the fuqaha and Ainuhah Mujtahideen of the Salaf-e-Saalihoon such as: ""When you find in my kitaab anything contradicting the Sunnah of Rasulullah (s.a.s.) then say (i.e. command) the Sunnah of Rasulullah (s.a.s.) and leave aside my statement."" (Imam ash-Shaafi) ""When the Hadith is established as authentic in opposition to my statement, then act according to the Hadith and abandon my statement."" (Imam ash-Shaafi) ""When the authenticity of the Hadith is established, then that is my Mathhab."" (Imam ash-Shaafi) Similar statements have been attributed to Imam Abu Hanifa by Ibn Abdul Barr. Imam Sha'raani too attributes to similar statements to Imam Abu Hanifa. In Raddul Mukhtaar, Allaamah Beeri, narrating from Sharah Hidaayah of Ibn Shuhnah says: ""When the Hadith is authentic, then that is my mathhab."" (Imam Abu Hanifa) The authenticity of these statements is not contested. However, neither do these salafis understand the meaning of these statements nor do their audiences. The audience being unschooled in the higher knowledge of the Shari'ah, simply take in what is gorged out by the devious speakers of this sect. The salafis claim to be the followers of the Salaf. In their definition of the Salaf, they quite rightly include the fuqaha and the 'Ulema of Quroon-e-Thalaathah (the first three glorious epochs of Islam) - the age of Sahaba, Tabi'een, and Tab-a-Tabi'een. The Aimma mujtahideen which include the four illustrious Imams of the Four Madhhabs of the Ahl as-Sunnah Wal-Jama'ah are all part of the Salaf. While these salafis seek to eke out unbridled rejection of Taqleed for every man in the street on the basis of the aforementioned statements attributed the great Imams, the great 'ulema who follow these Aimmah mujtahideen aver otherwise. Commenting on these statements, Imam an-Nawawi (rahmatullah alayh) says: ""This which Imam ash-Shaafi has said does not mean that everyone who sees a sahih Hadith should say ""This is the mathhab of ash-Shaafi,"" thus practicing on the zaahir (text/external or apparent meaning) of the Haditli. This most certainly applies to only such a person who has the rank of ijtihad in the madhhab. It is a condition that he overwhelmingly believes that Imam ash-Shaafi was unaware of this Hadith or he was unaware of its authenticity. And this is possible only after having made a research of all the books of ash-Shaafi and similar other books of the Ashaab of ash-Shaafi, those who take (knowledge) from him and others similar to these (books). This is indeed a difficult condition (to fulfill). Few are there who measure up to this (standard). br> What we have explained has been made conditional because Imam ash-Shaafi had abandoned acting on the zaahir (text) of many Ahadith, which he say and knew. However, by him was established proof for criticism in the Hadith or its abrogation or it's specific circumstance or its interpretation, etc. Hence, he was constrained to leave aside the hadith."" (Ilaaus Sunan, Vol. 2, page 225) Shaykh Abu Amr (rahmatullah alayh) said: ""It is not easy to act according to the aparrent (zahir) text of what Imam ash-Shaafi said. It is not lawful for (even) every Faqeeh (qualified Aalim who has deep insight) to act indepently with that which opines to be proof from the Hadith."" (Ilaus Sunan, Vol. 2, page 225) It also appears in Ilaaus Sunan of Muhaddith Zafar Ahmad Uthmani (rahmatullah alayh): ""Imam Sha'raani has also narrated it (i.e. the statement ""When the authenticity of a Hadith is established, it is my mathhab.""), attributing it to the four Imams. It is not hidden (from understanding) that this is for the one who has the ability (insight and qualifications) in the Nusoos and the knowledge of its clear laws and abrogations."" Volume 2, page 226. Discussing this statement in his treatise, Shaykh Yusuf bin Ismaail Nibhaani says: ""Verily, the statement: ""When the Hadith has been authenticated, then it is my mathhab"" has been narrated from each of these four Imams who were free from personal opinion. The audience to whom this statement (""When the Hadith is Sahih, it is my mathhab."") was directed, is on his (the imam's) Ashaab (the Fuqaha of his Mathhab) who were the great and illustrious Aimmah among the great 'Ulama of his mathhab, those who where the Ahl at-Tarjeeh (a high category of 'Ulama). All of them who were the haafizeen of the Hadith of Rasulullah (s.a.s.) were fully aware of the daleels (proofs) of all the mathhabs These are the ones whom the Imam (of the mathhab) had directed his statement: ""When the Hadith is Sahih, it is my mathhab"" Verily, they (these great Fuqaha) are able to reconcile between the Hadith from which the Imam had derived proof, and the latest Hadith which was established as authentic after the Imam. They (these illustrious Fuqaha) can see which of the two Hadiths is more authentic, stronger and which of the two Hadiths is the later one so that the later one can be the Naasikh (abrogator) for the earlier one."" (Hujjatullah alal Aalameen) It should now be crystal clear to every unbiased person possessing the least degree of Aql (intelligence) that the statement: ""When the Hadith is Sahih, it is my madhhab,"" is directed to an audience of illustrious fuqaha who were masters and experts in ijtihad; who had embraced all sciences of the Shar'i Uoom; who were the Muqallideen of their Imams, who were the Huffaz of Hadith; who were experts of both narrational and rational (Manqool and Uqool) branches of knowledge; in short, who were 'ulema and fuqaha of the highest category, whose likes did not again appear on earth after them nor will appear again on earth until the Day of Qiyaaman because those illustrious fuqaha were a band of Muhaqqiqeen whom Allah Ta'ala had specially created to formulate and systematize the Shari'ah for posterity in such a manner that no mudhil (deviate who leads astray) can never hope to escape with his baatil interpolations and nafsaaniyat. While the Illustrious Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen directed their command to their students (fuqaha and 'ulema of the highest category), these half-baked and raw Salafi deviates direct the Aimma's statements to an audience of juhala-people who have yet to become adept in the basics of Tahaarat, Salaat, Sawm, etc. Even the greatest Aalim alive today cannot avail himself of the statement of the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen, leave alone the myriads of half-baked 'ulema. The masses cannot even be considered in this regard. Here in this context, when we say ""half-baked"" we are referring to even the present day 'Ulema-e-Haqq whose duty is to safeguard the Shari'ah. Even these highly qualified 'ulema of the present age are 'half-baked' and grossly under baked in relation to the giants and stars of the Shari'Uloom who strode the firmament of Islamic Knowledge and piety during the Quroon-e-Thalathah. The age for weighing the verdicts of the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen against the Ahadith has long passed. It is downright silly and stupid for anyone in this age to run away with the puerile notion of having the ability to rectify, amend or refute any of the rulings of the Aimma-e-Mujtahideen. Any such amendment to any of the rulings of the Aimmah-e-Arba-ah was affected many centuries ago - a thousand years ago - by their great students and Ashaab. Indeed the deviate Salafis are suffering from the disease of self-conceit and pride in their belief that ""erroneous"" fataawa of the Aimmah had remained undetected for the past thousand years and that it was only now in this age that a deviate like al-Albani acquired the ""honor"" to correct the ""mistakes"" of the great Imams of the madhhab. It needs no deep wisdom to understand the reason for the Aimmah's directive to their Ashaab/Students to review their rulings on the standard of the Sahih Hadith. The Shari'ah of Islam is the product of the Wahi (revelation). It is not the product of anyone's opinion, be he the greatest faqeeh. In that early age of Islam, the Shari'ah had not yet been fully codified in chapter form and systemically reduced to writing and all the Ahadith had not been compiled. The age of Hadith compilation came much later. It was therefore likely that an Imam was not aware of all the Ahadith on a specific subject. He would issue his fatwa on the basis of all available Nusoos (Qur'anic ayat and Ahadith). However, when later he was apprised of a Sahih Hadith which contradicted his fatwa, he would immediately review his ruling and if the authenticity and other relevant aspects of the Hadith were established, he would revoke his fatwa and issue a new fatwa. Similarly, if the Sahih Hadith came to the attention of the Imam's Ashaab after the death of the Imam or in his absence, they would adopt the same process of review and amend their Imam's ruling in obedience to his command to do so. Thus the statement -""When the Hadith is Sahih, it is my madhhab,"" and similar other statements attributed to the Aimmah-e-Arba-ah, had their application during the age of ijtihad when the process of the formulation, codification and systemization of the Shari'ah was in progress. The authorities of the Shari'ah, viz., the Fuqaha-e-Mujtahideen, to whom the directive was issued by the Aimmah of the mathaa-hib, had already given expression to this command. Thus these statements have outlived their utility and are no longer applicable for the simple reason that all the Sahih Ahadith have already been compiled 1250 years ago. Any reviewing which had to be done which completed 1250 years ago. The statements of the Aimmah in this regard have only historical importance, and cannot be considered any longer for practical expression. It is indeed ludicrous to run away with the assumption that for 1200 years any errors of the Aimmah Arbah remained undetected and a man like al-Albani of this age came to rectify such ""errors."" Intelligence While the masses lack higher Islamic Knowledge, they do possess a degree of natural intelligence by means of which they may discern truth. The discernment for distinguishing between truth and falsehood is inborn in the Muslim. He only has to be sincere and unbiased when hearing naseehat. He will then, with the aid of Allah Ta'ala, arrive at the avenue of guidance. It should not be difficult for an unbiased Muslim to understand that it is not possible for thousands and thousands of 'ulema and fuqaha to submit to the Aimmah of the four madhhabs for the past 1250 years if they were in error. If Taqleed was in conflict with the Qur'an and Sunnah, how could it have been possible for such a vast multitude of 'ulema and fuqaha to uphold this concept for all these centuries? Can it be possible that the entire Ummah was in darkness from the three early ages of goodness (Quroon-e-Thalaatha) and a man like al-Albani of this present age be on the path of rectitude in his denunciation of the Taqleed of the four Imams? Are the multitude of the fuqaha who lived in the every age of Islam right or is the modernist Salafi sect of this age right? Consult your intelligence with sincerity and you will not fail to see the light of hidaayah. The four Imams The salafi sect make a great play of their supposed following of the Salaf-e-Saalihoon. on close examination it will be discovered that while they call themselves salafis, they are not the followers of the Salaf-e-Saalihoon. In their own definition of the Salaf, they include the Fuqaha and Ulama of Khairul Quroon (the Noblest Ages) which according to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) were the ages of the Sahaabah, Taabi-oon and Tab-e-Taabi-oon. on this score there is consensus. If these salafis do have love and respect for the Salaf-e-Saalihoon as they vociferously claim in their talks to unwary audiences, why do they condemn the Taqleed of the Salf-e-Saalihoon? If they honour and love the Salaf-e-Saalihoon, why do they hurl vile epithets at those Muslims who follow the Salaf-e-Saalihoon? It should be noted that all the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen (the Four Imaams and other Mujtahideen) belonged to the Quroon-e-Thalaathah. They are the Salaf-e-Saalihoon. Ibn Taimiyyah and Ibn Qayyim who are in actual fact the Imaams of the salafi sect (but they do not overtly proclaim this) are not among the Salaf-e-Saalihoon. The following dates of birth of these personalities will indicate who the Salaf actually are: Imaam Abu Hanifah 80 Hijri Imaam Maalik 94 Hijri Imaam Shaafi 150 Hijri Imaam Hambal 164 Hijri. All four illustrious Imaams of the Mathaahib belonged to the initial noble epoch of Islam, hence all are among the Salaf-e-Salihoon whose obedience is commanded by the Qur'aan and Hadith. But Ibn Taimiyyah was born in 661 Hijri, almost six centuries after Imaam Abu Hanifah. Ibn Qayyim was born in 691 Hijri, more than 600 years after Imaam Abu Hanifah. Thus, these two Imaams of the salafi sect are separated from the age of the Salaf-e-Saalihoon by six centuries. Inspite of this great gap between the Salaf-e-Saalihoon and the Imaams of the salafi sect, the latter heeds the propagations of these two individuals who appear on the scene in a belated age, distanced far and wide from the Salaf-e-Saalihoon. While licking up every opinion of their miscreant Imaams, these salafis have volumes of criticism for the followers of the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen who were truly the Salaf-e-Saalihoon for whom submission by the Ummah is a divine decree. The Qur'aan commands: ""O People of Imaan! Obey Allah, obey the Rasool and the Ulool Amr among you."" The Ulool Amr (the Leaders) mentioned in this Qur'aanic verse apply in the first instance to the Sahaabah, next to the Taabioon and then to the Tab-e-Taabioon. These are the three illustrious groups of the Sunnah singled out for obedience by Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). He, therefore said: ""The best of ages is my age, then the next age and then the age following."" These are the ages of the Sahaabah, Taabi-oon and Tab-e-Taabioon. These are the ages of the Salaf accepted by even the modernist salafi sect. Speaking glowingly of the Salaf-e-Saalihoon, the Qur'aan Majeed says: ""Those who went ahead first (the Sahaabah) among the Muhaajireen and Ansaar, and those who followed them with goodness, Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him...."" (Aayat 100, Surah Taubah) Allah Ta'ala expresses His pleasure with these Salaf-e-Saalihoon, yet the salafis of this age deem it appropriate to condemn the Ummah and brand them as 'cows' and 'dogs' for making Taqleed of the Salaf-e-Saalihoon. Who are the followers of the Salaf? In the exercise to denigrate Taqleed of the Salaf, the salafi sect takes its cue from Ibn Taimiyyah and mainly from Ibn Qayyim, the student of Ibn Taimiyyah, both of whom were not part of the Salaf-e-Saalihoon. While these salafis adopted the uninhibited blind following of Ibn Qayyim, they have the rude audacity of vilifying those who follow the Salaf-e-Saalihoon - the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen. Every unbiased Muslim can judge for himself and ascertain who the followers of the Salaf are. The Muqallidoon who follow the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen or those who follow Ibn Taimiyyah and Ibn Qayyim? While the Shariah commands the following of the Salaf-e-Saalihoon, there is no such command to obey Ibn Taimiyyah and Ibn Qayyim. Thus, those who are making Taqleed of the Aimmah Arba-ah are the true followers of the Salaf. It is indeed very surprising to note that the salafis do not have any vile epithets for those who follow Ibn Taimiyyah and Ibn Qayyim, but for the Ummah following the Salaf-e-Saalihoon whose obedience has been commanded by Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) they have a large armoury of scornful epithets. In this article we have dealt with only one aspect of the claims made by this deviant sect calling themselves, salafis. That aspect is their misinterpretation of the Aimmah's statement: ""When the Hadith is Saheeh, it is my Math-hab."" Insha'Allah, in future articles all the other baatil aspects of modern-day salafi'ism will be dealt with and exposed for their falsity." 27,"The necessity of Taqleed from the Shari’ Point of View",5376,637,636,"Verdict on Taqleed (Adherence) - Some people say that Taqleed (Adherence to a madhab of an Imaam) is haraam in the Shariah. (The necessity of Taqleed from the Shari’ point of view) By a student of Darul Uloom, Holcombe, Bury, U.K. Contents * Introduction * Definition of Taqleed * Taqleed - A Quraanic Command * Taqleed in General * The Necessity of Taqleed * Evils of Discarding Taqleed * Taqleed Restricted to the Four Madhaa'hib * A Baseless Question * Why is it Necessary to Make taqleed of One Imaam Only (Taqleed-us-Shakhsi) * Talfeeq and Changiung Madh'habs is not Permissable * Madhab of the Convert * The Disease of Admut-Talqeed * The Sunnah see also: Taqleed (Mufti Mahmud Hasan Gangohi) Introduction Question: Some people say that Taqleed (Adherence to a madhab of an Imaam) is haraam in the Shariah. They insist that a true Muslim should only follow the Qur’aan and Sunnah, and they say that it is equivalent to shirk (polytheism) to follow an Imaam in matters of Shar’iah. They also claim that the Hanafi, Shaaf’i, Maliki and Hanbali schools were formed some two hundred years after the Holy Prophet sallallahu alaihe wasallam, therefore they are bid’ah (an innovation not approved in the Qur’an and Sunnah). They also stress that a Muslim should seek guidance directly form the Qur’an and Sunnah, and that no intervention of an Imaam is needed to practice upon the Shari’ah. Please explain to what extent this view is correct? The answer to the above mentioned question follows and among the first things to be determined is what is Taqleed. Definition of Taqleed Literal: Taqleed is a verbal noun of the root ‘Qa' 'la' 'da’ in the second form. The verb Qalada means to place, to gird or to adorn with a necklace. When used in conjunction with human beings, it refers to the wearing of a necklace, pendant or any other such similar ornament. Technical: The acceptance of a statement of another without demanding proof or evidence on the belief that the statement is being made in accordance with fact and proof, is called Taqleed, or, for the purist, Taqleed-ush-shakhsi. Taqleed – A Qur’aanic Command The basis for Taqleed is a Qur’aanic command. ""And, ask the People of Knowledge if you do not know."" Thus the general principle of Taqleed is enshrined in the Qur’aan Majeed. Denial of this principle is, therefore, an act of kufr which expels the denier from the fold of Islam. Daleel (proof) of Taqleed Aswad bin Yazid narrates, ""Mu'aath came to us in Yemen as a teacher and commander. We questioned him regarding a man who had died leaving (as his heirs) a brother and sister. He decreed half the estate for the daughter and half for the sister. This was while the Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam was alive."" [Kitaabul Faraa-idh: Bukhari and Muslim Shareef] It will be realised from this Hadith Shareef that Taqleed was in vogue during the time of the Prophet sallallahu alaihe wasallam. The questioner (in the Hadith) did not demand proof or basis for the decree. He accepted the ruling, relying on the integrity, piety and up-righteousness of Hazrat Mu,aath radiyallahu anhu. This is precisely Taqleed. Secondly Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam did not criticise or reject the people of his age, who followed Hazrat Mu-aath radiyallahu anhu, nor has any rejection or difference on the issue been narrated by anyone else. The permissibility and validity of Taqleed are therefore evident, especially so because of it’s prevalence in the glorious time of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam. This Hadith further furnishes proof for the concept of Taqleed-us-Shakhsi. Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam had appointed Hazrat Mu-aath radiyallahu anhu to provide religious instruction to the people of Yemen. It is, hence, evident and certain that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam granted the people of Yemen the right and permission to refer to Hazrat Mu-aath radiyallahu anhu in all affairs of Deen. Huthail bin Shurgbeel said, ‘Abu Musa was questioned, then Ibn Mas’ud was questioned. Ibn Mas’ud was informed of Abu Musa’s statement. Ibn Mas’ud differed with it. Thereafter Abu Musa was informed (of his difference). He then said: ""Do not ask me as long as this Aalim of deen is among you."" It will be understood that Abu Musa radiyallahu anhu in directing the people towards Ibn Mas’ud radiyallahu anhu by his command, ""Do not ask me as long as this Aalim of Deen is among you,"" was mandatory regarding all matters of Deen. This, in fact, is Taqleed-us-Shaksi which means to refer every religious question to a particular Aalim because of some determining factor, and to act according to his verdict. These Ahaadith indicate that ‘Taqleed-us-Shakhsi’ is not a new concept which can refuted. Its existence is from the very epoch of Khairul Qurun (the three eras adjacent to the age of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam is an established fact). Taqleed in General The faculty of Taqleed is inherently existent in us. If we had refrained from the Taqleed of our parents and teachers then today we would have been deprived of even the basic and preliminary needs of humanity. By nature man is endowed with the ability to imitate and follow others. If this was not the case, we would not have been able to learn our home language. If we had refused to accept unquestioningly (without demanding proof) every command, beck and call of our teachers, then we would have been ignorant of even the alphabet of a language, let alone the study and writing of our books. Our whole life – every facet of it, eating, drinking, donning garments, walking, earning, etc., is connected with this very concept of Taqleed. If the fundamentals and technical terminology of every branch of knowledge was not acquired on the basis of Taqleed, i.e. without questioning the authority of the masters, then the proficiency in such knowledge could not have been attained. The Necessity of Taqleed There are two types of wujoob (compulsory nature of something) in jurisprudence: 1) wujoob biz zaat 2) wujoob bil ghair. 1) Wujoob biz zaat means compulsory in itself, for example the commission or omission brings about the compulsion, as the commission of salaah and the commission of polytheism etc. 2) Wujoob bil ghair – these are such acts which are not normally compulsory in themselves, but they constitute the basis for actions commanded in the Qur’aan and hadith and normally it is not possible to execute the commanded practises without also executing their basis. Therefore, wujoob bil ghair means compulsory by virtue of an external factor. It is from here we derived the universal rule, ‘ the basis of a wajib is also wajib’ and this is the exact rule which governs the compulsory nature of Taqleed ush Shakhsi. Evils of Discarding Taqleed It is established by observation and experience that in this age most people are governed by selfishness, baneful motives, lust, insincerity, mischief, strife, anarchy, opposition to the consensus of the Ahdul-Haq, and subjection of the Deen to desire. This is manifest and self-evident. The Ahadith on fitan (strife) have forewarned us of the rise of these baneful traits in man. The Ulama are well aware of this. It is for this reason (baneful traits) that in the absence of Taqleed-us-Shakhsi, great harm, mischief, disruption and corruption will reign in the Deen. One of the destructive evils which will raise its head in the absence of Taqleed-us-Shakhsi is self- appointed Mujtahids. Some persons will consider themselves to be Mujtahids and embark on the process of Qiyas (Shar’i analogical reasoning) and they will consider themselves to be of equal or greater rank than the illustrious Mujtahideen of the early ages of Islam. The previous Mujtahideen have reliably stated that some laws are Mu’all’al (based on certain causes). Citing this some modernists have claimed that the command of wudhu for salaah is mu’all’al, it being the consequence of the early Arabs being camel-herds and goatherds. Since their occupation of tending animals exposed them constantly to impurities, the command of wudhu was formulated. On this basis they claim that since people of the present time live in environments and occupations of greater hygienic conditions, wudhu is no longer necessary for salaah. They conclude thus, the permissibility of salaah without wudhu. Similarly, it is claimed (by such self-styled mujtahids) that the wujub of witnesses in the Nikah ceremony is mu’all’al, the need of witnesses being occasioned by the occurrence of a dispute which may arrive in the future. The presence of witnesses will facilitate the resolving of disputes between the contending marriage parties. On this basis they conclude that where there exists no danger of dispute, the Nikah will be valid without witnesses. Another evil resulting from the discarding of Taqleed us Shukhsi is to practice in accordance if the esoteric (zahir) façade of certain Ahaadith whereas such a practice is certainly not lawful. Since the discarder of Taqleed-us-Shakhsi sees himself unchecked and unfettered he follows the dictates of his nafs. An example of this type of Hadith is as follows: ""Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam performed Zuhr and Asr together and Maghrib and Isha together without (the expediency) of fear and journey. [Muslim Shareef] At face value the Hadith indicates the permissibility of performing Zuhr and Asr as well as Maghrib and Isha even if there exists no valid reason for this practice. But, without any doubt, the unification of salaah without reason is not held permissible by any authority. The correct meaning of the hadith is arrived at by ta’weel (interpretation) via the faculty of Ijtihaad. Practice in accordance with the mere façade of the words used in such cases will result in an opposition to Ijma (consensus of the Ummat), and such conflict is Haraam. The summary of what has been said is; Taqleed-us-Shakhsi is the basis for a wajib aspect (viz., acting in accordance with the commands of the Shariah) and the basis of a Wajib is also Wajib, hence Taqleed-us-Shakhsi is likewise Wajib. One who has discarded Taqleed, even if he does not resort to Ijtihaad himself, nor follows the meaning conveyed superficially by the words, will, in difficult Masa’il accept the verdict of any authority. He will at times follow one Imaam and at other, another. In this way he will sometimes practice in opposition to Ijma, and on occasions, even if the result is not in conflict with Ijma he will resort to the verdict which appeals to his whims and fancies and by means of which worldly motives are available. Thus, he will submit the Deen to the dictates of the nafs. We seek Allah’s protection from such deviation. Taqleed Restricted To The Four Madhaa’hib There are numerous Mujtahideen. It may therefore be argued that Taqleed of any Mujtahid should suffice. What is the reason for restricting Taqleed to the four Madhaa’hib? It was realised from the exposition of the wujub of Taqleed that adoption of different verdicts leads to anarchy. It is therefore imperative to make Taqleed of a Madhab which has been so formulated and arranged in regard to principles (Usul) and details (Furu) that answers to all questions could be obtained either in specific form or in deducted form based on principles, thereby obviating the need to refer to an external source. This all-embracing quality by an act of Allah Ta’aala is found existing in only the four Madhaa'hib. It is therefore imperative to adopt one of the four Madhaa'hib’. This has been the accepted practice coming down the ages from the early times in an unbroken chain of transmission, from generation to generation. The emphasis on this aspect of Taqleed is so profound that certain Ulama have restricted the Ahle-Sunnah wal jama within the confines of the four Madhaa'hib. A Baseless Question The anti-Taqleed lobby attempts to hoodwink unwary Muslims by asking the question: "" Did the Madh’habs exist during the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam and the Sahaabah? In response it could be asked: Did Bukhari Shareef exist in the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam. Did the Qur’aan (in the form we have it) exist during the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam)? If they respond by saying ""Yes"", then we to shall retort that the Madh’habs did exists in the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam. In fact, this very question posed by deviants', exhibits either their gross ignorance or their deliberate to hoodwink the unwary. If the madhab did not exist during the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam and the Sahaabah, the logical conclusion is that the entire Shar'iah which the illustrious Imaam have expounded is not the Shar'iah taught Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam and the Sahaabah. But, this is absurd and preposterous. The madhab of all the teaching of the Madhabs are in fact the teachings of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. Nothing in the Madhabs conflicts with the Qur’aan and Hadith. The different ways methods of Ibaadat, etc., which the Madhabs are applying, are the ways and methods of the Sahaabah which they had acquired from Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam. The differences were inherited from the Sahaabah and such differences are by Divine Decree, hence Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam said: ""The differences of my Ummat is a Rahmat"". Whether anyone understands this fact that, ‘Rahmat’ (Mercy) is emanating out of the authoritative differences of the Fuqahah of the Ummat is of no substance. The fact that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam proclaimed such differences to be the effects of Allah’s mercy is sufficient. Thus, there is nothing detestable in the differences prevailing among the Madhabs. These valid and authentic differences do not bring about disunity, as is stupidly asserted by the modernist deviants'. The ignorance of people and their desires are the causes of disunity. While the terms, Hanafi, Shaaf'i, etc. did not exist in the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam and the Sahaabah, the teachings of these Madhabs, all had existed. While Bukhari Shareef did not exist, the Ahaadith contained in the book did exist. It is, therefore, stupid to pose the question of the Madhabs during the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam. There is unity in this diversity. Deen is the product of wahi, not the result of man’s desires. Since the hawa (desire) cannot find free-play within the chains of Taqleed the aim of the deviates is to refute the concept of Taqleed. But, breaking the chains of Taqleed is to enchain oneself with the shackles of the nafs. Why Is It Necessary To Make Taqleed Of Only One Imaan (Taqleed-us-Shakhsi). The question arises, Why is it necessary to follow one Imaam only? What is wrong if one mas’ala is taken from one Imaam and another from another Imaam, as was done in the time of the Sahaabah radiyallahu anhum and Tabe’ien. In those times the whole Madhab was not confined to one person. The answer is that in those times good was prevalent. Generally the lowly desires did not have any matters in the matters of Deen. Whoever used to refer to any of his elders regarding any mas’ala, used to do so sincerely and he also used to act upon the verdict given to him whether it be to his benefit and desires or not. Later sincerity to that degree and piety did not remain amongst the people. Such urge was present in people to ask one Aalim a mas’ala, if it did not suit them, then they referred that mas’ala to another Aalim until they found a verdict that suited their desires. Gradually, for every mas’ala they had the urge to look for a suitable reply. It is obvious that such people are not seeking the truth. Sometimes the consequences is very serious, e.g. a person in the state of wudhu touches his wife. A person following the Shaaf'i madhab tells him that ""Your wudhu is broken, therefore remake your wudhu"". He replies ""No, I am a muqalid of Imaam Abu Hanifa Rahmatullahi alaihe; according to him this does not cause the wudhu to break. I can read salaah with the wudhu. Then the person vomits a mouthful, a person following the Hanafi madhab advises him to make wudhu as his wudhu has broken, according to Imaam Abu Hanifa Rahmatullahi alaihe; this person replies that I am making Taqleed of Imaam Sha’fi Rahmatullahi alaihe, (in this mas’ala) and according to Imaam Shaaf'i Rahmatullahi alaihe vomiting does not cause the wudhu to break. A person can read salaah with such a wudhu. If this person reads his salaah with this wudhu then his salaah will not be valid according to Imaam Sha’fi Rahmatullahi alaihe and not according to Imaam Abu Hanifa Rahmatullahi alaihe. This is called talfeeq and there is ijma and consensus of opinion that talfeeq is ba’til and impermissible. In reality by doing this a person does not make taqleed of Imaam Shaaf'i Rahmatullahi alaihe or Imaam Abu Hanifa Rahmatullahi alaihe, but he is following his desires, and the Shariah has prohibited us from following our desires. Its result is going astray from the path of Allah Taa’la. Allah Taa’la says in Surah Hud Ayaat 26: ‘And do not follow your desires (in future too) for it will lead you astray from the path of Allah.’ Therefore it is Necessary to make Taqleed of one Imaam only. It is for this reason that the Qur’aan-e-Kareem has commended adherence towards Allah (repeatedly). Allah Ta'aala says: ""And follow the way of that person that person who turns towards me."" Generally someone feels according to his strong presumption that Imaam Abu Hanifa Rahmatullahi alaihe is most probably correct and munib (has the quality of ibaadat), that is, his Ijtihaad conforms more with the Qur'aan and Hadith. That is why he has opted to make Taqleed of Imaam Abu Hanifa Rahmatullahi alaihe. Another person has this strong feeling that Imaam Maalik Rahmatullahi alaihe ijtihaad conforms with the Qur’aan and Hadith, therefore, he makes Taqleed of Imaam Maalik Rahmatullahi alaihe. Someone has this feeling regarding Imaam Shaaf'i Rahmatullahi alaihe ijtihaad, that is why he makes Imaam Shaaf'i Rahmatullahi alaihe taqleed and someone for this very reason makes taqleed of Imaam Ahmed bin Hanbal Rahmatullahi alaihe. Talfeeq And Changing Madhabs Is Not Permissible It is not permissible to leave taqleed made upon one Imaam and follow another Imaam when one wishes. When this is done without permission from the Shariah it leads to talfeeq, it also causes one to follow one’s desires resulting in going far away from the truth and being led astray. Madhab Of The Convert. What is the hukm (law) for a convert to Islam or for one who wishes to switch from his state of non-taqleed to taqleed? Which Madhab does he have to follow? If such a person lives in a place where a particular Madhab is dominant, then he should follow the Madhab by virtue of its dominance. If he happens to be in a place where several madhaa’hib are in operation on a more or less equivalent basis, then he will be free to choose any Madhab acceptable to him. However, once the choice is made he will be obliged to remain steadfast on the Madhab of his choice. In cases where it is difficult to act in accordance with one’s Madhab due to a dearth of Ulama of one’s Madhab; moreover for the one who is not an Aalim, it will be permissible, in fact compulsory, to adopt the Madhab which happens to be predominant in the place where one happens to be. For a person in such circumstances Taqleed-us-Shakhsi of his former Madhab will not be compulsory. He will be obliged to choose from the four madhaaib the madhab which is dominant in his particular circumstance. However, such cases are rare. The general rule in force is the wujub of Taqleed-us-Shakhsi. The Disease Of Admut-Taqleed Admut-taqleed (abandonment of taqleed) is a disease spread by Shaitaan. Shaitaan’s plot is always to destroy the Deen and the best and the most effective way to achieve this evil aim is to negate the concept of taqleed. The Sunnah is inextricably interwoven into the fabric of taqleed. Once a man abandons taqleed of the Madhabs he is left with no guidance other than the deviation of his nafs. While he pretends to possess the ability to formulate the Shari'ah directly from the Qur’aan and Hadith, he can venture no further than picking and choosing from the various opinions and rulings of the illustrious Imaams. In so doing, he follows the base desires of his nafs. Once the authority of the Aimmah-e-Mujtahideen has been shrugged off, the Muslim is cut off from his Imaani moorings. He will then drift in the ocean of deception and desire which shaitaan has prepared for him. Admut-taqleed is thus a fatal spiritual disease which can lead to the destruction of one’s Imaan. The Sunnah In the present time the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jama’ah is confined to the four Madhabs. Whoever searches for the path of the Sunnah beyond the confines of the four Madhabs will deviate in to Baa’til. Since every teaching of the four Madhabs is the Qur’aan and the Sunnah, deviation therefrom is to deviate from the Sunnah. Those who deviate from the Sunnah are destined for Jahannum according to the explicit pronouncement of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam who said: ""Bani Israael split into seventy-two sects. My Ummat will split into seventy-three sects. All of which, save one, will be in the fire"" When he was asked regarding the sects which will be saved from the fire Rasulullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam said: ""That path on which I and my Sahaabah are."" Salvation (Najaat) in the hereafter (Aakhirah) therefore depends on donning the mantle of Taqleed. We should strive to ensure our safety from the ingeniously subtle designs of Shaitaan to drag us with him into eternal punishment." 28,"The Sharee Role of Taqleed",5377,637,636,"The essence of guidance is derived from the Holy Quran - ""Hudan li al-Nas"" (""A Guidance for Mankind). But this guidance and its laws are based on fundamental principles, the details of which have been entrusted to and consigned by the Holy Prophet PBUH The essence of guidance is derived from the Holy Quran - ""Hudan li al-Nas"" (""A Guidance for Mankind). But this guidance and its laws are based on fundamental principles, the details of which have been entrusted to and consigned by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) in order to explain them to mankind. For example, the Holy Qurãn says: ""Aqimus-Salaat"" (""establish prayer""). It does not define the method as to how the prayer should be established; how the various postures should be performed; the mode of recitation of Surah, etc. The complete method of prayer i.e. ""Salaat"" is explained by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). 1. ""Wa 'Atuz-Zakat"" (""And give charity""). Now the Zakaat amounts payable on gold, silver, cattle, land, produce, etc. are only known through the Ahadith and there is no mention of it in the Holy Qurãn. 2. ""Wa Lillahi `ala an-Nas Hij Al-baiti"" (""It is obligatory on people to perform the Hajj of the House of Allah.) Here again, the method of Tawaf, the number of circumambulations, the details regarding Arafat, Mina, Muzdalifah, the stoning at the Jimar, etc. have all been explained by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). Thus it becomes imperative to understand the Holy Qurãn in the light of the Ahadith even for major obligatory acts like Salaat, Zakat and Hajj without which it is impossible to act and understand the commands of the Holy Qurãn. The believers are commanded to attain guidance from the Holy Qurãn in accordance with the details explained by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). Therefore Allah specifies: ""Whosoever obeys the Messenger has indeed obeyed Allah."" This obedience to the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) would in reality be obedience to Allah Himself. A direction from the Hadith informs us: ""Also perform your prayer just as you see me perform my prayer."" (Bukhari Vol. 1, p. 1076) It is not said: ""Perform your prayer in the manner you may infer from the Holy Qurãn."" Hadith is divided into different categories:- 1. The sayings of the Holy prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam), 2. The acts and doings of the Holy prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam), 3. The sayings, acts and doings of others, approved by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). All these categories of Ahadith give guidance to the Ummah. Qiyas When the Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) was asked a question he answered and also counter-questioned the questioner, on a similar (analogical) matter, the answer of which was known to him. On the correct reply being given by the questioner, the Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) would say: ""The question you had asked is in the same category as this answer of yours."" EXAMPLE: A lady once asked: ""Hajj was obligatory on my mother but she passed away. Can I perform it on her behalf?"" The Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) replied: ""Yes, it would be accepted on her behalf. Tell me, if your mother had a debt would you pay it."" She replied in the affirmative. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said: ""Fulfill what is on her behalf. Certainly, the duty and right of Allah would be more acceptable."" This kind of reasoning is called Qiyas, Ijtihaad, or Istimbat in Shari`a. These are only used in Shari`a when the Qurãnic or Traditional directives are not specifically spelt out. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) sent Hadrat Mu`adh ibn Jabal (Radhiyallaahu Ánhu) as a Governor and Qaadhi to Yemen. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) gave to Hadrat Mu`adh many instructions and advices even while he held the reins and led the horse with Hadrat Mu`adh mounted on it. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) also asked: ""By which law would you dispense justice."" He replied: ""By the Law of the Holy Qurãn."" ""And if you do not find it (i.e. what you seek) in the Holy Qurãn."" He replied: ""By the Prophetic Traditions."" ""And if you do not find it in there also, then!"" He replied: ""Then I would make Ijtihad."" The Holy Prophet, (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) expressed his happiness with his reply and fully endorsed and supported his stand and thanked Allah for it. (Abu Daawud Vol 2. p. 149) When after such an Ijtihad all the scholars agree to its conclusion, it is termed ""Ijma"", for it must be understood that Qiyas or Ijtihad does not prove an order or command; it only makes it evident and known. It was hidden in the Holy Qurãn or the Ahadith; the Mujtahid, by Dalalatan, 'Isharatan or Iqtdha'an, brought it in the open for the generality of people. The person who does not have the power of Ijtihad is bound and compelled to follow a Mujtahid and this act of following a Mujtahid is termed Taqlid. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) sent Hadrat Mu`adh ibn Jabal as Qadi so that people could act upon his instructions and guidance derived from the Holy Qurãn, the Ahadith and his Ijtihad. To accept all three would in reality be obedience to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) as mentioned in Mishkãt Sharif (p. 310). Hadhrat Abu Hurayrah (Radhiyallaahu Ánhu) reported that the Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, ""Who has obeyed me, has obeyed Allah and who was disobedient to me has been disobedient to Allah and who obeyed the Amir was obedient to me and who was disobedient to the Amir has been disobedient to me."" Precepts, Propositions and their Kinds Masa'il or precepts are of four kinds:- 1. Clear instructions from the Holy Qurãn and Ahadith. No Qiyas is allowed nor Taqlid permissible. The order is to practice on the clear injunction. 2. In such propositions where there are two injunctions, one earlier, and one later, and through historical evidence both renown, then the earlier proposition is abrogated (Mansukh), whilst the latter command is ordered. Here too Qiyas and Taqlid ~ not permitted. 3. Those propositions that have two clear injunctions but it is not known which is earlier and which later, i.e. no historical evidence. 4. Those propositions of which there exist no clear injunctions. Propositions 1 (and 2) are clear. the last two (Propositions 3 and 4) need explanations. Since 3 and 4 are not clear, what must a person do? If he does not practice upon them, he is yet not allowed to go free. The Qurãnic verses state: ""Is man under the notion that he will be left free?""' ""Do you think that you have been created in vain?"" It is not so, you have to obey Allah's command every second. Now how are we going to obey when it is not known, which is abrogated and which is not. In the fourth kind of proposition when one has no knowledge what is he going to practice on? Allah says: ""Do not practice on anything without knowledge:"" Thus the need of Qiyas and Ijtihad. In the third kind of proposition the need is to verify the clear injunction and in the fourth kind it is to find a clear order and command. This is a known fact that everybody does not have the ability or power to make Ijtihad and this verse also makes it clear. Everybody makes claims of giving opinions but only that ruling is accepted which is in accordance with Shar`iah and of a Mujtahid. The verdict of a Muqallid will not be accepted. The Mujtahid makes Ijtihad while the Muqallid makes Taqlid. Even if the Mujtahid makes a mistake he is rewarded as mentioned in Bukhari, Vol. 1 p. I1092. Here exists a doubt that there were many Mujtahids among the Sahaaba (Radhiyallaahu Ánhum), the Tabi`in and Tabi` Tibi`n; But only the ‘I'ima 'Arba` i.e. Imaam Abu Hanifah, Imam Maalik, Imam Shaafi`i and Imam Ahmad (Rahmatullaahi Álayhim) are followed and Taqlid made of them. What Is wrong in following the Sahaaba (Radhiyallaahu Ánhum) whose virtues have been abundantly mentioned in the Holy Qurãn and the Ahadith? There is no doubt that the Sahaaba (Radhiyallaahu Ánhum) have a far greater status and position than the I'ima Arba`a does not make Taqlid of any one of the I'ima Arba` ever thinking them to be greater than the Sahaaba but its simple reason is that for Taqlid it is necessary to know those injunctions in which Taqlid has to be made. The detailed knowledge which can be found in every section and chapter from Kitaab- at-Taharat to Kitab al-Fara'idh, whether it concerns acts of worship, or social and cultural aspects, in every department of knowledge, these were the first and only 'I’ima that gathered them all in every detail. They were schools of knowledge in their own right that codified knowledge in every field. We do not find such codification either of the Sahaaba or other Tabi`in. The only choice we have is to follow them. It must also be borne in mind that Allah had bestowed on them the perfection of knowledge of the Holy Qurãn and the Ahadith. It is said by Shah Waliullah (Rahmatullaahu Álayhi) in the commentary of Muwatta' Imaam Malik, p.6 that these four Imaams together have encompassed the entire knowledge of the Holy Qurãn and Ahaadith to such a degree that not a single Hadith which was reported by the Sahaaba was omitted by them. Clarification is further required regarding another doubt in most minds: What is the necessity of making Taqlid of only one Imaam? One should be allowed to follow any of the four Imaams in the different Masa'il as was the method in the time of the Sahaaba and Tabi`in. Mazhab was not confined to a single Imam. Why must such concessions not be allowed in our times? In the time of the Sahaaba, which was the best of times, there was no ulterior motives regarding religious questions. A question was asked to know the correct method and to practice on it. It was not asked for one's convenience as in later times. For example, A person with Wudhu touched his wife which according to the Shafi Mazhab nullifies Wudhu: Now when he is told to make Wudhu, he replies: ""I make Taqlid of Imaam Abu Hanifah and it is not a breaker of Wudhu according to his Mazhab, therefore my Salaat will be valid."" Now this person vomits, which according to Hanafi Mazhab, breaks Wudhu. He is now told to make Wudhu. He replies: ‘I make Taqlid of Imam Shafi`i; it is not a nullifier of Wudhu, therefore my Salaat is valid’. If this person (who has on the one hand, touched his spouse, and on the other hand, vomited) has to perform his Salaat with such a Wudhu, it would neither be correct by Imaam Abu Hanifah nor by Imam Shafi`i. In terminology this is known as Talfiq which is agreed upon unanimously to be void and not permitted. This is not Taqlid but following one’s passions and desires for one’s personal convenience which lead one astray. The necessity of following a Mazhab, Imam or Mujtahid is that one would not fall into the temptations of following one's own desires. The Holy Qurãn states: ‘And do not follow desires. You would be led astray from the path of Allah."" Thus the need of following only one Imam. For centuries we have heard of great scholars, jurists, ‘Ulama’ and Auliya who had the treasures of knowledge, who were in their personal capacities libraries with encyclopedic knowledge. Their piety constituted perfect examples in emulation of the Sahaaba. Their entire life was spent in accordance with the Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). They also followed the 'I'ima Arba’` and it would not be incorrect to say that it was because of this Taqlid that they attained the heights of perfection. Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqh) is confined to the four schools. Those that do not confirm to any one of them are called Ahle Hadith or Ghair Muqallid. Jamiat KZN" 29,"Why Follow one Imam of Fiqh",5378,637,636,"According to the Shariat it means to unconditionally accepting the view of a reliable, proper, authentic person in matters pertaining to Deen - Religion. The meaning of Taqleed According to the Shariat it means to unconditionally accepting the view of a reliable, proper, authentic person in matters pertaining to Deen - Religion. These days the one who follows any of the Mazhabs of the four great Imams of Jurisprudence, Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A) (80 - 150 A.H ); Imam Idris Shafi (R.A) (150 - 240 A.H); Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (R.A) (164 - 241 A.H ); Imaam Malik (R.A) is classified and termed Muqaleed. Those who do not adhere to any of the four famous Mazhabs call themselves ghair Muqaleed or Ahle - Hadith or in some areas Salafi. The use of the word Imam The word Imam as per the ideology explained by the Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat refers to the one who is an acclaimed, confirmed, reliable, proper and reputed scholar, guide and authority in Islaam. It does not refer to as some claim, to the person who receives Divine Revelation, or one who is Masoom (innocent) or one who can make Halaal - Haraam or vise versa or one who can abrogate the rules and regulation of Islaam, etc (Allaah protect us from such false beliefs which are kufr in nature). The meaning of Mazhab Those who are viciously preaching against Taqleed pose this question to simple minded Muslims viz :- Are you Muhammadi or Hanafi ? The listener is completely confused and perplexed failing to realise that the Question itself is wrong. If someone has to ask, is it Monday or January ? Is this question in itself valid ? If someone has to ask, do you live in Durban (a city in KwaZulu Natal province) or Gauteng (another province) ? Is this question valid ? Note both these are invalid questions. One is supposed to ask to ask is it Friday or Saturday (this day or that day - not this day in comparison to a month). On both sides of the equation there should be days e.g. Monday or Friday ? or both options must be concerning months e.g. is it March or April? Then the question is valid otherwise not and thus misleading. Thus the question supposed to be , are you Hanafi or Shafi or Maaliki or Hanbali or are you Muhammadi (follower of Islaam) or a Jew , a Hindu or a Christian? Be cautious of this deception. By adhering to any of the four Mazhabs one will be in the Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat. The four Mazhabs are from the>Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat. A summary of what Hadhrat Shah Waliullaah (R.A) states in Fayoosul Haramain (p. 48) I. Taqleeed was prevalent in the blessed era of the Sahaabah (R.A) and the Tabieen (R.A) without objection. II. To follow the Mazhab -e- Araba (Hanafi, Maalik. Shafi. Hanbali) is following the ASawad -e- Aazam (the Lofty group of Truth), and to go outside the circle of Mazhab -e- Araba tantamount to going out of the ASawad -e- Aazam, which is misleading. III. After the second century. Taqleed of one person had commenced. IV. This was a result of Ilhaam (inspiration). V. It is Waajib upon the Ummat to make Taqleed of ONE of the Mazhab -e- Araba. VI. Taqleed is Waajib upon a non- Mujtahid. VII. There is religious wisdom, and many benefits in making Taqleed of one person. VIII. I was advised by Rasulullaah (S.A.W) to stay within one of the Mazhab -e- Araba. IX. Mazhab -e- Hanafia is in accordance with the Sunnah, the testimony of which Nabi (S.A.W) himself gave. X. For the common man (non - Muqalid) it is Haraam to discard Taqleed for it begins the exit from the Circle of Islaam. Who are the Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat ? Around us we see groups calling themselves by various names, Ahle - Quraan, Ahle - Hadith, Ghair Muqaleed, Salafi, Shia, Qadiani, Bidati, Zikri, and so on. Some in the fold of Islaam others definitely out of the fold of Islaam. Some have not entered Islaam, let alone to be then taken out of the fold of Islaam. Those adhering to any of the above stated are not in the Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat. All names of grouping have been derived and stipulated by their respective leaders and followers, only the name >Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat has been specified and chosen for the Ahle - Haqq - The adherers of Truth by Nabi (S.A.W) himself. In the commentary on the ayat that on the Day of Judgement, Athe faces of those with Imaan will brighten up (shine) Hadhrat Ibn Abass (R.A) narrates from Rasulullaah (S.A.W) that : Athose are the Ahle Sunnat . (Al - Kamil Libn Askiri Vol. 4 P.62) In the tragedy of Karballa when Hadhrat Hassan (R.A) - the grandson of Nabi (S.A.W), who at that time was 63 years old, was surrounded and water supply was prevented from reaching him. Then he gave a sermon in which he clearly mentioned his plight and that Rasulullaah (S.A.W) stated; i. Hassan and Hussain are the coolness of the eyes of Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat and ii. Hassan and Hussain are the leaders of the youth in Janaat of Ahle Sunnat (Al - Kamil Libn Askiri Vol. 4 P.62) Thus when the name Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaa is chosen by Nabi (S.A.W), then one automatically knows the status, position and results of the other groups. The Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat are those conforming to the; 1. The Quraan 2. The Sunnat 3. Qiyas (deduction by Shari analogy) 4. Ijma ( Consensus of the opinion). The accusations of the ghair -Muqaleeds. The ghair Muqaleeds in their frenzy and frantic utterances state that the Muqaleeds are Bidattis, indulging in Shirk and Kufr. They even go to the extent of criticizing and abusing the illustrious Imams of Jurisprudence, especially Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A). Ibn Tayimah (R.A) states that the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat are those who follow the Nass (Kitaab and Sunna) and Ijma. (Minhaj - Sunnat Vol.3 P.272) Sunnat or Hadith ? The ghair Muqaleeds also try to cause confusion amongst the simple ignorant masses by quickly questioning, are you following the Hadith of Rasulullaah(S.A.W) or Sunnat ? The listener is made to believe that; 1. that the AHadith only is from Rasululaah (S.A.W) by leaving out the word ARasulullaah (S.A.W) Aafter Sunnat ; the correct question should be, do you follow Hadith of Rasulullaah(S.A.W) or Sunnat of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) ? 2. that the Sunnat is something else. So if he says Sunnat, the simple listener feels he may be disrespecting and discarding Hadith of Nabi (S.A.W). Whereas one must fully understand; 1. that the Sunnan of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) contains the Ahadith (sing- Hadith); 2. that the Hadith does not encompasses the entire Sunnat of Rasulullaah (S.A.W); 3. that by acting only on the Hadith one will not be acting on a complete Deen ; 4. that by acting only on the Sunnan one will act on the complete Deen. Understand the above well and do not be misled. Sunnan first ? or Ahadith first ? or Mazhab first ? The ghair Muqaleeds claims that by adhering to any of the Mazhabs one is not following the Ahadith and the many ignorant amongst them proclaim that by following the Sunnat one discards the Ahadith. This is the result of ignorance mixed with arrogance. Once one understands the carnological (historical) sequence of law making, codification of rules, systematising of principles of jurisprudence, compilation of Ahadith,etc then one will easily comprehend what came first and why. Nabi (S.A.W) preached, propagated the Deen. The principles of Deen were completed, perfected in the era and time of Nabi (S.A.W). Islaam was chosen as the Deen approved by Allaah. Today I have completed for you the Deen, and competed My favour upon you and chosen Al - Islaam as your Deen. (5/3) In the sight of Allaah only Islaam is accepted (13/19) Nabi (S.A.W) left behind the Kitaabullaah and the Sunnat (Mustadrakh Hakim Vol.1. p.93) and the Sahaabah (companions) who were living examples of Islaam. Whom Allaah is happy with (Surah Taubah- 100) and Rasulullaah (S.A.W) classified them as criterion for Islaam and non- Islaam, good or bad, truth or false etc - Hold fast to my Sunnat and the Sunnat of the Khulafa Rashedeen (Mustadrak - vol 1. P. 96) (Tirmidhi vol.2 p.92) (Ibn Maja p. 5 ) (Abu Dawwod vol.2 p. 279). In another it is recorded, wa Hiyyal Jamaat, (Abu Dawood - Vol 2. P 275), (Mustadrak Vol 1. P 128.) My Sahaabah are like stars whomsoever you follow, you will be rightly guided. (Mishkat p. 554) Islaam began to spread far and wide. Thus two periods past, the period of Nabi (S.A.W) and the period of Sahaabah.(R.A) During the latter time of the Sahaabah (R.A), Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A) grew up and met Sahaabah (R.A) also. In this era, the compilation of jurisprudence, the systematic settings of laws, rules, regulations, on every subject of Deen, the arguments of jurisprudic principles were codified -( later completed by his students and the other Imams of Fiqh ( jurisprudence)) - the deliberation of every aspect of life, be it political, social, economical, took place. All this was done in the light of Quraan and Sunnan - because Sahaabah (R.A) and Tabieen (followers of the Sahaabah (R.A)) were daily narrating Ahaadith and reading Quraan. This was not done from here say or from the air, or by following whims and fancies as the ghair Muqaleeds propagate viciously. In the time of Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A), a chosen group of 40 top ranking Ulema should discuss, deliberate and contemplate each law, rule and regulation before it was noted in registers. Deliberation from every angle would take place to reach decisions.+- 1.3 million Masail were listed. The other great Imams of Fiqh followed. (See table A) At this stage there was no official compilation of Ahaadith. TABLE A HADHRAT IMAAM HANIFA (R.A) 80 AH - 150 AH HADHRAT IMAAM MAALIK (R.A) 91 AH - 177 AH HADHRAT IMAAM SHAAFI (R.A) 150 AH - 204 AH HADHRAT IMAAM HANBAL (R.A) 164 AH - 241 AH Then, the Imams (Authorities) on Ahaadith began their tedious, tremendous and marvellous task of compilation and codification of the Ahaadith. (See table B) TABLE B IMAAM BUKHARI (R.A) 194 A.H - 256 A.H IMAAM MUSLIM (R.A) 204 A.H - 261 A.H IMAAM IBN MAJA (R.A) 209 A.H - 273 A.H IMAAM ABU DAUD (R.A) 202 A.H - 275 A.H IMAAM TIRMIDHI (R.A) 209 A.H - 279 A.H IMAAM NISAI (R.A) 215 A.H - 303 AH Thus we see and observe 4 periods 1. The era of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) 2. The era of Sahaabah (R.A) 3. The era of Imams of Fiqh (R.A) 4. The era of Imams of Ahaadith (R.A) There were many Imams of Fiqh but four survived. These four reached us because firstly, they were codified properly, secondly they had students prepared to continue the transmission of the 4 Mazhabs, thirdly Allaah desired so, fourthly the 4 Mazhabs contain the entire life of Rasulullaah (S.A.W). Once proper classification, codification and systemisation of the laws compiled by an Imam of jurisprudence took place, then a Mazhab came into existence named after its founder. Thus the Sunnat came first followed by the Mazhabs which elucidate and explained the Sunnat in detail, then the complication of the Ahaadith. (Allaah reward each group as they deserve, Allaah is All Knowing.) Questions to confuse The Ghair Muqaleeds raise many questions so forcefully that the lay man becomes bewildered and confused. These are 1. Show me Taqleed in the Quraan ? 2. Show me Taqleed in the Hadith ? 3. Show me Taqleed in the time of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) ? 4. Show me Taqleed in the time of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) ? 5. Show me Taqleed in the time of Hadhrat Umar (R.A) ? 6. Show me Taqleed in the time of Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) ? 7. Show me Taqleed in the time of Hadhrat Ali (R.A) ? 8. Which Mazhabs did the Sahaabah (R.A) follow ? 9. Hadhrat Mahdi will follow which Mazhab ? 10. Hadhrat Isa (A.S) will follow which Mazhab ? The common man on hearing these becomes dumb founded and now begins to doubt his adherence to any Mazhab. We will Insha - Allaah, step by step answer all the above. Read carefully, memorise well and remember that the Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat are on Haqq (Truth). We will provide basically two examples of each. For further information see our first book. i.e. ATaqleed made Easy. Taqleed in the Quraan 1. Allaah says - I ask the people who know, if (when) you do not know. (Nahl - 43/ambiyaa). This is the general rule in every walk of life. Moreover, when one is sick then one does not go to the mechanic, also when the car requires repairs one does not go to the doctor to have it attended to. There is a broad division of separation of responsibility. These days we know that heart patients go to the cardiologist, whilst the orthopaedic surgeon attends to bone problems, while the paediatrician cares for the ailments of children. So in one field of medicine, there is also further specialisation. Thus the cardiologist will not do the work of the orthopaedic surgeon and so on. Similarly in the field of Deen one cannot go to anyone or every one. One cannot place reliance on the ignorant and blind to lead the way. Deen is more important, for it means either success or disaster in this world and the Aakhiraat. The piety, righteousness, reliability, authoritive nature and Ilm of the Imams of Jurisprudence is acclaimed and proven beyond a shadow of doubt. We, Muqaleeds, have placed our confidence in the fields of Ilm, as per instruction of the Quraan Aask the people of knowledge (who know), if you do not (know), i.e. Athe Imams of Jurisprudence. 2. Allaah says : A follow and obey Allaah and obey the Rasul, and those in authority amongst you. (Nisaa - 89) The commentators of the Quraan state concerning those in authority amongst you that.. 1. In the best of times the rulers of the Muslim empire were also the supreme authority in Deeni affairs also, like the rule of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A), Hadhrat Umar (R.A), Hadhrat Uthmaan (R.A), Hadhrat Ali (R.A), Hadhrat Muawiya (R.A). They ruled as political administrators of the empire and their decisions concerning Islaamic Deeni matters were decisive and conclusive. 2. However due to the rulers becoming less knowledgeable in Deen, two separate departments arose; a.) one for the rulers who controlled the political infra structure; b.) one for Ulema who gave direction in every aspect of the empire and provided religious guidelines to the ruled and rulers. 3. Nevertheless, the authorities in Deen were held higher in status and position than the rulers. The decision of the Ulema will be final to all, the ruled and the rulers. (Vol. 2 p. 210 - Akaam ul Quraan Abu Bakr Jassass). Allaah is ordering us to obey the authorities in Deen. In both ayats, Allaah is not ordering us to commit kufr, shirk and bidat. So the concept to follow anyone other than Allaah and His Rasul (S.A.W) is kufr, etc is definitely false. Taqleed in the Ahaadith 1. Nabi (S.A.W) when mentioning the group on Salvation stated Athat which I am upon and that which my Sahaabah (companions) are upon. (Maktubat -e- Imam -e- Rabbani vol.1 p. 102 ; Tirmidhi Vol2. P89 ; Mustadrak Vol1 P 129; Mishkaat Vol 1 P 20). Here Nabi (S.A.W) is classifying the Acriterions for salvation in all the worlds as the Sahaabah (R.A). They should be followed. By following them no kufr, shirk, bidat is committed. Besides following only Allaah and His Rasul, adherence to others is proven. 2. Nabi (S.A.W) said to a woman who enquired that on his demise who should she follow. The blessed reply was Abu Bakr. (Mishkhat vol.2. p.555, Muslim vol.2 p. 273, Bhukhari vol. 1. p. 516) On further enquiry she was told to follow Umar after Abu Bakr. 3. Follow Abu Bakr and Umar after me. said Rasulullaah (S.A.W) - (Tirmidhi vol.2 p. 207, Ibn Maja p.10 , Mustadrak vol.3 p.75, Mishkaat Vol 2 p 50, Musnad Ahmed Vol 5 P 38). 4. I am pleased for you concerning that thing which Abdullaah bin Masood is pleased with stated Nabi (S.A.W). (Mustadrakh. Vol.2 p.319) The Taqleed of Abdullaah bin Masood (R.A) is called for by Nabi (S.A.W). The basis of Hanafi Fiqh is Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Masood (R.A) Is Nabi (S.A.W) ordering his Ummat towards kufr, shirk, bidat. (Allaah forbid and save us from the ignorant ones.) Taqleed in the life time of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) 1. When Hadhrat Maaz ibn Jabal (R.A) was sent to Yemen (Abu Dawood, vol.2. p. 149, Majmal Zawaid - vol.2 p. 451, Bukhari - vol. 2 p.997), then the people of Yemen followed him, made his Taqleed in all matters. Matters pertaining to mundane affairs and issues concerning devotional practices also. Definitely rules and principles of Deen were not completed by then. So Hadhrat Maaz(R.A) utilized the facility of deduction by analogy within the Shariat, which the ghair Muqaleeds deny and reject. Whilst Hadhrat Maaz (R.A) was in Yemen and if a new problem or situation arose, how was the decision made? In those days there was no sound transmission system, hi-tec transmitters, radios, satellite, e mail, cell - phones to contact Masjid -e- Nabawi (S.A.W) . Did the people of Yemen commit kufr, shirk, bidat by making Taqleed of Hadhrat Maaz bin Jabal (R.A)? Did Nabi (S.A.W) send Hadhrat Maaz (R.A) so that the people be involved in kufr, shirk, bidat ? This Taqleed was taking place in the life time of Nabi (S.A.W). 2. Similarly, Nabi (S.A.W) sent Hadhrat Musaib bin Umayr (R.A) as the first teacher to Madinah at the request of the Madinates after the pledge of Aqaba. (His grave lies along that of Hadhrat Hamza (R.A) in the graveyard of Uhud). Whist Hadhrat Musaib (R.A) was in Madinah, who did the people follow? Did Nabi (S.A.W) send Hadhrat Musaib (R.A) to teach and to be followed or just to teach ? How could Hadhrat Musaib (R.A) contact Nabi (S.A.W) in Makkah if a new situation arose ? Did Nabi (S.A.W) send Hadhrat Musaib (R.A) so that the people of Madinah may indulge in kufr, shirk, bidat ? Did the people of Madinah, by making the Taqleed of Hadhrat Musaib commit kufr, shirk, bidat ? This also took place in the lifetime of Nabi (S.A.W). In both cases, we observe Taqleed being made of another person during the lifetime of Nabi (S.A.W), let alone after his demise. TAQLEED OF THE FOUR IMAAMS QUESTION Did Rasulullaah (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) give an order to follow any of the four Imaams of Mazhab? What an erroneous question! The question should be phrased thus Which proof from amongst the four valid proofs in the Shariah indicates making Taqleed of any of the four Imaams? From where did the leader of the Mas`oodi sect concoct such an silly and ignorant question? Firstly, one should understand the following: the basis of the Rawaafidh (Shia) sects Aqeedah (beliefs) is that their chosen Imaams are from Allaah Ta`ala, just as the Ambiyaa (alaihi salaam) are chosen by Allaah Ta`ala. The question put to them from the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat, is AJust as the names and mantles of prophethood of the Ambiyaa are clearly given in the Qur`an Shareef and Ahadith, similarly, you should prove from the Qur`aan Shareef and Ahadith the mantle of Imaamat of your twelve Imaams, which you claim to have been given by Allaah Ta`ala. This question of the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat is completely correct and appropriate, because it is in conformity to their claim. However, the Rawaafidhis are 100% helpless in presenting an answer to this question, and they will remain helpless until the day of Qiyaamah, Insha-Allaahul Azeez. Now, to hide their inability in presenting an answer to the question, they present such silly counter-questions, such as You show us your proof of making Taqleed of the four Imaams! This question is completely inappropriate, because the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat does not hold belief in the four Imaam Imaams as do the Shias of their twelve Imaams. Nevertheless, the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat says to them: AYour question is based on lies. Firstly, you should prove from our reliable Kitaabs that we believe that the four Imaams are also chosen by Allaah Ta`ala. However, they cannot substantiate their false claim. Their question has no relevance to our claim. The founder of the Mas`oodi sect also held similar beliefs as the Rawaafidhis, that the Imaams are chosen by Allaah Ta`ala, hence he seeks from us proof for the four Imaams from Qur`aan Shareef and Ahadith. Our reply to him is the same as it is to the Rawaafidhis: AFirstly you should prove, from our reliable Kitaabs, that we hold the same beliefs regarding our Imaams as you hold regarding your twelve Imaams. Since your belief is that the twelve Imaams are specially chosen by Allaah Ta`ala, it follows that, you must be able to present reliable proof from the Qur`aan Shareef and Ahadith that they are as such and that an order has been given for us to follow them and accept them. Also, those whom you (Ghair Muqalliddeen) accept as being (valid) Imaams, like Imaams Abdullaah bin Mubarak, Shafi, Daar Qutni, Baihaqi, Ahmed bin Hambal, Yahya bin Adam, Abu Haatim and Haakim (rahmatullahi alaihim), in which Hadith has Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) given an order to follow them? If rejection of Taqleed is based on this premise, that Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) has not expressly sanctioned the Imaams, then tell us, the seven different types of Qiraat of the Qur`aan Shareef, which is accepted throughout the Islaamic world; in which authentic Hadith are all these different types and their correct recitals stated? If anyone from your sect has an eighth Qiraat, then present an authentic Hadith, which has an unbroken chain of narrators to substantiate it. Or are you going to reject the recital of the Qur`aan Shareef also upon this principle of yours? If rejection of Taqleed is based on this premise, that the names of the four Imaams are not stated in any Hadith, then tell us, does the names of Imaams Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood, Nisai and Ibn Maajah (rahmatullahi alaihim), appear in any of these six Authentic Kitaabs of Hadith? If not, then according to your logic, these personalities and their Kitaabs should also be rejected. Show us from an authentic Hadith, that Rasulullaah (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) has forbidden the following of the four Imaams of Fiqh. TAQLEED DURING THE ERA OF THE SAHABAH (radhiAllaahu anhum) AND THE TAABI`EEN (rahmatullahi alaihim) QUESTION Whose Taqleed did the Muslims that existed prior to Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullahi alaihi) make? ANSWER: And it is not (proper) for the believers to go out to fight (Jihaad) all together. Of every troop of them, a party should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may get instructions in (Islaamic) religion, and that they may warn their people when they return to them, so that they may beware (of evil). [Surah Tawbah, Aayat 122] From this Aayat of the Qur`aan Shareef, we note that Allaah Ta`ala deemed it inappropriate that all the Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum) go out for Jihaad. From every group amongst them, a few must remain behind and acquire Deeni knowledge. When the others (who went out on the Jihaad expedition) return, then those who remained behind, should educate them. In this Aayat, the word Taa`ifah (group), could apply to one person, two persons or many people. And Taa`ifah is a noun which refers to one, two or more. [Noorul Anwaar, page 177]. The second word in this Aayat, is Fiqh. Its meaning is A to split open [Kasshaaf/ Shaami]. That is to open up the meanings. Some Masaa`il are such that the meaning and import is clearly denoted in the literal text, whereas some Masaa`il are such that their meaning and import is to be extracted by analogy and investigation. It is apparent that there existed two groups from amongst the Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum). One was the small group of Fuqaha, which comprised of some persons from each tribe. They acquired the knowledge of Fiqh and imparted it to others. Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) used to encourage this group by saying: AHe for whom Allaah Ta`ala wishes good, HE grants him Fiqh (understanding) in Deen. [Bukhari]. For whoever Allaah Ta`ala wishes good, HE makes that person a Faqhi. A Faqhi is one who makes Ijtihaad and Istinbaat (analogy and investigation). A Faqhi is not a Nabi nor is he sinless. Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) used to encourage them and say that they were receiving reward from Allaah Ta`ala in all conditions. If they were correct in their judgements, then they would receive double reward and if they erred then they would receive one reward. [Bukhari]. Therefore what reason was there for them to fear? There was another large group of Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum) who remained in the service and presence of Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam). Rasulullaah (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) used to send these Faqhis into their tribes and their people used to ask Mas`ala Masaa`il from them. This is called TAQLEED. There appear thousands of Masaa`il and Fataawa from these Fuqaha Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum), which are reported in Kitaabs such as AMusannif Abdur Razzaaq, AIbn Abi Shaibah, etc. In these Kitaabs only the Mas`alas are reported. No mention is made of the proofs. There were also no objectors or sceptics to these Masaa`il. All these Masaa`il are reported with numerous narrators from amongst the Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum). It is therefore apparent that even the Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum) consented and approved these Masaa`il. TAQLEED was practised during the era of the Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum), and there was not a single Ghair Muqallid. It is ascertained from the kitaabs of history that at least one person was sent from every tribe to acquire knowledge, and the entire tribe would seek Fataawa and rulings from this one person. This is known as TAQLEED-E-SHAKHSI. Hadhrat Shah Waliullaah (rahmatullahi alaih) states: AThe Sahabah and Taabi`een were not all of the same rank and standing. In fact some of them were Mujtahid and others were Muqallid. [Qurratul Ainain, page 251]. Rasulullaah (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) sent Hadhrat Ma`aaz (radhiAllaahu anhu) to Yemen, where he applied Ijtihaad to solve many Masaa`il. The entire population of Yemen, made TAQLEED-E-SHAKHSI of Hadhrat Ma`aaz (radhiAllaahu anhu). There is absolutely no record of any person who was a Ghair Muqallid at that time or someone who objected to this set-up. Whenever Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiAllaahu anhu) gave a Fatwa, he made it clear that it was his Ijtihaad and view [Jaami`u Bayaanul Ilm, page 51, vol.2]. The people followed these rulings of Hadhrat Siddeeq-e-Akbar (radhiAllaahu anhu). This is known as TAQLEED. There is no mention made in any Kitaab about even one objector or rejecter of this. Hadhrat Umar (radhiAllaahu anhu) also gave Fataawa from his Ijtihaad and view [Mizaanul Kubra Li Sha`rani, page 49, vol.1]. He sent a message to his judges that they also make Ijtihaad when passing a ruling (which was not clearly found in the Qur`aan Shareef, Ahadith or amongst the senior Sahabah) [Jaami`u Bayaanul Ilm, page 56, vol.2]. There is no mention made in any Kitaab about even one objector or rejecter of this. Hadhrat Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu anhu) took pledge of Khilaafat, on the condition that he follow (make TAQLEED) of the previous Khalifahs. [Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar, page 79]. Hadhrat Ali (radhiAllaahu anhu) used to say AI am making Ijtihaad on my view. [Ibid]. Hence, many of the Fataawa of the Khulafah-e-Rashideen appear in AMusannif ibn Abi Shaibah, wherein no mention is made of their proofs, nor was there ever any objectors or rejecters, neither did any of the followers seek proof. This is known as TAQLEED. Just as there is no name, mentioned anywhere, of any Ghair Muqallid that existed during the 23 years of Nabuwwat, so too is there no name of any person who was a Ghair Muqallid during the entire 30 years of Khilaafat-e-Raashida. Hadhrat Imaam Ghazali (rahmatullahi alaih) states that TAQLEED is proven from the Ijma of the Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum), because they used to give Fataawa to the masses (for which they provided no proofs). They did not order the masses to make their own Ijtihaad. [Al-Mustasfa, page385, vol.2]. Hadhrat Shah Waliullaah Muhaddith Dehlwi (rahmatullahi alaih) states: Then the Sahabah dispersed into the villages/cities/countries. Each one of them became the Muqtada (one who is followed) of these respective places. He also mentions that these Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum) used to pass Fataawa from their own Ijtihaad and views. [Al-Insaaf, page 3]. The inhabitants of Makkah Mukarrama used to make TAQLEED-E-SHAKHSI of Hadhrat Abdullaah ibn Abbaas (radhiAllaahu anhuma). Many of his Fataawa are listed in AMusannif Abdur Razzaaq and AMusannif Ibn Abi Shaibah. The Fataawa of Hadhrat Zaid bin Thaabit (radhiAllaahu anhu) was followed in Madinah Munawwarah. Whatever Fatwa he gave he used to say: AThis is my view. [Jaami`u Bayaanul Ilm, page 58, vol.2]. The Fataawa of Hadhrat Anas (radhiAllaahu anhu) was followed in Basra. Many of his Fataawa are also stated in AMusannif Abdur Razzaaq and AMusannif Ibn Abi Shaibah, where no proofs are mentioned. The inhabitants of Basra used to follow him to the letter without any objections and they made TAQLEED-E-SHAKHSI of him. The Fataawa of Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Mas`ood (radhiAllaahu anhu) was followed in the Daarul Uloom of Kufa. He used to give Fataawa from the four sources of Fiqh (Adilla Arba`a) [Nisai, page 264]. In most of his rulings he used to say: AI am giving this ruling according to my view. [Jaami`u Bayaanul Ilm, page 58, vol.2]. Many of his Fataawa are mentioned in the Kitaabs of Hadith. His Masaa`il are given without mentioning any proof, and everyone followed him without any objection. This is known as TAQLEED-E-SHAKHSI. The Fataawa of Hadhrat Abu Darda (radhiAllaahu anhu) was followed in Damascus. Whatever Fatwa he gave he used to say: AThis is my view. [Jaami`u Bayaanul Ilm, page 58, vol.2] . Many of his Fataawa are mentioned in the Kitaabs of Hadith. His Masaa`il are given without mentioning any proof. It is evident that the era of the Sahabah and the Taabi`een was an era where Ijtihaad and TAQLEED was the order of the day. There was not even one Ghair Muqallid present in that era. Hadhrat Shah Waliullaah Muhaddith Dehlwi (rahmatullahi alaih) states: From amongst the Taabi`een, every Aalim had his own Mazhab, and he was an Imaam. In every locality an Imaam of a Mazhab was established. [Al-Insaaf, page 6]. That is in every locality, the people followed that Imaam. This is known as TAQLEED-E-SHAKHSI. Hadhrat Shah Waliullaah Muhaddith Dehlwi (rahmatullahi alaih) states: When there was a difference of opinion between the views of the Sahabah or the Taabi`een in any Mas`ala, then every Aalim of a particular locality would make a ruling which was applicable for that particular place. [Ibid, page 7]. This is known as TAQLEED-E-SHAKHSI. During the era of the Taabi`een, many people used to go to Makkah Mukarrama for Hajj. The Khalifah of the time would make the following announcement: ANo one is to pass a Fatwa except these two Imaams (Hadhrat Ata bin Abi Rabaah and Hadhrat Mujaahid (rahmatullahi alaihima). Thousands of the Fataawa passed by these two personalities appear in AMusannif Abdur Razzaaq and AMusannif Ibn Abi Shaibah. There are no proofs which are mentioned with these rulings. All the Taabi`een and the Tab`e Taabi`een (rahmatullahi alaihim) used to practice upon these Masaa`il, without any objection or question. Hadhrat Shah Waliullaah Muhaddith Dehlwi (rahmatullahi alaih) states: AHow could there be any objection to this Taqleed, when the practice of Muslims seeking Fataawa was in practice from the time of Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam). And there is no harm in that Fataawa are always sought from one person only (TAQLEED-E-SHAKHSI), or that Fataawa are sought from others. This practice of seeking Fataawa and practising thereupon, is authenticated by consensus (Ijma). Khalifah Abdul Malik sought the names of the Ulama in the various cities during his era, from Hadhrat Ata and Zuhri (rahmatullahi alaihima). They enumerated the following: I. Hadhrat Ata bin Abi Rabaah in Makkah Mukarrama II. Hadhrat Naafi Mowla ibn Umar in Madinah Munawwarah III. Hadhrat Hassan Basri in Basra IV. Hadhrat Ebrahim Nakha`i in Kufa V. Hadhrat Taawoos in Yemen VI. Hadhrat Yahya bin Abi Katheer in Yamama VII. Hadhrat Makhool in Shaam VIII. Hadhrat Maimoon bin Mehraan in Iraq IX. Hadhrat Dahaak in Khuraasaan These were the Fuqaha of these cities [Ma`rifatul Uloomul Hadith, page 198]. In every city, the inhabitants made TAQLEED of a particular person. Many of their Fataawa, without proofs are mentioned in AMusannif Abdur Razzaaq and AMusannif Ibn Abi Shaibah. It is apparent that these personalities gave Fataawa without explaining the reasons and proofs thereof. Their followers practised thereupon without seeking any proofs. This is known as TAQLEED-E-SHAKHSI. Hadhrat Shah Waliullaah Dehlwi (rahmatullahi alaih) reports from Sheikh Izzud Deen bin Abdus Salaam (Rahmatullahi alaih): AAll the people from the time of the Sahabah until the era of the four Imaams used to make TAQLEED, and no prominent and reliable person ever objected to this. If this (TAQLEED) was Baatil (false), then the Sahabah or the Taabi`een would most surely have objected to it.2 [Aqdul Jayyid, page 36]. Imaam Muzni (rahmatullahi alaih) states: AAll the Fuqaha, from the time of Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) upto the present time, have been making Qiyaas in Deeni matters. They have reached a consensus that the Haqq is theorised and parallelled upon Haqq, and Baatil upon Baatil. [Jaami`u Bayaanul Ilm, page 66, vol.2]. To comply with the Fiqhi rulings of the Fuqaha, is known as TAQLEED. The summary of the foregoing is that TAQLEED of the Fuqaha and the Mujtahiddeen, has been practised upon by this Ummat from the time of Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam). To reject this is to reject the unbroken chain of narrators, via whom this information reached us. There is no Kitaab of Hadith which was compiled by any Sahabah or Taabi`een, which exists today. Yes, the Hadith Kitaabs which exist today have been compiled by those who came after the Sahabah and the Taabi`een, and these Kitaabs are being used as references. For example, we say: ANarrated by Bukhari, ANarrated by Muslim, etc. Whereas, prior to the coming of the Sihah Sitta (six authentic Kitaabs of Hadith), no one mentioned: ANarrated by Bukhari or ANarrated by Muslim. There does not exist today a complete set of any of the Fataawa of any Sahabi or Taabi`e, which is authentically reported. Yes, the four Imaams of Fiqh have based their respective Mazaahib upon the Fataawa of the Sahabah and the Taabi`een. Hence, nowadays we say, in substantiation of a Mas`ala: AImaam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullahi alaih) said.. or AImaam Shafi (rahmatullahi alaih) said... NOTE Some of the derivative Masaa`il are such that there exists a consensus of opinion of the Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum). There also exists a consensus of opinion of all four the Imaams. There are some Massa`il upon which there exists a difference of opinion between the Sahabah (radhiAllaahu anhum), and the four Imaams have each taken a certain aspect (of this difference) and included it into his Mazhab (in this way every action of Nabi (sallAllaahu alaihi wasallam) is being practised upon by this Ummat). AND ALLAAH TA`ALA KNOWS BEST (From P-10, till here from Moulana Muhammad Ameen Okarvi ) from Majmul Rasail Nabi (S.A.W) passes away; Nabi (S.A.W) passed away. Sahaabah (R.A) gathered at Bani Thakifa to deliberate who is to be the successor. Most of those gathered where from amongst the Ansaar (Madinites). Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) and Hadhrat Umar (R.A) reached there. Various suggestions and propositions were in the air. An Ameer from the Ansaar, or from the Muhajireen or half a year from the Ansaar and the other half from the Majahireen on rotation basis were proposed. Hadhrat Umar (R.A) delivered a most historical short sermon which saved the day and stabilised the future course of Islaam. He said : In Islaam we have four ibaadaats (devotional activities), Salaat, Hajj, Saum and Zakaat. Two of the above are rendered in congregation, Salaat and Hajj. For these two Nabi (S.A.W) deputed in his blessed life only one person as his deputy, who is Abu Bakr. [ the first official Hajj Ameer was Hadhrat Abu Bakr ( R.A) , Hadhrat Ali (R.A) was sent later to make certain proclamations] and Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) led in the time of Nabi (S.A.W) 17/18 Salaat. Thus whom Nabi (S.A.W) chose to be head (Imam) in his lifetime, we should choose the same after Nabi (S.A.W)s demise. (Majmul Zawayid - vol.2 p.246) All accepted. No objection were raised. The matter was resolved. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) was elected Khalif by unanimity. Historically no one can dispute it or chance it. Hafiz ibn Hajr Askalani (R.A) says that there is no better example in Shariat of Qiyas - deduction by analogy than the one presented by Hadhrat Umar (R.A). The question arises which clear cut, categorical Hadith, Hadhrat Umar (R.A) used to propose the name of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A). He used Qiyas. Does this make Hadhrat Umar (R.A) a denier or rejecter of Ahaadith? Did Hadhrat Umar (R.A) be involved in kufr, shirk, or bidat ? All those who accepted and acknowledged his Qiyas, were they also involved in kufr, shirk ? Where are ghair Muqaleeds going to ? If the ghair Muqaleeds reject Qiyas, then by Qiyas Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) became Khalif, so they will have to reject the Khilafaat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A). The Sahaabah (R.A) in electing Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) made Taqleed of one person Hadhrat Umar (R.A) proving the permissibility of following someone other than Allaah and His Rasul (S.A.W). For Umar (R.A) clearly is from Aamongst those in authority amongst you Taqleed in the time of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) 1. Collection and compilation of Quraan. During the battles against the claimants of false prophethood and the people who betrayed Islaam, a great number of Huffaz were martyred, specially in the battle of Yamama. Hadhrat Umar (R.A) feared that if such a state of affairs prolonged, a good portion of the Quraan may be lost. He brought it to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A)'s notice and suggested that the collection and compilation of Quraan must be given a serious thought. At first Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) did not take it seriously with the remarks. A task which Nabi Muhammad (S.A.W) did not undertake, how can I do it. Hadhrat Umar (R.A) said : AThis is a good feat. And Umar (R.A) repeated his request. Abu Bakr (R.A) realised that it is an important task. He therefore, put Zaid bin Thabit (R.A) on duty to collect Quraan since he was one of the persons who used to write down the divine revelations of Quraan. At first instance he also hesitated. But later, he realised its importance. After that he, with great care and efforts, collected scattered portions of it and compiled it in the shape of a book. h3(Bukhari vol.2. p. 45) Due to the above Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) is called Jame -e- Quraan. This tremendous service to Islaam was done by no one other than Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A). Those who speak ill of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) are thus, I. deprived from gathering the entire Quraan in their hearts as they have no Hifz intentions and do not perform Taraweeh at all; II. they are not from the Ahle - Sunnat - wal - Jamaat ; III. they do not perform the complete Taraweeh Salaat ; IV. they directly reject Qiyas of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) (Allaah guide them and protect us). Whist making the decisions to compile the Quraan officially which Hadith of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) did Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) use ? Did he commit kufr, shirk, bidat by using his faculty of reason as per demand of situation ? Therefore did the people who followed him also commit kufr, shirk, bidat ? Those thousands of Sahaabah (R.A) who witnessed this entire proceeding did they also commit kufr, shirk or bidat ? Then those who deny and reject the validity of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A)s act still accept the validity of the result i.e. the present Quraan ? Yes, the Shias reject the validity of Quraan which is the compilation of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) . Whenever Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radhiAllaahu anhu) gave a Fatwa, he made it clear that it was his Ijtihaad and view [Jaami`u Bayaanul Ilm, page 51, vol.2]. The people followed these rulings of Hadhrat Siddeeq-e-Akbar (radhiAllaahu anhu). This is known as TAQLEED. There is no mention made in any Kitaab about even one objector or rejecter of this. 2. Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) nomination of Hadhrat Umar (R.A) as second Khalif. A Look, I have not selected my brother or my relative to the high post but have nominated the one who is the best amongst you. All those present appreciated it. After that Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) called Hadhrat Umar (R.A) and gave him quite valuable advices which proved in his tenure as modus operandi. (Tabaqat Ibne Sa'ad, vol.3 p.42) In the above aspect of history, again we will like to know which Hadith of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) did Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) use in order to nominate Hadhrat Umar (R.A) as Khalif ? Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) assessed the situation and decided unilaterally that Hadhrat Umar (R.A) will best guide and steer the Muslim Empire. He was absolutely right in his decision. Islaam spread the most in the Khilafaat of Hadhrat Umar (R.A) and Hadhrat Muawiya (R.A). Did Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) commit kufr, shirk or bidat by nominating Hadhrat Umar (R.A) as Khalif ? Was this nomination valid ? Yes, in the eyes of Ahle - Sunnat - wal - Jamaat ? Not according to the Shia Kaafirs ? Those who reject Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A)s noble decision, reject Qiyas and the Ijma (Consensus of opinion ) of the Sahaabah (R.A) who, (a) accept the Khilaafat of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) (b) accept the decision for compilation of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A) (c) accept the nomination of Hadhrat Umar (R.A) (d) accept the Khilaafat of Hadhrat Umar (R.A). Taqleed in the time of Hadhrat Umar (R.A) 1. Jamaat congregation of Hadhrat Umar (R.A) After combining all these various pocket Jamaats in the Masjid under Hadhrat Zaid ibn Thabit (R.A), Hadhrat Umar (R.A) said, AThis is a bidaat, if it is a bidaat. (Tabaqaat ibn Saad ) Generally, if it is a bidaat't is not narrated or stated, giving the impression that there are two types of bidaat 1. Bidaat -e- Hasana (good bidat) 2. Bidaat -e- Saieya ( bad bidat) However, bidat is bidat, no good or bad, no Noble bidat, no pious bidat. Now this entire action of Hadhrat Umar (R.A) was based upon his insight, foresight, wisdom and understanding of Islaam. Which Hadith of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) did he follow ? Does it make him one not conforming to Hadith ? Does this mean that he is not Ahle - Hadith ? Does this make him one involved in kufr, shirk or bidat ? Ask the Ahle Hadith or Ghair Muqaleeds for some answers ? Hadhrat Umar (radhiAllaahu anhu) also gave Fataawa from his Ijtihaad and view [Mizaanul Kubra Li Sha`rani, page 49, vol.1]. He sent a message to his judges that they also make Ijtihaad when passing a ruling (which was not clearly found in the Qur`aan Shareef, Ahadith or amongst the senior Sahabah) [Jaami`u Bayaanul Ilm, page 56, vol.2]. There is no mention made in any Kitaab about even one objector or rejecter of this. 2. Hadhrat Umar (R.A) nominates six People forced Hadhrat Umar (R.A) to nominate a Khalif in his place during his life time after he was stabbed, so Hadhrat Umar (R.A) gave six names; i. Hadhrat Ali(R.A), ii. Hadhrat Uthman(R.A), i. iii. Hadhrat Zubair(R.A), iv. Hadhrat Talha(R.A), v. Hadhrat Sa'ad bin Waqas(R.A) and vi. Hadhrat Abdul Rehman bin Awf(R.A). He asked them to accept the Amir, whom the other five agree for the Khilaafat. He then asked permission from Hadhrat Ayesha (R.A) that he may please be allowed to be laid alongside Nabi Muhammad (S.A.W). (Mustadrak, vol.1 p. 91-93) When nominating the six to choose amongst themselves, the next third Khalif, which Hadith of Rasulullaah (S.A.W)'s did he follow ? or did he commit kufr, shirk or bidat ? The six themselves nor the Sahaabah (R.A) did not ask Hadhrat Umar (R.A) i. did you get Wahiyy (revelation) , when you nominated the six? ii. which Hadith of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) are you following ? When Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) was chosen as the third, rightful, deserving, worthy Khalif of Islaam then the Sahaabah (R.A) and the Tabieen (R.A) took Bait (allegiance ). Did anyone from amongst them ask for a Hadith to prove his (Uthman (R.A)'s) Khilaafat ? or did all of them also commit kufr, shirk or bidat? Hadhrat Umar (R.A) said about the principles of judgement: A From after today, whosoever is faced with the responsibility of Qaza (making Sharee Rulings) then he should decide by the Kitabullaah. If such an issue is presented which is not in the Kitaabullaah, then render a decision of Nabi (S.A.W), then if any issue is presented which is not found in the Kitaabullaah and in the decision of Nabi (S.A.W), then decisions should be rendered in conformity with those of the Saleeheen (Pious). If any issue is presented which no decision available in the Kitaabullaah, or in the decision of Nabi (S.A.W) or in the decision of Saleeheen is available then make AIjtihaad . (Sunnan Nisai vol.2. p.305) Taqleed in the Khilafaat of Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) 1. Standardisation of Quraanic dialect The greatest contribution of Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) towards the service of Islaam was that he saved the Quraan from anagram and alteration of words and publicized it widely. The backgroung of it is stated that during the expeditions of Armenia and Azerbaijan, soldiers from Syria, Egypt and Iraq were taking part, most of them were new- Muslims and non - Arabs and their mother tongue was not Arabic. Hadhrat Huzaifa bin Yamaan (R.A) was also participating in that war. He found that the non- Arabs were reading differently. The difference was so much that the people of Syria recited it differently than the people of Iraq, similarly, the people of Basra were reading it differently to the people of Kufa. Everyone considered that his pronunciation was correct and every other one was reading it wrongly. Hadhrat Huzaifa(R.A) was puzzled over this situation and as soon as he reached Madinah, he went straight to Hadhrat Uthman (R.A),the Khalif, and informed him about it. He suggested, take some steps, immediately, otherwise the Muslims will also make deliberate alterations in it, like the Christians and the Romans had tempered with their noble book. As Hadhrat Huzaifa (R.A) pointed out, Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) also felt the importance and urgency of the matter. He borrowed the Quraan from Hadhrat Hafsa (R.A), the wife of Muhammad (S.A.W), which was authentically compiled by Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A), the first Khalif of Islaam. He ordered Hadhrat Zaid bin Thabit, Abdullaah bin Zubair and Saeed bin-al-A'as to prepare its true copies. He distributed these authentic copies of Quraan all over the kingdom and took back all those which were lying with people written individually for their own sake and destroyed them all. (Bukhari) Which Hadith of Rasulullaah (S.A.W) did Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) use to substantiate the standardisation of Quraan on Quraishi dialect ? Did he commit kufr, shirk or bidat by doing so ? The Sahaabah (R.A) and Tabieen who witnessed these proceeding and took part in these proceeding, are they also involved in kufr, shirk or bidat because they made Taqleed of Hadhrat Uthman (R.A). If the Taqleed of Hadhrat Uthman's standardisation is invalid then why do those who reject Taqleed read the Quraan on the dialect standardized by Hadhrat Uthman (R.A)? Hadhrat Uthmaan (radhiAllaahu anhu) took pledge of Khilaafat, on the condition that he follow (make TAQLEED) of the previous Khalifahs. [Sharah Fiqh-e-Akbar, page 79]. 2. Azaan Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) ordered that a second Azaan be given on the Day of Jumuah for the Jumuah Salaat. Prior to this the Azaan which is given near the mimbar, before the Khutba was the only Azaan. Thus it was the first and only Azaan. Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) instituted the second Azaan, which has now become the first Azaan whilst the one before the Khutba has become the second Azaan. (See Khulafa Rashdeen -.Suyuti). We ask 1. Which Hadith did Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) follow ? 2. Did the people of that time make his Taqleed or not ? 3. Was there any ghair muqaleed at that who objected ? 4. Did Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) commit kufr, shirk, bidat ? 5. Did those who adhered to his order commit kufr, shirk, bidat ? Taqleed in the Khilafaat of Hadhrat Ali (R.A) 1. Burning of those who stated that he is Allaah In that time the activities of Abdullaah bin Saba, the Jew posing as a devout Muslim began to show open results. Two parties arose i. those who claimed to love Hadhrat Ali (R.A) ii. those who rejected the authority of Hadhrat Ali (R.A) out of hate for Hadhrat Ali (R.A). Hadhrat Muawiyah (R.A) did not desire or want Khilafaat. He wanted the murderers of Hadhrat Uthman (R.A) to be arrested and brought to book first, then any other government activity. Hadhrat Ali (R.A) wanted to stabilise the government first, then arrest the culprits and criminals. On this difference the enemies of Islaam capitalised to cause battles before proper negotiations between Hadhrat Ali (R.A) and Hadhrat Muawiyah (R.A) could take place. This resulted in the lost of many lives. However, those that claimed Hadhrat Ali (R.A) to be Allaah on earth, Hadhrat Ali (R.A) burnt them. We know that burning is exclusively for Allaah. This action of Hadhrat Ali (R.A) let alone being contrary to Hadith, is also against the Quraan. (We accept Hadhrat Ali (R.A)'s decision, ruling and judgement whole - heartedly ) (Bukhari) Nevertheless, the question arises, which Hadith did Hadhrat Ali (R.A) use for his decision? Did Hadhrat Ali (R.A) commit kufr, shirk or bidat ? Did those who helped Hadhrat Ali (R.A) (made his Taqleed) commit kufr, shirk or bidat by following the rule of Hadhrat Ali (R.A) ? Hadhrat Ali (radhiAllaahu anhu) used to say AI am making Ijtihaad on my view. Sharoh - Fiqh -e- Akbar. Page 79. 2. Decisions of Hadhrat Ali (R.A) In the Kitaab, Musnaf ibn Shuaiba, Munaf ibn Abu Razack, Maaninul Aasrsar etc, literally thousands of ruling of Hadhrat Ali (R.A) and the Sahabaah (R.A) are stated, without Hadith as substantiations. Does this make them deniers and rejecters of Ahadith ? Does this make them those indulging in kufr, shirk or bidat ? In reality the Ahle - Hadith or Ghair Muqaleed who claim to follow the Hadith, are those who follow Hadith the least, whereas the Ahle - Sunnat - wal - Jamaat by adhering to the Sunnat, follow the Hadith most . From the above we realise that ghair Muqaleeds are those who reject :- i. Qiyas of the Khulafa -e- Rashideen ; ii. Ijma of the Sahabaah (R.A); iii. Falsely accuse the Muslims of not conforming to the Hadith ; iv. Are mislead and misleading ; v. Are not from the Ahle - Sunnat - wal - Jamaat ; vi. In fact, are close to the Shias ; Similarities between Ghair Muqaleeds and Shias Rawafiz or shia and the ghair muqaleeds, 1. deny that the Sahaabah (R.A) are the criterion of right and wrong in Deen - Religion ; 2. both groups state that 3 Talaaqs in one session are equal to one; 3. they say that Taraweeh is the bidat of Umar (R.A) ; 4. they state that the second Azaan given near the Mimbar is an innovation (bidat) and the ghair Muqaleeds classify it as Bidat Usmani; 5. both do not accept the decision of Hadhrat Umar (R.A) and Hadhrat Ayesha (R.A) of preventing women from the Masjid.( Fatwa Rahmiyah Vol. 4, p. 42); 6. both groups deny and reject the Ijma of Sahaabah (R.A); Thus far We have proven Taqleed, i. In the lifetime of Rasulullaah (S.A.W), ii. From the Quraan, iii. From the Ahaadith, iv. In the Khilafaat (lifetime) of Hadhrat Abu Bakr (R.A), v. In the lifetime (Khilafaat) of Hadhrat Umar (R.A), vi. In the lifetime (Khilafaat) of Hadhrat Uthman (R.A), vii. In the Khilafaat (lifetime) of Hadhrat Ali (R.A) . The question arises about Taqleed amongst the Sahaabah (R.A), and concerning Hadhrat Imam Mahdi and Hadhrat Isa (A.S) Taqleed amongst the Sahabaah (R.A) 1. Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (R.A) says that Hadhrat Umar (R.A) delivered a sermon at (a place) Jabia, and said : Oh people, those of you who want to know about Fiqh should go to Maaz Bin Jabal and those who want to ask about property (goods) should come to me, for Allaah has made me its custodian and distributor. 2. Hadhrat Suliman Bin Yassar (R.A) said that Hadhrat Abu Ayub Ansari (R.A) journeyed with the intention of Hajj until he reached Nazia, en route to Makkah, where his conveyances were mislaid (lost). He thus reached Hadhrat Umar (R.A) on (10 Zil Hajj) (Day of Sacrifice) when Hajj had already taken place and related what had occurred. Hadhrat Umar (R.A) said, Ayou complete those acts which a person performing Umrah does (i.e. Tawaaf and Saee) so as to come out of Ihraam. When the Hajj comes next year, perform Hajj and make sacrifice of what you can easily obtain. (Muatta Imam Maalik, p. 149) No Hadith proof was called for. Hadhrat Abu Ayub Ansari (R.A) made Taqleed of Hadhrat Umar (R.A)'S Ilm and understanding. 3. Hadhrat Umar (R.A) said about the principles of judgement: A From after today, whosoever is faced with the responsibility of Qaza (making Sharee Rulings) then he should decide by the Kitabullaah. If such an issue is presented which is not in the Kitaabullaah, then render a decision of Nabi (S.A.W), then if any issue is presented which is not found in the Kitaabullaah and in the decision of Nabi (S.A.W), then decisions should be rendered in conformity with those of the Saleeheen (Pious). If any issue is presented which no decision available in the Kitaabullaah, or in the decision of Nabi (S.A.W) or in the decision of Saleeheen is available then make AIjtihaad . (Sunnan Nisai vol.2. p.305) 4. The people of Madinah questioned Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Abbas (R.A) about a woman who menstruated after the Fardh Tawaaf.(Can she return without performing the Tawaaf -e- Widaa. Ibn Abbas stated that she can return without performing Tawaaf -e- Widaa. The people of Madinah said. AWe will not leave the decision of Zaid bin Thabit by acting on your ruling, (Bukhari, vol.1 p.237). The next argument is A what about from the time of Sahaabah (R.A) till Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A) ? Did they follow any Imam, and was Taqleed Wajib then ? The Sahaabah (R.A) were more than a hundred thousand in number. Shah Waliullaah (R.A) says that the Sahaabah (R.A) were from one of two groups, Mujtahid and Muqaleed. The Sahaabah (R.A) were Arabs, but according to Ibn Qayyim there were only 149 theologians, from whom 7 gave most of the Fatawas; 20 gave few Fatawas and 122 rendered the least Fatawas. The thousand of Fatawas of these Mufti's are present in the following Kitaabs. Musnaf Ibn Abi Shayba; Musnaf Abdur Razzak; Tahzeebul Anthaar and Ma'aanil Aathaar; etc, in which the Mufti's only narrate the Masala - law, and they do not narrate any Aayat or Hadith by way of proof with the Masala. The rest of the Sahaabah (R.A) practised on these Masala's without any proof. This is called Taqleed. Regarding these Mufti's from the Sahaabah (R.A), Shah Walliullaah (R.A) say, that the Sahaabah (R.A) were spread in different countries and one Sahaabi was followed, in each place example, Makkah - Hadhrat Ibn Abbass (R.A). Madinah - Hadhrat Zaid Ibn Thabit (R.A) Kufa - Hadhrat Abdullaah Bin Masood (R.A) Yemen - Hadhrat Muaaz (R.A) Basrah - Hadhrat Anas (R.A) After them came was the era of the Tabiens. Hadhrat Shah Walliullaah (R.A) says that every Tabee Aalim had a line of following and they became the Imams of each city and the people used to follow them. This little argument is therefore as ridiculous as asking how the Quraan was read before the 10 Qaris came, or why the Sahaabah (R.A) did not read Bukhari or Muslim ? or whether it is now necessary to believe in Hadith ? Were the Sahabaah (R.A) who were making Taqleed of their respective Faqaih (jurisprudic consultants) in their various areas committing kufr, shirk or bidat ? Did the Sahabaah (R.A) and Tabieen ask their Faqaih's for every masala (law) to produce some Hadith ? Did they rely and have their confidence on the knowledge, purity, authority of the Faqih ? The Fiqh (jurisprudence) of the Sahabaah (R.A) was not compiled, codified or systemised because of the Deeni activities of that time. The Imams of Fiqh (jurisprudence) accomplished this noble task. That is why there is Taqleed of the Imams of Jurisprudence and not of any not of any one particular Sahaabah. Taqleed by Hadhrat Mahdi According to the Kasf (spiritual inspiration) of Mujjahid Alif Thani (R.A) Mahdi will follow the Mazhab of Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A), However if someone has to say that Kasf is no Shari proof which is a valid statement, then our reply is that definitely Hadhrat Imam Mahdi will not be a Ghair Muqaleed or Ahle Hadith as is known today. It is the unanimous decision of the Ulema that, i. Taqleed is Waajib in our times. Sayed Ahmed Thanwi (H.1233), states the group on salvation is the Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat which has been concised in the 4 Mazhabs, which are Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi, Hanbali. And those persons in the age who are not from these Mazhabs are amongst the innovators and dwellers of the fire (not from the Ahle Sunnat). (Tahtawi Alaa Durul Muktaar, vol.4. p. 153). ii. The Ahle - Sunnat - wal - Jamaat are Muqaleeds of any one of the four great Imams of Fiqh. iii. Those not conforming to any one of the four Mazhabs are not amongst the Ahle - Sunnat - wal - Jamaat When Hadhrat Mahdi comes then, one of these two possibilities will exist, i. he will be Mujtahid -e- Mutlaq ( like the great Imams of Fiqh) or ii. be a Muqaleed . If he is ( i ) well and good and if he is ( ii ) then in order to be from the Ahle - Sunnat - wal Jamaat he has to be Muqaleed. For certain he will not be from the Ahle Hadith or Ghair Muqaleed for these groups are not from the Ahle - Sunnat - wal - Jamaat . Taqleed by Hadhrat Isa (R.A) He will be Mujtahid -e- Mutlaq-like the great Imaams of Fiqh. In conclusion, Thus we know that the Ghair Muqaleeds are false in their accusations that following the Imams of Fiqh is kufr, shirk or bidat. Also that the Ghair Muqaleeds are rejecters of, 1. Qiyas 2. Ijma 3. Criticises of the Imams of Fiqh 4. Indirect deniers of Hadith 5. Indirect deniers of the Quraan 6. Followers of whims and fancies 7. Mislead and misleading 8. Not conformist to Sunnat 9. Prevent people from performing Salaat 10. Projectors of a deviated version of Islaam. Allaah save and protect us from them. In Haram 76/4/99" 30,"Bidah (innovation) : primary cause for deviation",5520,637,636,"The Arabic word bid'ah comes from the root b.d.'a, it means to originate, introduce, devise, contrive, improvise or to be inventive in a manner not done before. Allah has used this word in this sense when he said: The Arabic word bid'ah comes from the root b.d.'a, it means to originate, introduce, devise, contrive, improvise or to be inventive in a manner not done before. Allah has used this word in this sense when he said: ""Badi' al-Samawat wa al-Ard"" (He is the Creator of the skies and the earth) i.e. It's Creator without any previous replica or blueprint. Allah said in another place: ""Qul: Ma kuntu bid'an min al-Rusul"" (Say: I was not the only Messenger sent) i.e. Prophet Muhammad was not the only Messenger to carry a divine scripture, but before him many others did so. Being innovative in worldly matters is a sign of technological or creative advancement, but being innovative in religion brings nothing but error and failure. The reason for this is that mankind has been placed in this world to exploit it's resources for the maximum benefit of his religion, but religion has been assigned to him to receive guidance, and not modify or adjust it in order to suit his fancies. A person who practices in innovation as far as religious matters are concerned is called a mubtadi' in Arabic or a bid'ati in Urdu and Persian. It roughly means to innovate or introduce heretical doctrines, heresies, or actions with a suspicious origin into the corpus of Islamic belief and practice. It can be technically defined as follows: ""An innovated practice which resembles Islam designed to exaggerate certain acts of worship or misrepresent some aspect of the shari'ah."" Those things which are done or those sciences which are learnt for the sake of understanding Islam or better practicing it is not termed as bid'at. The science of Arabic grammar, the principles of tafsir and the formulas if jurisprudence is studied to understand Islam today. These sciences were not present in the earliest period of Islam, but its foundations are to be found in Shari'ah. A Bid'at has neither absolutely no legal basis nor precedent in Islam. An innovated act outwardly resembles an Islamic practice, but in reality it is different. The examples of these are many: 1. A person vows that he will fast, but attaches a condition that he will do it standing only. He likewise imposes certain baseless conditions on his vow which has no legal validity only to aggravate himself. 2. One adopts certain days to remember certain people like the birth of the Holy Prophet Muhammad and Shaikh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani. 3. A person adopts certain type of worship or incantation or talisman (wazifah) for himself which is recited or practiced on certain days or certain times only. It can not be done in no other time besides this. An innovated act is always practiced in a way that has no precedent. Id such an act indeed has a precedent, it is merely a custom. The person involves in innovation does so thinking that he is indeed practicing upon the Sunnah. Soon, he becomes convinced of it and the truth of the matter becomes clouded unto him. He loses cognisence of the fact that he has deviated, and this make repentance more difficult for him. In order to alleviate his symptoms of deterioration, a mubtadi' would normally cling to a person personality, invoke him, and try to legitimize his devotion through this medium. The Arabs of the age of ignorance had outrageously distorted the teachings of Prophet Abraham, and started giving weird explanations to their doings. For worshipping idols, they rationalized as follows: ""We do not worship them except to gain proximity to Allah."" On the occasion of pilgrimage, they simply refused to pass through 'Arafah saying; ""We can not leave the sanctity of the Haram."" They would circumambulate the ka'bah in a state of stark nudity reasoning that they could not perform such a great devotion while hugging the clothes in which they habitually sinned. The innovator, by doubly exerting himself in his devotions, thinks that he will achieve spiritual consummation in doing so. True, Allah said: ""I have naught created mankind and Jinnkind but for my worship."" He pushes this verse to its extreme, devising his own motions of 'ibadat, not realising that what the shari'ah had stipulated is more than adequate. In his enthusiasm he underestimates the power of the shari'ah, and through a bold show of his love to Allah and His Messenger, he introduces a whiff of innovation in his daily devotional practices. The human psyche is such that it always welcomes something new. It looks forward to a break in monotony. It becomes easily bored with an uninterrupted and monotonous chain of repetitive events so when a new thing is introduced to it, it becomes refreshed. This is why innovative actions are so readily accepted. Acts of bid'ah can take the form of omission or commission. If a one prohibits a certain action upon oneself which is already prohibited in the shari'ah or for which provision has been made to prohibit, there is no problem. One for example, can prohibit the food prepared by a certain person upon himself because of its harmful effects on the mind and body. If a person fears an onset of uncontrollable sexual craving if he happens to consume his normal quantity of food, he can abstain from it as the Holy Prophet Muhammad had said: ""O assembly of youth, whoever of you can manage to marry, let him marry … and whoever can not do so should fast."" Likewise, a person who abstains from products which he doubts is commendable. On the other hand, if one abstains from doing anything which the Shari'ah had allowed thinking it legal to do so, this falls under the category of bid'at. Allah says: ""O you who believe, do not prohibit what Allah has made lawful for you, and do not transgress. Verily Allah does not love those who transgress the limits."" This verse was revealed when a few of the Companions prohibited sleep upon themselves by night, some forbade eating by day, and some refused to having any spousal relations. They prohibited these natural inclinations of the body upon themselves with no legal sanction, nor did it benefit them in the least. By doing so, they broke away from the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, and entered into the realms of bid'ah. Innovation in religion can be condemned rationally ('aqlan) and textually (naqlan), and there are no qualms to say that the one who practices bid'ah has deviated. There are five rational reasons for abhorrence towards bid'ah in religion. 1. It is known through experiment as well as experience that the mind can not fathom what is good or what is bad for mankind without external help, be it in worldly or religious matters. When Adam, the first of mankind was placed in this world, he was in full possession of his mental faculties. Yet, he did not know how to survive in his surroundings. Allah taught him all these worldly skills and trained him the vocational arts. This fact can be proved when Allah said: ""And we taught Adam the names of everything."" Following Adam's example, his children followed in his example in doing so ever since. As time passed, mankind made progress on his physical surroundings, but neglected his spiritual habitat. Thinking of aspects like resurrection, the hereafter, and its rigmarole was plainly beyond comprehension. This is the reason why Allah, time and time again, pities His creation and sent Prophets to mankind to remind them over and over again. Their main mission was plainly to shift the focus of events from a rational point of view to one dependent on divine revelation. But mankind always forgot. This indicates that mankind can not grasp what is of benefit or harm to himself with the aid of his intellect alone. An innovator breaks this general rule of nature, and bethinks that he can unravel the realms of the unseen through his limited thinking capacity. 2. The Shari'ah of Islam (law-code) has been perfected. Allah says: ""Today I have perfected for you your religion, and has completed upon you my favour and have become satisfied with Islam as your religion."" There is a famous tradition by 'Irbad ibn Sariyah: The Holy Prophet admonished us, such an admonishment that our eyes started overflowing, and our hearts started pounding. We asked: ""O Apostle of Allah, this seems like a parting sermon, what do you propose for us to do."" He replied: ""I have left upon clear whiteness, its night is like its day. Whoever sways from it after me will be destroyed. Whoever lives on after me will witness many upheavals, so hold steadfast to my practice and the practice of the Rightly-Guided caliphs after me."" The ahl al-Sunnah are unanimous in the fact that the Holy Prophet did not leave this world until he conveyed everything which was necessary for religious matters. A mubtadi' through his continuous introduction of new aspects into religion attests to the fact that Islam is not complete, hence his desire to always add on things. Ibn Majishun says that he heard Imam Malik saying: ""Whoever innovates in religion thinking it to be a virtuous matter, he has indeed accused the Holy Prophet of being deceitful in delivering his message."" 3. The practitioner of innovation undermines the shari'ah and causes unnecessary trouble for himself. Allah had shown his servants a very specific path with a very specific methodology to tread, and has left the duty of calling towards it and forbidding from all things averse to it for mankind. Islamic teaches that goodness arises from following this path and evil and corruption is the result of abandoning it. The Holy Prophet was sent in this world as a mercy unto mankind, the mubtadi' rejects this notion as he insists that are some additional duties to be performed in order to attain salvation. Once when 'Adi ibn Artat asked 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz for some advice regarding the Qadiri menace, he responded as follows: ""I exhort you to fear Allah, in adopting moderation in your affairs and following the practice upon the Holy Prophet, may the salutations and benedictions of Allah be upon him. Abandon all types of innovations which have become prevalent and do not support them. Hold fast to the Sunnah, for the Sunnah was devised by one who is well-aware all the other divergent paths which are slippery, full of deficiencies, and riddled with excesses. Be content for yourself what the Sahabah were content for themselves for they did everything with knowledge, and were possessed of insight. They refrained (from innovations) having more stronger knowledge than us, and through a grace which was more benevolent. Whoever had innovated after them have deviated from their path and have absolved themselves from them. The Sahabah were our predecessors, they have left adequate directives - everything besides this is thrash."" 4. The practitioner of innovation elevates his actions to the status of the true shari'ah. Allah had devised a shari'ah (law-code) and made its mandate incumbent upon all mankind. The shari'ah has the potential to solve all human problems. If mankind could devise a shari'ah of their own in order to solve all their problems, there would have been disruptions between themselves, and there would have been no need to send guides in the forms of Prophets, the pious and the reformers. A mubtadi' seeks to devise another shari'ah claiming to produce the same and even better results than the divine shari'ah as encoded by Allah. 5. The practitioner of innovation follows his desires. When intellect is not in harmony with the shari'ah, it becomes the following of desires. If anything has no rational basis, it is reduced to error manifest. Allah addresses Prophet Dawud in the Qur'an thus: ""O Dawud: We have appointed you as a vicegerent in the earth, so judge between the people with justice and do not follow your desires lest Allah swerves you away from the straight path. Verily there is a taxing punishment for those who swerve from the path of Allah for they have forgotten the day of reckoning."" In this verse, there are but two options in Islam: truth or following of desire, and numerous other verses of the Qur'an the antonym of truth has only been given as following of desires, no other reason. A mubtadi' pursues his desires without guidance from Allah which is the Qur'an and Sunnah. He often gives his own desires preference to the commands of Allah thinking himself to be on true guidance. This is the worse of deviation, a cloaked or disguised deviation. It amounts to alleging (iftra'an) that Allah did not send the shari'ah in its totality. The textual reasons for decrying bid'ah in Islam can be divided into six categories: 1. Condemnation of bid'ah in the Qur'an: 2. Condemnation of bid'ah in the Sunnah: 3. Condemnation of bid'ah according to the sayings of the precursors: 4. Condemnation of unsolicited opinions (ra'y al-madhmum): 5. Position of a mubtadi' in the eyes of the shari'ah: 6. Precarious mindset of a mubtadi' that he is upon the perfect truth: 1. Condemnation of bid'ah in the Qur'an: Allah has mentioned numerous verses in the Qur'an which condemns the slightest form of deviation. From amongst these are: ""He is that Being Who has revealed the Book unto you wherein there are established verses, these are the essence of the Book, and the other are the ambiguous ones. Those who have a perversity in their hearts pursue the ambiguous verses seeking to create discord in pursuit of its meaning, and only Allah knows it's meaning."" This verse is the greatest verse decrying bid'ah. When it was revealed, 'A'ishah, the wife of the Holy Prophet, asked him as to its meaning. The Holy Prophet replied: ""When you see people investigating (in another narration: disputing) the ambiguous verses, these are the ones whom Allah have referred to in the verse. Beware of them."" Such people have no intention to gain intelligible guidance from the established verses, but rather hanker behind those verses whose meanings are veiled to unraveling of whose meaning is not a source of guidance or concern. Abu Ghalib narrates that once he was in Syria when Muhallab sent seventy detached heads of the Kharijiyyah and placed it an the entrance of Damascus. Abu Umamah happened to pass by the heads, he was shocked and sobbingly said: ""Glory be to Allah, what has the king done to the son of Adam! They are the dogs of hell and best type of people to be killed under the sky. Glad tidings be for those who killed them."" Abu Umamah then turned towards me and said: ""O Abu Ghalib, you are living in a land where such people abound. Seek the protection of Allah from them."" Abu Ghalib then asked him for his apparently perplexing reason for crying. He explained: ""I first cried out of pity for them for they were first Muslims."" He then recited the above verse until he reached ""And Allah only knows its meanings,"" and pointing towards the heads said: ""These people had a perversity in their hearts."" Thus, Abu Umamah had placed the Kharijiyyah in the category of innovators due to their futile investigation and misinterpretation of the ambiguous verses of the Qur'an. The above verse was originally revealed regarding the Christians of Najran concerning their belief of Prophet 'Isa saying that he was either Allah himself, His son, or the third of the trinity. They arrived at this conclusion through misinterpreting certain unclear verses of the Qur'an, totally ignoring those verses providing clear-cut guidance on the subject. Ibn Wahab says that he heard Imam Malik saying that there is no verse in the Qur'an more heavier upon the innovators than the following verse: ""On that day some faces will be aglow, while some will be darkened."" Ibn 'Abbas and Qatadah have opined that those whose faces will be blackened are the innovators. In another cogent verse denunciating innovation, Allah says: ""This is the straight path, so follow. And do not follow other paths lest you deviate from the straight path."" The 'path' spoken off in the Qur'an is the Qur'an and Sunnah, and the 'other paths' are all those beside it. It does not mean committing sins and being disobedient to the commands of Allah as these are not done continuously or with a sense of justifying it, but it means the path of deviation and innovation. When this verse was revealed, the Holy Prophet drew a long line in the soil, and drew shorter lines protruding from the right and left of it. The Holy Prophet then pointed out that the ling line was the straight path while all the other smaller ones are deviated pathways to which the shaitan are constantly inviting to. Another verse is the following: ""And unto Allah leads straight the way, but there are ways that turn aside: if Allah had willed, He could have guided all of you."" The 'path leading to the straight way' is the path of truth, and all paths besides it are bifurcated. According to Mujahid, it means the moderate path, free of excesses and deficiencies. The following verse has a commentary from the hadith. Once the Holy Prophet asked 'A'ishah: ""O A'ishah, ""Verily those who segregated their religion and splintered into sects, you have no part in them in the least. Their affair is with Allah, he will in the end inform them of their doings,"" who are they?"" I answered that Allah and His Messenger know best. He said: ""They are the one who follow their desires and the innovators, the deviated ones from my nation. O 'A'ishah, for every sin there is repentance, but there is none for the innovators and those who follow their passions. I have acquitted from them and they from me."" Once Imam Abu Hanifah met 'Ata ibn Rabah in Makkah and was asked: ""From where do you come from?"" Imam Abu Hanifah replied: ""From Kufah."" 'Ata ibn Rabah then pressed on: ""You come from the city which has segregated itself into sects?"" He replied: ""Yes."" 'Ata ibn Rabah continued: ""From which sect are you?"" ""From those who do not speak ill of the predecessors, believe in predestination, and do not brand anyone as an infidel by virtue of merely committing sins,"" Imam Abu Hanifah rightly replied. 'Ata ibn Rabah exhorted thus: ""You have recognized the truth, stick to it."" It is reported when caliph 'Uthman ibn 'Affan was surrounded by the rebels, he one day stepped out of his to clarify his position. At this the rebels started mercilessly pelting him with stones interrupting his speech. All of the sudden, the voice of one of the wives of the Holy Prophet could be heard from within her house. She was saying: ""Your Prophet has acquitted himself from those who have broken up into sects,"" and she recited: ""Verily those who segregated their religion and splintered into sects, you have no part in them in the least. Their affair is with Allah, he will in the end inform them of their doings."" Qadi Ismail thinks that it was the voice of umm al-mu'minin, Salmah. He also says that everyone who innovates in Islam up to the last will fall under the ambit of this verse. Mutarrif ibn Shikhir said: ""If all the types o desires were one, one could have said that truth might be in it. When the desires sprout into numerous forms and factions, and intelligent one can make out that truth is not divisive by nature."" Imam Bukhari has narrated on the authority of 'Umar ibn Mus'ab that he asked his father of the meaning of the verse: ""Shall we not inform you who will at a loss with his deeds,"" are they the Kharijiyyah. He replied: ""No, they are the Jews and Christians. The Jews rejected Prophet Muhammad, and the Christians rejected paradise saying that there is no food and drink therein."" He continued, the Kharijiyyah are those of whom Allah say: ""Those who break to covenant of Allah after fortifying it."" In another narration, the following verse has been cited: ""When they strayed, Allah turned their hearts away."" Mus'ab ibn Sa'd said that they are meant in this verse as they had strayed from the truth and started making baseless interpretations of the Qur'an. Likewise does all the innovators fall under the umbrella of this verse as they subject the Qur'an to their own whimsical understanding. In the above verse, an indication is given that such people will think that they are on guidance, but they will be not. 'Abd al-Humaid narrates on the authorityu of Hasan that the Holy Prophet said: ""Whoever abandons my practice is not of me."" He then recited the following verse: ""Say: If you love Allah follow me, Allah will love you."" Whenever ibn Sirin used to recite the following verse: ""When you see a person engaged in vain discourse regarding Our signs, turn away from them unless they turn to different theme. If satan ever makes you forget, then after recollection sit not in the company of those who do wrong,"" he though that it referred to those who follow their desires and passions. Abu al-Jauza used to say: ""I would prefer my house to be full of monkeys and swine than having such a person as a neighbour."" There are many more verses of the Qur'an which speaks of the evils of innovation, but the above is sufficient. 2. Condemnation of bid'ah in the Sunnah: The sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad form the second most important source to condemn innovations in religion. There are numerous such sayings, but the following few would suffice our purpose: 1. 'A'ishah bint Siddiq says that she heard the Holy Prophet saying: ""Whoever introduces in this matter of Our's something foreign to it, will be rejected."" In the narration of Muslim: ""Whoever practices any deed which we have not commanded will be rejected."" Scholars have said that this tradition amounts to a third of Islam as it combines all types of factionalism, and deviation and disobedience has been addressed both at once in it. 2. Jabir ibn 'Abdullah narrates that the Holy Prophet used to always mention the following in his sermon: ""Thereafter: the best of speech is the Book of Allah, the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. The worst of affairs are the innovations, and every innovation is a deviation."" In another version, the Holy Prophet used to say: ""There will none to misguide one who Allah guides, and there will be none to guide one who Allah misguides. The best of speech is the Book of Allah, the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. The worst of affairs are the innovations, and every innovation is a deviation."" In the version of Nasa'i: ""And every deviation will be in hell-fire."" It is said that Caliph 'Umar would employ these same words in his sermon. 3. Abu Hurairah reports that the Holy Prophet said: ""Whoever invites towards guidance, he will receive the full reward of those who follows him without their reward being diminished in the least. Whoever invites towards a sin, he will receive the full punishment as those who listened to him without their punishment being diminished in the least."" In the version of Imam Muslim: ""Whomever initiates a good practice that is followed, he will receive its full reward without it being diminished from the actual doers themselves. Whoever initiates an evil practice which is followed, he will receive its full burden without it being diminished from the actual doers themselves."" 4. Imam Tirmidhi and others have narrated on the authority on 'Irbad ibn Sariyah that the Holy Prophet once delivered such a moving sermon that the hearts were quivering and the eyes welled with tears, as if it was a parting advice. He said: ""I exhort you to fear Allah and obedience of those in charged, even if he be an Abysinnian slave. Whoever will live after me will witness many upheavals. Hold steadfast to my practice and the practice of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs after me, hold firmly onto with your teeth. Beware of the novel innovations, for every novelty is a deviation, and deviation is error."" 5. Huzaifah ibn al-Yaman narrates that he asked the Holy Prophet: ""O Apostle of Allah, will there be a period of evil after this period of goodness?"" The Holy Prophet answered: ""Yes. A people will tread a path other than mine, and will follow the guidance of one other than mine."" I asked: ""Will be another evil after this evil: ""A people will invite towards the fire of hell, whoever listens to them will be flung therein."" I asked: ""Describe them, O Apostle of Allah."" He replied: ""Yes, they are of our kind, and will speak our language."" I asked: ""What do you command me to do if I have to meet them?"" He replied: ""Adhere to the community of Muslims and their leader."" I asked: ""If there is no community and no leader?"" He said: ""Distance yourself from these sects, even if it means staying at a bark of a tree until death overtakes you."" 6. In the Sahifah, the following tradition appears: ""The place between then mountains of 'Air and Thaur in Madinah is sacred (hurum). Whoever innovates therein or grants refuge to an innovator therein, then upon him is the curse of Allah, the angels, and of all mankind. No obligatory nor optional prayer of his will be accepted."" 7. It is narrated in the Muwatta on the authority of Abu Hurairah that that once the Holy Prophet entered the cemetery and recited: ""Peace be upon you, O settlement of believers, if Allah wishes we will join you shortly...Some people will be driven away from my pond like how a stray cow is driven away. I will be shouting towards them: Come, come,"" and it will be said to me: "" They had changed after you (left them)."" I will then say: ""Away with them, away with them."" Some scholars have opined that the innovators are meant here, and some the renegades from Islam. 8. The Holy Prophet once said: ""Allah will not suddenly snatch knowledge away from the people, he will uplift knowledge by uplifting the scholars. A time will come when not a single scholar will remain, people will appoint the ignorant as their leaders. They will be asked and they will answer without knowledge, they will be misguided and they will misguide others."" This tradition has been narrated through numerous different chains in Bukhari. 9. Imam Muslim has reported on the authority of ibn Mas'ud that the Holy Prophet said: ""Whoever pleases him that he meet Allah tomorrow as a believer, let him observe the five daily prayers when they are called out. Allah has given your Prophet practices of guidance, and (the prayers) are from these practices of guidance. If you start performing them in your houses like how these people who delay do, you will be abandoning the practice of your Prophet. If you have to ignore any of the practices of your Prophet, you will be misguided."" In another tradition: ""If you leave the practice of your Prophet, you will fall into disbelief."" Regarding these practices of guidance, the Holy Prophet said: ""I am leaving behind two weighty things: the first is the book of Allah wherein is guidance and light. Whoever holds steadfast onto it and grips it will be on guidance, and whoever errs in it will be misguided."" 10. It is reported on the authority of Abu Hurairah that the Holy Prophet said: ""There will appear in my ummah liars and deceivers who will present innovations to you that neither you nor your ancestors had heard about. Beware of them, they do not involve you."" 11. Imam Tahawi has narrated the Holy Prophet said: ""Six people I have cursed, and Allah as well as every Prophet: the exaggerator in the religion of Allah, the one who denies the predestination of Allah, one who believes in fatalism, one who degrades the one whom Allah has exalted and exalts who Allah has degraded, the one who abandins my practice, the one who makes lawful the unlawful injunctions of Allah, and the one who abuses my household whom Allah had sanctified."" 12. Imam Tahawi has also narrated the following tradition on the authority of Mu'adh ibn Jabal: ""When innovations are introduced in my ummah and my Companions are abused, let the scholar display his knowledge. Whoever does not do this, let the curse of Allah, the angels, and the entire mankind be upon them."" 3. Condemnation of bid'ah according to the sayings of the precursors: There are many sayings of the Sahabah, the Tabi'un and other pious people of the golden era of Islam who have denounced innovation in the strongest terms. From amongst the numerous sayings, the following have been selected: 1. Once 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab delivered a sermon and said: ""O people, the Sunnah has been shown to you, and the compulsory duties have been prescribed for you, and you have been left with clear instructions except if you go astray left and right."" He then intertwined his fingers into each other and said: ""Beware of being misled regarding the verse of pelting (the adulterer) that some says: ""We do not find it in the Qur'an."" The Holy Prophet pelted and we had also pelted."" 2. It is reported that once Hudhaifah stood up and said: ""O you assembly of reciters, be steadfast (on Islam), for you have greatly strayed. If you trod left and right you will be misled."" It is narrated that once Hudhaifah entered a Masjid, he stood up, and addressing the people said: ""I fear two things for the people: that they prefer those things which they think to be correct over those things which they know is correct, and that they be misled unknowingly."" On another occasion, he picked up two stones, joined them together and asked a friend of his: ""Can you see any light between these two stones?"" He replied: ""O Abu 'Abdullah, we can not see much light between them."" Hudhaifah then continued: ""I take an oath of that Being in whose possession is my life, innovation will become so rife that only that amount of truth will prevail as to the amount of light between these two stones. By Allah, an innovator will divert from his innovation a bit and people will scold him thus: ""You have misplaced the Sunnah."" When elaborating on the ills of society, he said: ""The first thing to be lost will be trust, and the second will be concentration in Salah. The rungs of Islam will be dislocated one by one and you will have intercourse with your wives during their monthly cycles. You will follow the path of deterioration of those before you inch for inch without any variation. This will continue until a time will come when one group will exclaim: ""Why are there five times salat?"" The ones before you were also misled in this way. Allah only speaks of three times in the Qur'an: ""And establish prayers and the two ends of the day and in a portion of the night."" Another group will say: ""Those who bring faith on Allah are like the Angels. There can be no hypocrite or apostate amongst them."" It is only befitting that Allah will raise these people with the anti-Christ (Dajjal)."" This saying reinforces the tradition of the Holy Prophet as narrated on the authority of Abu Rafi that the Holy Prophet said: ""One of you will be resting on his hinds when he will hear one of my commands or prohibitions. He will say: ""I do not know of it, I do not know of it. It is not present in the Book of Allah that we should follow it."" The Sunnah is there to explain the Qur'an. Whoever clings onto the Qur'an without taking recourse to the Sunnah, he will be misled in understanding the Qur'an."" 3. Ibn Wahab is reported to have said: ""Grasp knowledge before it vanishes, and attain it from the knowledgeable ones. Learn knowledge as one never knows when it will be of benefit to him. A time will come when you will witness a people claiming to call towards the Book of Allah, but they would have discarded it behind their backs."" He is also reported to have said: ""No year passes but a worse one follows it. I do not say that one year or one leader can not be better than the other, but the cream of your scholars and times have passed. A time will come when people will judge matters according to their own understanding, they will be destroying Islam in the process."" He also said: ""To only intend following the Sunnah is better than exerting oneself in bid'ah."" 4. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq said: ""I will not abandon any pratice knowingly which the Holy Prophet used to do. If I leave out any practice, I fear that I will be deviated."" 5. Ibn Mubarak has narrated a story that once 'Umar ibn al-Khattab was informed that one of his governors, Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan, used to eat a variety of foods in one meal. He instructed his slave Yarfa' to inform him when Yazid would dine. When 'Umar was informed of this, he presented himself before Yazid who invited him to dine with him. First a meat broth was served which 'Umar accepted. Thereafter, the dried meat of eye was offered, but 'Umar refused it saying: ""By Allah, O Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan, do you eat one food after another? By that Being who controls the life of 'Umar, if you contradict the practice of the Holy Prophet, you will also mislead your people onto another path ."" Once 'Umar was informed of a person who was fond of going around asking the meanings of various verses of the Qur'an. Co-incidentally this person happened to meet 'Umar who was having supper at the time. 'Umar invited him to join him, and when he had finished eating, he asked: ""O 'Umar what is the meaning of chapter 51: By the Winds that scatter broadcast; And those that lift and bear away heavy weights; And those that flow with ease and gentleness."" 'Umar exclaimed: ""You are the one."" He stood up and beat him up to such an extent that his turban dropped from his head and further told him: ""By Allah, had I found your head shaven, I would have slain you."" He then ordered: ""Wear his clothes for him, lift him upon thorns, expel him from here and see to it that he reaches his dwelling."" 6. Hasan al-Basri said: ""An innovator does not practice any good, nor prays or fasts but he distances himself further from Allah."" Once, Hasan al-Basri whilst expalining the following verse: ""Fasting has been prescribed upon you just as it had been presecribed for the generations before you,"" said: ""The Jews rejected the command of fasting. The Christians distorted it by adding ten more days to thirty days, and shifted its observance to the most convenient time of the year."" Whenever Hasan would narrate this story, he would say: ""A little good done according to the Sunnah is better than a lot of actions done incorrectly."" 7. Abu Idris al-Khaulani once expressed the following wish: ""It is better for me to see a fire in the mosque which can not be extinguished then seeing an innovator who can not be rectified."" 8. Fudail ibn 'Ayad said: ""Follow the path of guidance, do not let your inferior numbers bother you. Beware of the paths of deviation, do not be deceived by the great numbers of those involved in it."" 9. Abu Qulabah: ""Do not sit in the company of those who follow their passions, and do not dispute with them. I can not guarantee that they will not wrongly convince you in their deviation and confuse you in the matter of truth."" According to many scholars, Abu Qulabah was one of the erudite jurists of his time. 10. Sufyan al-Thauri used to say: ""Words are not effective if not backed up with actions, no words and deeds are effective without an intention, and not word, action, or intention can be correct if they are not in line with the Sunnah."" 11. Ibn Sirin used to always opine that those who follow their desires are quicker to turn renegade from Islam than others. 12. Yayha ibn Kathir advised that if an innovator is seen using a particular street, you should use another street. 13. Yahya ibn Abu 'Umar Shaibani said: ""Allah rejects the repentance of an innovator, and an innovator always progresses to a more lower spiritual state."" 14. Muqatil ibn Hayyan said: ""Those who follow their passions are the calamity of the ummah of Muhammad. They mention the name of the Holy Prophet and his household and used it to bait the ignorant ones and throw them to perdition."" 4. Condemnation of unsolicited opinions (ra'y al-madhmum): Opinions in religion which are arrived at which have no basis in the Qur'an and Sunnah are called ra'y al-madhmum. More than often they have some semblance to the shari'ah, but they belong to the species of innovation, that is why they are called dalal (deviations). 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn 'As narrates that he heard the Holy Prophet saying: ""Allah will not snatch knowledge away from the people after he has given it to them suddenly, but he will remove it by uplifting their scholars. Only the ignorant will remain who will be asked questions, and they answer according to their own understanding. They will be thus misled themselves and will also mislead others."" 1. Ibn al-Mubarak has narrated on the authority of 'Auf ibn Malik al-Ashja'i that the Holy Prophet said: ""More nation will split into more then seventy sects, the greatest amongst them in perversion will be those who will understand religion through dint of their own understanding. They will make unlawful those things which Allah has made lawful, and will make lawful what Allah has prohibited."" Ibn 'Abd al-Barr says: ""This is arriving at conclusions without any basis and opining in religion by means of suspicion. The words of the tradition: ""They will make unlawful those things which Allah has made lawful, and will make lawful what Allah has prohibited."" What is learnt is that what is lawful is that which is contained in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah, and what is unlawful is that which is contained in the in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah. Whoever does not know this and answers religious questions without knowledge, and draws inductions which has no basis in the Sunnah, this is the meaning of ra'y madhmum.2. Ibn al-Mubarak has also narrated in one tradition that from amongst the signs of the last day are three. One of them is that knowledge will be sought from the youngsters. It was asked as to who are the young ones. Ibn al-Mubarak replied: ""Those who reach decisions on the basis of their personal reasoning."" 3. According to ibn Wahb: ""Those who voice their personal opinions are the enemies of the Sunnah. When they are asked something, they are shy to say; ""I do not know."" Beware of them, and let them not ensnare you."" 4. Hisham ibn 'Urwah narrates on the authority of his father the following: ""The condition of the Banu Israel was prosperous until youngsters were born amongst them who were the sons of slaves. They started voicing their personal opinions, and this is how the Banu Israel was misled."" 5. Darraj ibn Sahm says: ""A time will come when a person will fatten his horse until it's fat hangs. He will then ride on it into the cities and will return disheartened. He will look for a person who can inform him of the validity of some action he did, none will be able to answer him except those who will answer on suspicious grounds."" 6. Once a person asked Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab something. He answered at it was written down. Sa'id's personal opinion was asked which he also answered and it was written down. Someone asked him: ""I writing your own opinion, O Abu Muhammad?"" Upon this, Sa'id ibn al-Musayyab asked the person to give him his paper. He took it and tore out the portion which held his personal opinion. 7. Malik ibn Anas says: ""The Holy Prophet passed away and this affair had been completed and perfected. We should rather follow the sayings of the Holy Prophet and not our own conclusions. If opinions are followed, a person will come who has a better idea, followed by another one who has an even better one. Every time a person will come forward with an alternate or opinion, he will be followed. I think this process will never end."" In conclusion, ra'y madhmum is that which is based on ignorance and on the following of the base desires without taking recourse to the original sources of Islam. This type of opinionating has been denounced. However, if the bases of opinion is the Qur'an and Sunnah, and it is structured upon the principles of shari'ah, it will not be denounced. 5. Position of a mubtadi' in the eyes of the shari'ah: None of the devotions of an innovator is (mubtadi') is accepted in the eyes of the shari'ah. These include his salat, fasting, his charity, and all other good works. One sitting in the company of a mubtadi' is entrusted to himself for protection from sin, and the one who honours a mubtadi' assists in tearing down the fabric of Islam. The perpetual cursing of Allah is upon such a person, he will barred from gaining intercession on the last day, he will be driven away from the pond, and he will meet Allah whilst Allah will be angry and displeased with him. He will die a humiliating death, his face will be blackened when he will be resurrected, and he will be consigned to the blazing fire. From amongst the writings of As'ad ibn Musa, the following is found: ""Beware of being a brother, friend, or acquaintance of an innovator, as one tradition says: ""Whoever sits in the company of an innovator, divine grace is removed from him and he is entrusted to himself. Whoever walks towards an innovator, walks towards the destruction of Islam."" In another tradition: ""There is no deity which is worshipped except Allah but that Allah dislikes nothing more than the one who follows his desires."" The Holy Prophet had cursed such a person. Verily Allah does not accept the optional nor the obligatory prayers of such a person. Every time he exerts himself in doing good, he distances himself further away from Allah. So, avoid their company and disgrace them as the Holy Prophet had distanced himself from them and disgraced them."" The devotions of an innovator not being accepted holds one of two possibilities: that all actions in reality are not accepted, and only those innovated acts are not accepted. The first possibility has three probable meanings: The first is that in reality all his actions and deeds are null and void. None of his deeds without any exception is accepted. This is a severe interpretation. Once 'Ali ibn Abu Talib delivered a sermon brandishing a sword in his had which had a piece a paper attached to it. He said: ""By Allah! We do not have any Book which we recite except the Qur'an and that which is contained in this parchment."" He enrolled the scroll and the various laws relating to the zakat of camels were contained therein. The following was also contained: ""Madinah is sacred from between 'Air and Thaur. Whoever innovates therein, may the curse of Allah, the angels, and of the entire mankind be upon him. No obligatory nor voluntary prayers will be accepted of him."" The second possibility is that of the first interpretation is that the deviant principles of his devious practices permeates all his other deeds. The example of this is rejecting the khabr wahid (isolated tradition) upon which many rules (ahkam) are based. The Holy Prophet is reported to have said: ""Every action not based on our matter is impropriety."" 6. Precarious mindset of a mubtadi' that he is upon the perfect truth:" 31,"Erection of Walls and Building Around Graves",5521,637,636,"Erection of Walls and Building Around Graves I have mentioned above the prohibitions given by Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam regarding the erection of walls etc. around the graves. Our Ulama i.e, the Ulama of the Ahlus sunnah have in the light of these traditions given decrees that these actions are haraam unlawful. Imaam Muhammed Rahmatullahi alayh who is a student of imam Abu Hanifa rahmatullahi alayh and who has codified the teachings of Imaam Abu Hanifa rahmatullahi alayh says: Differences in the Ummah and the Straight Path by Maulana muhammad Yusuf Ludhianvi Translated by Maulana Zahier Ahmed Ragie pg 58-59 Erection of Walls and Building Around Graves I have mentioned above the prohibitions given by Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam regarding the erection of walls etc. around the graves. Our Ulama i.e, the Ulama of the Ahlus sunnah have in the light of these traditions given decrees that these actions are haraam unlawful. Imaam Muhammed Rahmatullahi alayh who is a student of imam Abu Hanifa rahmatullahi alayh and who has codified the teachings of Imaam Abu Hanifa rahmatullahi alayh says: We do not regard it lawful to throw more soil on a grave than that which has come out of it, and we regard it makrooh to make the surfaces of the graves solid…. Rasulullah salalahua layhi wa salam has prohibited us from building around graves and has also forbidden us from making the graves solid. This is our teaching and the opinion of Imaam Abu Hanifa (Kitaabul Aathaar pg96) Since Rasulullah salalahu alayhiw a salam commanded Hadhrat Ali Radhiallahu anhu to flatten those graves which had been raised… Imam Shafi rahmatullahi alayh says In light of this hadeeth I have seen the Ulama of Makkah giving orders of demolishing buildings erected around graves. (Nawawi Commentary of Muslim pg312 Vol1) From the above we learn that the Auliya were innocent of these shrines, tombs and buildings erected at their graves. i They did not acknowledge these shrines, tombs and buildings neither did they allow it nor reuest it. The Materialist leaders and people are responsible for this. They have invented these customs, which are contrary to the teachings of Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam. Today many people regard these practices as the only means of gaining the guardianship and friendship of Allah. There exists many people who use the nefarious practice purely as a business venture, and people fall prey to their evil. All the hanafi books of jurisprudence eg. Alamgiri, Quadi Khan, Durre Mukhtaar, Kabiri etc. Have termed these actions as unlawful. Allamah ibn Aabideen Shaami Rahmatullahi says I have not seen anybody permitting these actions (Durre Mukhtaar pg237 Vol2) And Qazi Thana-ullah Panipatti Rahmatullahi alayh says: These acts which people do i.e the building of large walls, buildings, domes, burning of lamps etc. are all haraam (Mala Budda Minhu pg84)" 32,"Refuting Bahrelvi (Raza Khanis) False Accusation",5522,637,636,"It is in 5 volumes and contains some 2000 pages of information and rebuttal’s of Barelvism, its leaders, allegations and beliefs. It is by Maulana Dr Khalid Mahmud (MA PhD), Director of the Islamic Academy, Manchester, England. Published in Urdu by Darul Ma’arif, Urdu Bazar, Lahore. Mutala-e-Barelwiyyat (Study on the Barelvis) - this is the most It is in 5 volumes and contains some 2000 pages of information and rebuttal’s of Barelvism, its leaders, allegations and beliefs. It is by Maulana Dr Khalid Mahmud (MA PhD), Director of the Islamic Academy, Manchester, England. Published in Urdu by Darul Ma’arif, Urdu Bazar, Lahore. 2) Al-Shihab al-Thaqib ala’l mustariq al-Kadhib in 3 volumes by the Shaykh al-Islam of the Deobandi’s in his time, Maulana Sayyid Husayn Ahmad al-Madani (d. 1957 CE) against Ahmad Rida and his allegations etc. It has been published by Anjuman Irshad al-Muslimin, Shadab Colony, Hameed Nizami Road, Lahore, Pakistan (this publisher and distributor is a stockist of many works in reply to Barelvi’s as will be seen below). He was a contemporary to Ahmed Rida Khan and was in the holy city of Medina al-Munawwara when Rida Khan came to convince the Ulama of Makkah and Madinah, that 4 of the Ulama of Deoband were unbelievers. The book written by Ahmed Rida was Husam al-Haramayn in the early 1900’s.This book was the real initiator to the Deobandi-Barelvi conflict of the last 100 years. Had this book not been written and signed albeit via his deception of the Ulama of Hijaz, may be the conflict between both sides may never have gone to such a deep extent. Allahu a’lam. Sayyid Husayn Ahmad gave the definitive Deobandi reply to the allegations made by Rida Khan, and the Sayyid was then in contact with a number of the Hijazi Ulama who had initially signed the Barelvi fatwa. A number of these Ulama later retracted their signatures and found in favour of the Ulama of Deoband. The events behind this will be mentioned soon from the pen of Sayyid Husayn Ahmad himself if Allah wills, in another article with full names of those who signed against Rida Khan. 3) Al-Muhannad ala’l Mufannad, (also known as al-Tasdeeqat li-Dafa al-Talbeesat), and is usually known commonly as: Aqeeda Ulama Ahl-e-Sunnat Deoband, by the great Muhaddith and commentator of Sunan Abu Dawud, Maulana Khalil Ahmad al-Sahranpuri (d. 1346 AH) in 20 large volumes. This book contains some 26 questions asked by the Ulama of Hijaz to the Ulama of Deoband with regard to questions that could be used to detect if the Deobandi’s were non-Sunni’s or “Wahhabi’s”. All the answers prove that the Deobandi’s are from Ahl-us-Sunnah, and it contains the testification of some 24 early Deobandi Ulama, followed by the attestation of some 36 later Ulama from the Indian subcontinent. The most important thing to bear in mind is the signatures from the Ulama of Makkah, Madina, al-Azhar and Syria - who also wrote short letters to declare in praiseworthy terms that the Deobandi’s are true Sunni’s, and the allegations made by the Barelvi’s holds no weight in their scholarly eye’s. There are some 46 names from this latter list alone!We have listed 34 Ulama previously in an article on Shaykh Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki from Makkah. He has this book al-Muhannad - for he himself quoted a whole Fatwa from it and mentioned the names of most of the Ulama who signed it from Hijaz etc. This same Fatwa was translated and reproduced in Shaykh Hisham al-Kabbani’s Encyclopaedia of Islamic Doctrine (vol. 3). This book is available from us if anyone is interested in a photocopy for a small remuneration, or it may be bought directly from: i) Idara Islamiyyat, 190 Anarkali, Lahore 2, ii) Idaratul-Ma’arif, Darul Ulum, Karachi 14, iii) Darul-Ishaat, Urdu Bazar, Karachi 1 and iv) Maktaba Darul Ulum, Karachi 14 - Pakistan.NOTE: Shaykh Muhammad Alawi al-Makki did not list all the Ulama of Makkah, Madina, al-Azhar and Syria who wrote commendations to vindicate the Ulama of Deoband from the allegations made by Barelvi’s. We shall reproduce the full list soon, insha’Allah, with full references.What can be concluded is that the Ulama from Makkah, Madina, al-Azhar and Syria all admired Darul-Ulum Deoband and its scholars. Please read below what Rida Khan had to say about the Deobandi’s and their admirers, which therefore included all these late Ulama, and in our times, this includes the late Shaykh Abdal Fattah Abu Ghuddah and the currently living Shaykh Muhammad Alawi al-Makki.Ahmad Rida Khan said: “If anyone admires Darul Ulum Deoband, or does not believe in the corruption of the Deobandi’s and does not scorn them, THEN THIS IS SUFFICIENT TO MAKE A JUDGEMENT FOR HIM TO BE A NON-MUSLIM!” (Fatawa Ridwiyya, 6/43 of Rida Khan).A Barelvi by the name of Didar Ali declared in his Tafsir Mizan al-Adyan (2/270): “The Deobandi’s are heretics and straying. They are the most wicked of all the creatures of Allah!!” (I say doesn’t this mean that this Barelvi believed that Deobandi’s are worse than all the wicked groups of unbelievers, even the animals and Shaytan himself? What kind of person could say such a thing - please decide for yourself?!)Rida Khan in his Malfuzat (pp. 325-6) said: “IF THERE IS A GATHERING OF HINDU’S, CHRISTIANS, QADIYANI’S AND DEOBANDI’S, THE DEOBANDI’S ALONE SHOULD BE REJECTED, FOR THEY HAVE COME OUT OF THE FOLD OF ISLAM AND DEFECTED FROM IT. AGREEMENT WITH THE UNBELIEVERS IS FAR BETTER THAN THE AGREEMENT WITH THE APOSTATES!!”Let us finish off with one more quote from Rida Khan: “THE WORKS OF THE DEOBANDI’S ARE MORE UNCLEAN THAN THE VARIOUS WORKS OF THE HINDU’S. THE DOUBT ABOUT THE HERESY OF ASHRAF ALI DEOBANDI AND SUSPICION ABOUT HIS PUNISHMENT IS ALSO UNBELIEF. TO CLEANSE THE IMPURITY WITH THE PAPERS OF THE WORKS PRODUCED BY THE DEOBANDI’S IS NOT LAWFUL, NOT BECAUSE OF THE RESPECT FOR THEIR BOOKS, BUT BECAUSE OF THE REVERENCE OF THE LETTERS WITH WHICH THEY HAVE BEEN WRITTEN.” (Fatawa Ridwiyya, 2/136, Faisalabad, Pakistan).Needless to say, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanawi al-Deobandi was cleared by the Ulama of Hijaz, al-Azhar and Syria. We wonder what today’s Barelvi’s have to say about these shocking quotes from Rida Khan and his disciple Didar Ali - which ultimately also apply to all those we have mentioned above and below, be it from Hijaz, al-Azhar or Syria.PART TWOImportant note:Questions 19, 20, 22, 23, 24 and 25 contain specific replies to Rida Khan’s allegations made in his Husam al-Haramayn. The answers given were verified by all the Ulama who signed this book - and thus Rida Khan was found guilty of deception and the 4 Deobandi Ulama that Rida Khan declared to be Kaafirs, were all exonerated. Readers should never forget the Hadith about calling one’s fellow Muslim a Kafir, and how it rebounds on its originator if it doesn’t actually apply to the one that it was directed at by the director (Rida Khan in this case) of such accusations. May Allah save us from the Kharijite principle of Takfir.Please ask yourself who was right: Some 46 Ulama who signed al-Muhannad ala’l Mufannad from Makkah, Madina, Azhar and Syria, (plus some 60 Ulama of Hind and Pakistan) - or was it the one-man campaign of Rida Khan? 4) Ghayatul Ma’mul fi Ilm Ghayb al-Rasul by the Mufti of the Shafi’is in Madinah in his time, Shaykh Ahmad al-Barzanji. This book was written in refutation of Ahmad Rida Khan’s views on Ilm al-Ghayb (Knowledge of the Unseen) possessed by the Holy Prophet - sallallahu alaihi wa sallam. Here are some quotes from this book.On page 28, Shaykh Barzanji said that Rida Khan was: “One who stuck to his deviant beliefs because of his stubbornness and animosity…”Also on the same page: “(He) acknowledges himself to be a scholar, whereas the thing he claims for himself (ilm) was never given to him….”“His ta’weel and tahreef (interpretation and wilful changing of the truth) is an example of extreme treachery and obvious ignorance..”“He (Rida Khan) is an ignoramus…”These statements were conferred also by the following Ulama:i) Shaykh Abdal Qadir Tawfiq al-Shalabi al-Tarablusi al-Hanafi, who later resided in Madina al-Munawwara. He added on page 33 that Rida Khan was a “quarrel monger” and his (Rida Khan): “Beliefs are a pile of lies, false allegations and completely against religious teachings…”ii) Shaykh Fatih al-Tahiri, Muhaddith and Faqih of the Maliki’s declared Rida Khan to be: “One who strives to create dissension….” and: “Is one of those people who follow their low bestial desires and whatever Shaytan pours in their heart….”The following Ulama conferred and agreed upon the rebuttal of Shaykh Barzanji against Rida Khan:i) Mufti Tajuddin Ilyas al-Hanafiii) Shaykh Muhammad Sa’eed al-Dalailiii) Sayyid Abbas Ridwaniv) Shaykh Umar al-Hamdanv) Shaykh Khalil al-KharbutiThe background to the compilation of Ghayatul Ma’mul has been mentioned in the biography of Shaykh Husayn Ahmad al-Madani, known as Cherag-e-Muhammad by his disciple: Maulana Muhammad Zahidul Husayni. Details to follow insha’Allah.OTHER BOOKS IN REPLY TO ERRONEOUS CLAIMS ONILM AL-GHAYB MADE BY BARELVI’S 5) Al-Sahm al-Ghayb fi kabd Ahlul Rayb by al-Shaykh al-Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah al-Kashmiri (d. 1352 AH). This work was mentioned by the late Shaykh Abdal Fattah Abu Ghudda in his editing of Shaykh al-Kashmiri’s book: al-Tasreeh bima Tawatur fi nuzul al-Masih (p.30). It was written in Persian and Shaykh Abdal Fattah mentioned that it was written against the Barelvi’s. Shaykh Abdal Fattah declared Shaykh al-Kashmiri to be the Imam of His Age (Imam al-Asr). 6) Izalatul Rayb an Aqeeda Ilm al-Ghayb by Maulana Abu Zahid Muhammad Sarfraz Khan, Shaykhul-Hadith in Madrasa Nusratul-Ulum, Gujranwala, Pakistan. This book was written originally in 1959, and published by Maktaba Safdaria again in 1994. It is in 536 pages and it is a mine of quotes and explanations from classical books of Hadith and aqeedah; and it contains extensive replies to the Barelvi’s on this delicate issue. Amongst the extensive replies to Barelvi’s in this book, mention may be made of his rebuttals to Rida Khan, Ahmad Yar Khan (especially a refutation from passages in his Ja’al Haqq) and especially Muhammad Umar. This book although in Urdu contains all the documentary proofs in Arabic also - it is very thorough and advisable for all who wish to know this issue in full depth.A REPLY TO AHMAD RIDA KHAN’S HUSAM AL-HARAMAYN AND A LIST OF HIJAZI ULAMA WHO LATER CONDEMNED IT AND VINDICATED FOUR DEOBANDI ULAMA 7) Aqaid Ulama-e-Deoband aur Husamul-Haramayn ka mukammil Jawab by 3 of the greatest Deobandi Ulama: Shaykh Khalil Ahmad al-Sahranpuri, al-Sayyid Husayn Ahmad al-Madani and Shaykh Muhammad Manzur Nu’mani who died a few years ago. This book is a refutation of the book that initiated the Barelvi onslaught against the Ulama of Deoband, known as Husamul-Haramayn. Rida Khan claimed in this book that 4 Ulama of Deoband had become unbelievers for alleged beliefs in their various works and in doing so he took his campaign all the way to Makkah and Madinah to attach signatures to this book from its Ulama.When the book: Husam al-Haramayn was later refuted, and the reality of the true beliefs of these 4 Deobandi Ulama was explained and cleared in various works (like al-Muhannad ala’l Mufannad listed above), a number of these Ulama of Hijaz later retracted their signatures and sided with the Ulama of Deoband. The Barelvi’s never usually mentions this point, and this act in itself is a clear distancing and rebuttal from Ahmad Rida Khan’s allegations. This book has been published in 328 pages by Darul-Ishaat, Urdu Bazar, Karachi, Pakistan.PART THREEIn the book Cherag-e-Muhammad (p. 96) by Shaykh Zahidul Husayni, Maulana Sayyid Husayn Ahmad al-Madani listed the following 14 Ulama from Hijaz who later repudiated the claims made by Ahmad Rida Khan in his Husam al-Haramayn as follows:The Ulama of Makkah al-Mukarrama:1) Shaykh Abdullah Makki al-Shafi’i2) Shaykh Shu’ayb al-Maliki3) Shaykh Ahmad al-Makki4) Shaykh Abdul Jalil Effendi al-Hanafi5) Shaykh Ahmad Rashid al-Hanafi6) Shaykh Muhibuddin al-Hanafi7) Shaykh Muhammad Siddiq Afghani al-MakkiThe Ulama of Madinah al-Munawwara1) Shaykh Yasin Misri al-Shafi’i2) Shaykh Abdullah al-Nablusi3) Shaykh Abdul Hakim Bukhari al-Hanafi4) Shaykh Mullah Shankar Bukhari5) Shaykh al-Sayyid Muhammad Amin Ridwan Shafi’i6) Shaykh Effendi Ma’mun al-Bori7) Shaykh Fatih Tahiri al-MalikiNOTE: Sayyid Husayn Ahmad al-Madani lived in Madina for a number of years and had taught Sahih al-Bukhari in the Holy Prophet’s (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) Mosque in Madina al-Munawwara, thus, he had first hand contact with most of the Ulama in Makkah and Madinah in those days. One of the Barelvi’s claimed that Shaykh Husayn only took on the title al-Madani because he died there! In fact his biographer and disciple lists the following years that Shaykh al-Madani actually spent in Madina al-Munawwara in his Cherag-e-Muhammad (p. 73):i) From the beginning of the year 1317 AH to the end of 1318 AH (2 years)ii) From the beginning of the year 1320 AH to the end of the year 1326 AH (7 years in all)iii) From the beginning of the year 1330 AH to the end of the year 1331 AH (2 years)iv) From the beginning of the year 1332 AH to the end of the year 1335 AH (4 years)Thus, in total he spent 15 years in the holy city of Madina. Yet again a vicious lie has been vanquished. What can cause a person to lie in such a bold vain is beyond us! This lie emanated from an individual called Faqeer Khan; and even today his lie remains on their own website. So consider how insincere this person of appalling manners really is. He also claimed that his own Shaykh received the Sufi Khirqa from Shaykh Abdal Ghani al-Nablusi! I say: How can this be possible when Shaykh Abdal Ghani died over 200 years ago!THE BOOKS OF THE CHIEF DEBATER OF THE DEOBANDI’S:AL-SHAYKH AL-SAYYID MURTADA HASANAL-CHANDPURI AL-DEOBANDI (d. 1951 CE) 8) Al-Teen al-Lazib ala’l Aswad al-Kadhib (Sticking clay on the Dark Liar); a direct refutation of Ahmad Rida Khan. 9) Al-Sahabul Midrar. An example of a quote from this book was given by al-Sayyid al-Mufti Abdar Rahim in his Fatawa (1/6) where an allegation was made against Shaykh Khalil Ahmad al-Sahranpuri. The quote being (p. 49) from Shaykh Khalil in reply to Ahmad Rida Khan and his followers:“I and my teachers consider such a man an unbeliever, an apostate and an accursed person who says that any creature, let alone Satan (cursed be he!), possesses more knowledge than the Holy Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).” 10) Majmua Rasail Chandpuri, published by Anjuman Irshad al-Muslimin, Lahore, Pakistan, 1398 AH. 11) Iskaat al-Mu’tadi, published by Anjuman Irshad al-Muslimin, Lahore, Pakistan, 1398 AH. 12) Tawdih al-Bayan fi Hifz al-Iman - a reply to Barelvi allegations against Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanawi’s Hifz al-Iman, published by Anjuman Irshad al-Muslimin, Lahore, Pakistan, 1398 AH. 13) Radd al-Takfeer ala’l Fahash at-Tanzeer. This is a recent title that has been discovered, and it examines the Fitna of Takfeer (taking Muslims out of the fold of Islam) made by Rida Khan.MAULANA ASHRAF ALI THANAWI’S DEFENCE FROM BARELVI ALLEGATIONS MADE AGAINST HIS HIFZ AL-IMANA common Barelvi allegation is that Maulana Ashraf Ali did not reply to claims made by Ahmad Rida Khan in his Husam al-Haramayn, and Tamheed-e-Iman against his Hifz al-Iman! This is far from the truth. In fact the new reprints of Hifz al-Iman contain Maulana Thanawi’s full rebuttals, and the book: Al-Muhannad ala’l Mufannad also clarifies and answers the Barelvi charges further, and as we have mentioned many times before it contains the testificatory letters and signatures of the Ulama of Makkah, Madinah, al-Azhar and Syria, to refute Barelvi allegations. Maulana Thanawi wrote the following works in repudiation of Barelvi allegations, which are available along with his Hifz al-Iman, published by Anjuman Irshad al-Muslimin, Lahore, 1980 CE: 14) Bastul-Banan li-Kaffil-Lisan an Kitabi Hifz al-Iman, written in the year 1329 AH in reply to questions put to him by the above named Sayyid, Murtada Hasan from Chandpur. 15) Tagyeerul-Unwaan fi Ba’di Ibaaraati Hifz al-Iman, written in the year 1342 AH, in answer to another question put to him.NOTE: The new edition of Hifz al-Iman contains a 73 page preface and history to the Barelvi allegations made by Ahmad Rida Khan, and a rebuttal to charges made against Maulana Thanawi and others by Anwar Ahmad.PART FOURTHE BOOKS OF MAULANA MUHAMMAD MANZUR NU’MANIMaulana Muhammad Manzur Nu’mani (b. 1905 CE - 1997 CE?) was a student of Maulana Thanawi who actually met Ahmad Rida Khan in his last years. He had more than a 100 works to his credit and was the editor of the well-known Urdu journal: Al-Furqan, for over 50 years. English readers may be familiar with his refutation of Shi’ites, under the title: “Khomeini, Iranian Revolution and the Shi’ite Faith”, and there is also a 4 volume work by him under the title: “Meaning and Message of the Traditions” (Hadith commentary). 16) Deoband aur Barelwi ke Ikhtilaf-i-Niza par Faisalakun Munazarah (Sanbhal, 1966). This work provides a written debate giving answers in defence of Deobandi Ulama after the Barelvi’s failed to appear for a debate that was due to be held in Lahore, Pakistan. 17) Fath Bareilly Ka-dil Kash Nazarah, which contains a debate between Maulana Nu’mani and Sardar Ahmad al-Barelvi 18) Sa’eeqa Asmaani, which contains another debate between Maulana Nu’mani and Rahm Ilahi al-Barelvi.Needless to say, Maulana Nu’mani was the victor in all of the debates he published to expose Barelvi allegations made against the Deobandi’s.BOOKS BY OTHER AUTHORS 19) Targheem Hizb al-Shaytan Tabsweeb Hifz al-Iman by Shaykh Abul Rida Muhammad Ataullah Qasimi Bihari, printed by Anjuman Irshad al-Muslimin, Lahore, 1399 AH. This contains further replies to Barelvi allegations made against Maulana Thanawi’s Hifz al-Iman. 20) Nusrat Asmaani bir-Firqa Rida Khani - This book contains a debate between Maulana Abdal Shakr and Fakhr Ala-Abaadi al-Barelvi and others. 21) ‘Ibarat-e-Akaabir, by Shaykh al-Hadith Muhammad Sarfraz Khan, printed by Madrasa Nusratul-Ulum, Gujranwala, Pakistan 22) Muballigh Wahhabiyya Ka-karez - This book contains a debate between Maulana Nur Muhammad Nanautwi and Ubayd al-Rida Muhammad Hashmat Ali Khan al-Barelvi. 23) Barelwi Fitna Ka-Nayaroop, by Maulana Muhammad Arif Sanbahli Nadwi, published by Kutub Khana al-Furqan, Lucknow, India. 24) Al-Barelwiyya: Aqaid wa Ta’reekh (The Barelvi’s: Beliefs and History), by the late Shaykh Ihsan Ilahi Zaheer, 1984, 253 pages, published by Idara Tarjuman al-Sunnah, 475 Shadman Colony, Lahore, Pakistan. This book contains a lengthy preface by the late Maliki Qadi and personal friend of Shaykh Muhammad Alawi al-Maliki, and he is Shaykh Atiyya Muhammad Salim al-Madani (died July 1999, he used to give lecture’s in Masjid al-Nabawi). Shaykh Ihsan was killed by a bomb explosion while delivering a speech in Pakistan. He is well known for his bold refutations against the Shi’ites, Qadiyani’s and Bahai’s also. 25) Fatawa Rahimiyah by al-Mufti al-Sayyid Abdur Rahim al-Qadri al-Lajpuri. In various parts of his Fatawa collection the learned Mufti has replied to a number of Barelvi allegations and practices (see Vol. 1/pp. 2-13, pp. 47-52, pp. 55-65, pp. 334-7, Vol. 2/pp. 204-208, pp. 240-246, pp. 247-250, pp. 270-271, pp. 272-274, pp. 278-281, Vol. 3/pp. 1-3 and other places). 26) Ikhtilaf-e-Ummat aur Sirat-e-Mustaqim, by Maulana Muhammad Yusuf al-Ludhianvi from Pakistan. This book is in 472 pages and it contains a large section on Deobandi-Barelvi differences. A partial English translation has been printed with the title: “Differences in the Ummah and the Straight Path”, (translated by Maulana Zahier Ahmed from South Africa). It has been published by Zam Zam Publishers, Karachi, Pakistan in English, and by Maktaba Madania, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Pakistan in Urdu.If any further titles are forthcoming the list will be updated if Allah wills." 33,"Tawaaf (Circumbulate) Sujood (Prostrating) ETC of Graves",5523,637,636,"The ulama of the Ahlus-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah very clearly explained it’s unlawfulness Since tawaaf, sujood, ruku, standing with hands folded are all acts of ibadah (worship) and our shariah has not allowed such respect and reverance of graves which result in worship, therefore they are forbidden. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam was aware that previous nations went astray due to such excesses, thus he laid great emphasis for his ummah to stay free from such acts. Some ignorant people make tawaaf, sujood, etc, on graves. These are all unlawful acts. The ulama of the Ahlus-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah very clearly explained it’s unlawfulness Since tawaaf, sujood, ruku, standing with hands folded are all acts of ibadah (worship) and our shariah has not allowed such respect and reverance of graves which result in worship, therefore they are forbidden. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam was aware that previous nations went astray due to such excesses, thus he laid great emphasis for his ummah to stay free from such acts. Ummul Mominien Hadhrat Ayesha radhiallahu anha reports that Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam during his later days used to abundantly say: Allah’s curse be upon the ‘Yahoood and Nasara’ that they have made the graves of their prophets places of sujooed(Miskaat pg69) In another Hadith Rasulullah salalahu alayhiw a salam is reported to have said: Beware! People of earlier generations made the graves of their prophets places of Sajdah. Beware do not make graves places of sajdah. I am prohibiting you from it. (Ibid) In another hadith it is stated; O Allah do not make my grave an idol that it may be worshipped. The anger and wrath of Allah is generated on that nation who makes the graves of their prophets places of Sujood (worship) (Mishkaat). Hadhrat Qais ibn Saad Radhiallahu anhu says: I went to Heera, there i saw its citizens prostrating themselves before their chiefs. I thought that rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam was more worthy of being prostrated to. On my return I requested his permission to do the same. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam replied: Would you prostrate yourself before my grave after my death? I answered in the negative. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam then said: “Do not do so in my lifetime” If we ponder on these traditions, we will learn how much rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam feared that his ummat should not fall pray to this evil, and with what severity did rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam prohibited this. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam declared the worshipped grave an idol, and cursed the worshippers and regarded the worshipper an hid act of sajdah as a means of generating Allah Ta’ala’s wrath and anger. In view of the above the Ulama of the Ahlus Sunnah have declared making Sajdah to graves as an act of shirk. Mullah Ali Qari commentating on the hadith Allah’s curse be on the Yahood and Nasara writes that the Yahood and Nasara fell prey to Allah’s curse either because, A) Due to their love and respect to the Ambiya, they, in expressing this love and respect, made sajdahto the graves of the Ambiya alayhimus salam and this is shirk. B) Or they used to read Salaah and make sajdah to Allah but in the grave yards they prostrated to their prophets. In the condition of Salaah they used to face the graves and make sajdah to these graves. They thought they were doing two good deeds. Hence Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam prohibited his ummah from indulging in these acts either because it was emulating the yahood or that it involved shirk Hadhrat Shah Wali ullah writes in “Fauzul Kabir”. If you wish to see a perfect example of the practices of the Mushrikeen then look at the general masses and the ignorant of our times. They visit tombs, graves, etc and indulge in many types of shirk. Every wicked and misfortunate act and belief of the previous people is exercised by different groups of our times. May Allah Ta’ala protect us from such beliefs and practices. Hadhrat Qadi Thana ulla pani Pati says: It is haraam to prostrate to the grave of the Ambiya, to make T awaaf of the graves and to ask Aid from the inmates of these graves, all these are haraam acts. In fact many of these acts lead to kufr. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam has cursed these actions an dprohibited them. And Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam said: “Do not make my grave an idol” “It is not permissible to circumbulate the graves because the tawaaf of the kaaba holds the position of Namaaz: Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam has said: Tawaaf of the Kaaba is namaaz. (Irshaadil Taalibien pg18) Burhan Tarjumani says: “We do not regard placing of the hands on the graves as sunnah nor as a good act. However if someone does so, there is no sin. Ainul Aimmah Karabisi says: This was the ruling of the Salaf (Pious predecessor) without reproach. And Shamshul Aimma Makki says: This is an innovation. Do not rub or place your hands on graves nor kiss it, because these are christian customs. (Fatwa Alamgiri pg357 Vol 5) The gist of the above fatwa (decree) is that there is no evil in placing your hands sometimes on the graves as long as it is not regarded as sunnah or an act of virtue. To place hands on the graves regarding it virtuous and a means of gaining “barakah” and kissing the grave or the hand are all innovations. It was not the practice of the Salaf but a christian custom. Vows and Offering At Graves Many People do not only ask for Aid at the graves of the Auliya but make vows eg. That if their needs are fulfilled they would spread a sheet on the grave or place sweets, sweetmeats, etc at graves of the Auliya or would offer a certain amount of money in the name of these Auliya, etc. Regarding these practises it is necessary to establish a few points. 1. To make vows, to gives alms, to distribute food (niyaz) are all acts of ibaadah (worship) Furthermore to worship anyone besides Allah is not permissible. In the famous Hanafi Book “Durre Muktaar” it is state ‘It should be known that the vows and offerings in the name of the dead the placing of money, food, in the name of the Auliya to gain their nearness and blessings, are unanimously haraam. Many people are involved in these customs especially in our time and Allama Qasim has explained this mas’ala in detail in the commentary of “Dural Bihar” Allama Shami says: There are many reasons for such vows (Nazar) to be void and haraam. Firstly: These vows are for created beings and to make vows in the name of any creation is not permissible. Since vows constitute an Ibaada and Ibada of creation is not permissible. Secondly: The person in whose name the vow is pledged is dead, and the dead do not have any power to do anything. Thirdly: If the person making the vow believes that these dead also have the power to fulfill their needs, it is an act of kufr. (Raddul Mukhtaar pg 139) Qadi Thana ullah Pani Pati says: “Ibaada of anyone besides Allah is not permissible, nor is it permissible to ask aid from anyone besides Allah. Hence it is not permissible to make (nazar) a vow in the name of any auliya, since vows are acts of ibaadah. It is affirmed that vows (nazar) are ibaadah and ibaadah is reserved solely for Allah. Therefore to make vows, place food, flowers, sheets, at graves of the Auliya is unanimously void and haraam. 2. If someone has made a vow in the name of any Auliya it is not permissible for him to fulfill it. If he fulfills it he will be punished for commiting a sin. It is explicitly explained in Fatawa Alamgiri, Bahrul Raiq and other fatwa books that it is not permissible to make a vow (make a nazar) of a non permissible acts of shariah, nor is it necessary to fulfill it. (Fatawa Alamgiri pg208 vol1). In fact it is incumbent to repent for making such vows. Hadhrat Qadi Thana Ullah Pani Pati Rahmatullahi alayh says: “If someone has made such a vow, he should not fulfill it because it is incumbent to refrain from sins as far as possible.” (Irshadul Taalibeen pg 18) It is a sin to make such a vow and to fulfill it is a separate sin. Therefore one should repent for the first sin and refrain from committing another sin. 3. If such a vow was made and fulfilled as well, then the thing vowed will be haraam because of veing vowed in the name of someone besides Allah. Thus the cunsumption of such things will not be permissible for anyone. However the person who has made the vow is allwoed to take back his thing and repent provided the thing is still in its original condition. This is the ruling of every such animal intended to be slaughtered in the name of someone besides Allah; As long as the animal is living the person who has vowed is allwoed to take back his animal and repent. And if it is slaughtered in the name of someone besides Allah irrespective of having read Bismillah or not at the time of slaughtering the animal would not be permissible for consumption. Imam Rabbani Mujaddid Alf Thanie Rahmatullahi alayh writes in his Maktoob pg 41 the following: “In accordance with the traditions of fiqh the animals offered in the name of saints and slaughtered at the gravesides of saints are also acts of shirk. Great emphasis is laid on refraining from such acts. There types of offerings are also classified as the offerings in the name of the Shayateen.” 4. If someone has made an offering (vow) exclusively for Allah and only intends the conveyance of it’s reward to the soul of a saint by means of Isaale Thawaab will not be classified as shirk. However, since the general masses are unable to differentiate this from the latter it is advisable to refrain from this type of vows as well. Hadhrat Imam Rabbani Mujaddid Alfi Thanie after his above qoutation writes: This act should also be refrained from as it also has the taint of shirk in it. There are many forms of vows that can be made in the name of Allah: 5. It is correct for someone to vow that “If my wish is fulfilled I will distribute sweets or any other thing to the people living around the grave of a saint”. However, if his wish is fulfilled it will not be necessary for him to distribute the sweets, etc to the people of the area he has vowed to distribute it to. If he insisst that it must be distribute in that area and he feels that until he does not distribute it to that area his vow will be incomplete, then it would clearly indicate that he had not vowed in the name of Allah but rather his offering was for the saint of that area. 6. Another important factor to note, which not only the ignorant masses are victims of but also the learned are unaware of is that vows do not have any effect in the fulfillment of ones wishes. Nor does it have any effect on changing ones “Taqdeer” It is reported in Bukhari and Muslim that Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam is reported to have said: “Do not make vows, for these do not change ones taqdeer, it only takes out money from the misers. Sheikh abdul haq Muhaddith Dehlawi rahmatullahi alayh commentating on this hadeeth says: The reason for prohibiting these types of vows is that they do not change or delay what has been destined to happen. It was the habit of eople to make vows for the removal of difficulties and fulfillemtn of needs, thus they were prohibited as this was the habit of miserly people. The generous people make vows and give charity without the conditions of fulfilment of needs etc. This was prohibition so as to encourage charity without conditions attached for the charity. It is reported in a hadeeth that charity removes difficulties . But in vows there is a form of bargaining, that if my need is fulfilled I will give charity. When vows exclusively offered in the name of Allah do not change Taqdeer, how would it change taqdeer when offered in the name of saints. How unfortunate is man that when he makes a vow and it is not fulfilled he blames Taqdeer and if this need is fulfilled he goes around boasting that I had made a vow at the grave of a certain saint or peer and my needs have been fulfilled. This is the root of falsehood and evil in belief and upon which Shaytaan drives man away from his Creator and makes him a victim of shirk eventually. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam has tried to destroy this root cause of shirk in this hadeeth, that vows are to be offered in the name of Allah and then too they do not change what is going to happen. What then is the condition of vows made in the name of peers, etc?" 34,"The Menace Of Grave-Worship",5524,637,636,"In the East, in countries such as India and Indonesia, the bane of Muslim association and companionship with Hindus, Bhuddists and other Mushrikeen (polytheists) have resulted in a high degree of social and religious integration. The impact of such integration on Muslims has been adverse and highly detrimental since Muslims absorbed the cultural and religious influences of the Mushrikeen cults. In the wake of Muslim association with the Mushrikeen followed the wholesale abdication by Muslims of Islamic values and of the pure and simple Ibaadat practices of Islam. The Sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was sacrificed. Every case of social integration, in which Muslims fused their Islamic culture - the Sunnah - with the influences of the Mushrikeen, was at the peril of Imaan since it resulted in the Muslim abandoning the true and simple Sunnah acts and practices of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and of the Sahaabah. The process of spiritual and Deeni degeneration ensuing in the wake of such social assimilation did not terminate at the point of only abandonment of the Sunnah. Such abandonment resulted in a spiritual and cultural (pertaining to the Sunnah) vacuum which was filled by a mass of accretions - additions and introductions - borrowed from the cultures and religions of the Mushrikeen. Kufr and shrik trappings became interwoven in the pure and priceless Fabric of Islam. The accretions, in many instances, battered the pure teachings of Islam beyond recognition. As the accretions dug deeper into the bodywork of Islam, the ignorant and the unwary led along by unscrupulous swindlers parading as religious divines, considered the new introductions into the Deen as integral parts of Islam. The pure and holy Sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) came to be regarded as alien by the very people who professed to be Muslims and who vociferously asserted their love for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Under the colourful slogan of ""Hubbe Rasool"" (Love of Rasulullah), they perpetrated the worst of abominations--shirk and kufr. They destroyed the beloved, pure, simple and holy Sunnah practices and acts of Ibaadat which that same Rasool (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) whom they professed to love, planted and nurtured with his holy sweat and blood. In the terminology of the Shariah, accretions which displace or tamper with the Sunnah of Nabi-e-Kareem (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) are described as ""bid'ah"" or innovations. In regard to bid'ah, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Every act of bid'ah is deviation (dhalaal), and every act of deviation will be in the Fire."" Bid'ah in the Eyes of the Shariah, is highly reprehensible. Its villainy is such that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ""Whoever honours a bid'ati (perpetrator of bid'ah) helps in the destruction of the foundations of Islam."" Since bid'ah is the displacement of the Sunnah, it will be simple to understand the harsh attitude which Islam adopts towards the perpetrators of bid'ah. If bid'ah was allowed to flourish, the whole of Islam would long ago have been distorted beyond recognition. In fact, there would have remained nothing of Islam. But, Allah Ta'ala willed otherwise. From time to time, Allah Ta'ala raised a small band of devoted and uprighteous Ulama who diligently and resolutely purified Islam of the noxious accretions which the Ahl-e-Bid'ah attached to the Deen. Muslims who have taken to bid'ah, thus renouncing the Sunnah, and adopting acts and practices which have neither origin nor sanction in Islam, come within the purview of the following Qur'aanic aayat: ""Many among them accept Imaan while (in fact) they are Mushriks."" In other words, they profess to be Muslims, but they perpetrate acts of shirk such as worshipping the graves by performing ruku, sajdah and tawaaf to the graves of the Auliya. The fitnah of bid'ah in our time revolves around the cult of grave-worship (qabar puja). A fundamental doctrine of the Bid'ah cult in our day, is belief and practice in grave-worship. Among the acts of shirk offered to the graves by members of the grave-worshipping cult are: * Making ruku of the graves. * Making sajdah to the graves. * Making tawaaf of the graves. * Kissing the graves. * Reversing away from the graves in a show of excessive veneration for the graves. * Decorating the graves with expensive bedding. * Placing foodstuff at the graves. * Arranging festivals and fairs at the graves. Such fairs are called ""urs"" by the grave-worshippers. Bid'ah stunts the intelligence of those who indulge in it. It blinds the spiritual eyes of people. It leads unwary and ignorant people far from the straight path and sends them plunging head-long into an abyss of roohaani (spiritual) darkness. The fall into spiritual ruin is described in the following aayat of the Qur'aan Majeed: ""One who commits shirk with Allah, is as if he has fallen from the sky; then some bird (of prey) snatched him or a wind blew him and deposited him in afar away deep pit (of darkness)."" PEER-WORSHIP Another vile facet of the bid'ah-""grave worship cult"" is the pernicious practice of peer-worship. A ""peer"" is a spiritual mentor or a guide who has to guide disciples (mureeds) along the spiritual path leading to proximity with Allah Ta'ala. But, the ""peers"" heading the grave-worshipping sect are no true spiritual guides. They are wolves in sheep-clothing. About such spiritual frauds who pillage and plunder the Imaan of unwary and innocent people, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ""There will dawn an age when (some) men will don long woollen (religious) garments. Their tongues will be sweeter than sugar, but their hearts will be the hearts of wolves."" In one narration, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) described such religious frauds as ""shayaateen (devils) in human bodies."" These ""peers"" have cast numerous unwary persons into the dregs of shirk and kufr by prevailing on them to execute acts of worship, not only to the graves, but, also to themselves (i.e. to the ""peers""). Thus, we find in this vile cult of grave-worship, its members performing ruku to their ""peers"" and kissing the feet of these impostors. And to crown their villainy, they have an elaborate system of fees which their gullible and ignorant members have to pay for the supposed spiritual guidance offered by the deviates dwelling in bid'ah. In the cult of qabar-puja and peer-puja (grave-worship and peer-worship) greater importance and significance are attributed to acts of graveworship than to even the Fardh Salaat and acts of the Sunnah of Nabi-eKareem (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Prostrating to the graves of the Auliya is considered a greater act of ibaadat than prostrating in the Musjid in the presence of Allah Ta'ala. The fun-fair ""urs"" festival is considered superior to the Hajj of Islam; hence the chiefs of the grave-worshipping sect decreed the cancellation of Hajj because of the regime of Ibn Saud. Hajj was performed during the time of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) even at the time when Makkah Muazzamah was under Kuffaar domination--when the Ka'bah was under the control of the Kuffaar. But, the ""muftis"" of the grave-worshippers have decreed the permissibility and the validity of the cancellation of Hajj in present times merely because of the Saudi regime. The Bareilli molvis, some time ago, published a booklet, ""Tanweerul Hujjah"", which explained their fatwa of the cancellation of Hajj in our times. Thus, according to the grave-worshippers, qabar-puja is an adequate or even a superior substitute for the Fardh Salaat! It is for this reason that we find them so lax in Salaat. Even their ""peers"" are careless regarding the observance of Salaat. Their indifference to the Masnoon (Sunnat) formulae of Durood Shareef is amply illustrated by the fact that they prefer to recite their own concocted ""praises"" and songs about Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) instead of adhering to the forms of Durood taught to the Ummah by Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). It will be discerned among the grave-worshippers that, in general, they suffer from the malady of total indifference to the ordained acts of Islamic Ibaadaat. They accord greater emphasis to customs, shirki rituals and baseless innovated practices which were introduced into the Ummah centuries after Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). They are able to shed without compunction the most vital acts of Islamic worship in order to uphold their dark, evil and pernicious acts of grave and peer-worship. While they regard their acts of qabar-puja to be adequate substitutes for the Fardh and Masnoon acts and practices of Islam, they never consider the acts of Islamic worship sufficient and adequate substitutes for graveworship which is a must in their cult. In there belief, there is not a single act of Islamic Ibaadat which is on par with qabr-puja. SHIRK AT THE GRAVESIDES When they congregate at the grave of a Wali, they stand there like statues expressing great humility and veneration. In fact, the humility and reverence which they display at the graves of the Auliya are never shown in the Musjid when they have to perform Salaat for Allah Ta'ala. At the graves of the Auliya they indulge in a variety of acts of shirk and kufr. They make sajdah to the graves and they make tawaaf thereof. But, according to Islam, Sajdah is to be rendered exclusively to Allah Ta'ala and Tawaaf exclusively to the Holy Ka'bah. They burn incense at the graves and they adorn the graves with lamps and lights in open violation of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam's) prohibition to do so. Grave-worship is not a new cult. It came into being after the age of Nooh A.S. Even the Christians and the Jews practised grave-worship, hence Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Allah cursed the Yahood and the Nasaara because they converted the graves of their Ambiya into places of worship."" This hadith as well as other narrations inform us that Allah's curse settles on the cult of grave-worship. Muslims should, therefore, never be misled by the false slogans raised by the grave-worshippers. Participation, in the activities of the qabar-puja cult occasions the La'nat of Allah Ta'ala according to the explicit statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). The members of the grave-worship sect loudly proclaim their ""love"" for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam), but they ignore his condemnation of grave-worship. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) commanded: ""Do not make an idol of my grave so that it be worshipped."" On another occasion, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: `O Allah! Do not let my grave become an idol which will be worshipped."" When even worshipping the grave of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is prohibited, then by what stretch of imagination can the worshipping of the graves of the Auliya be permissible? Many people not acquainted with the cult of the grave-worshippers are misled by slogans of ""Hubbe Rasool"" (Love of the Rasool) trumpeted by the leaders of this devious sect. Innocent and unknowledgeable people are ensnared by the sweet talk of Deen, expressed in flowery but insincere language by the peers of this cult of abomination. They vociferously proclaim their love for Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) but their life is devoid of the Sunnah of Nabi-e-Kareem (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Expression of the Sunnah in practical terms is the natural consequence of Hubbe Rasool (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). But, far, far from introducing the Sunnah in their lives, they eliminate the Sunnah and replace it with the rituals of shirk. Thus, their religion consists of graveworship, qawwaali, dancing, fun-fairs, eating, drinking in the name of dead saints and a host of other hotch-potch shirki rituals and beliefs, all borrowed from other religions of shirk and modified for the consumption of unwary and ignorant Muslims. Grave-worship negates Imaan. It destroys Imaan since it is the very antithesis of Imaan. Islam does not subscribe to the marxist theory of the synthesis of opposites which the atheist asserted. Such ludicrous theories are spawned by minds maddened by atheism. Thus, Imaan cannot fuse with its opposite, viz., grave-worship, to produce a superior hybrid concept which according to the Ahle Bid'ah is the cult of grave-worship - a cult superior in their minds, to all forms of Islamic Ibaadat. Islam is uncompromising in its doctrine of Tauheed. Its monotheism is unique since it is not tainted by the slightest vestige of shirk. A Muslim, the bearer of Tauheed, cannot therefore participate in grave-worship and remain a Muslim. Qabar-puja eliminates Imaan. THE STRATEGY OF THE QABAR-PUJARIS The first strategy adopted by the grave-worshippers in places where qabar-puja does not exist, is to set up, by hook or by crook, a dargah or a mausoleum--a tomb around which they execute their acts of qabar-puja and which acts as their headquarters. The central institution of Muslims is the Musjid, but the pivot of all activity of the grave-worshippers is the grave of some person. Sometimes the grave happens to be that of a genuine Saint of Allah while in many cases the mausoleums are raised on the graves of non-entities and in some cases, even animals. Gullible people are then made to believe that some great buzrug (saint) lies buried in the grave. Muslims should understand that we stand in no need of any cult or any act of worship which has no origin and no sanction in Islam. Graveworshippers claim that they are beautifying Islam by their innovated acts. But, the Ummah does not need such fallacious adornments. The Ummah needs the Islam of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). The Najaat of Muslims lies in the Islam handed down to the Ummah by the illustrious Sahaabah and not in the brand of ""Islam"" offered by graveworshippers. It is most surprising to observe unwary Muslims allowing themselves to be entrapped in the webs spun by the grave-worshippers, despite the fact that they express belief in only Allah Ta'ala. Every Muslim is fully cognizant of the Islamic belief of Tauheed. Every Muslim understands, or should understand, that in his declaration of the Kalimah LAA ILAAHA ILLALLAAH he negates all objects which human shayaateen and jinn shayaateen offer as deities to be worshipped. The Muslim staunchly professes his belief in ONE Allah and he jealously guards that Imaan. He prides himself with the exceptionally pure and unique concept of Islamic monotheism. Daily, the Muslim declares no less than 48 times in his Salaat: IYYAKA NA'BUDU WA IYYAAKA NASTA EEN (O Allah!) Only You do we worship and only from You do we seek aid. But, the ""Bid'ati"" Muslim then goes and neutralizes his Imaan by bowing and prostrating, kissing and circumambulating the graves of the Auliya who were all creatures of Allah Ta'ala, who could not say or do anything without the permission of Allah Ta'ala. Instead of supplicating--making dua--to Allah Ta'ala, the members of the qabar-puja sect petition the graves for their worldly needs and requirements. They pray to the inmates of the graves to grant them children, sustenance, desires and hopes. In order to appease the dead saints, the grave-worshippers offer holy vows and fast in the names of the Auliya. Yet, Islam teaches that Allah Ta'ala Alone is Khaaliq, Raaziq and Maalik. Not an atom can stir without His express Command. Not a leaf stirs in the breeze, but with the express Command of Allah Ta'ala. He knows and He commands. He has no partner. That is the uncompromising belief of Islam and so we believe. Those Muslims who are not acquainted with the cult of the grave-worshippers should beware. Participation in the functions and rituals of the qabar-puja sect is at the peril of one's Imaan. The rites of graveworship and peer-worship are impregnated with shirk which negates the belief in Tauheed. The strategy of the grave-worshippers is never to expound their shirki acts of grave-worship at their gatherings and functions. Their tactic is to dupe unwary and unacquainted Muslims. To achieve this pernicious aim, they project and display a conspicuous slogan and clamour of ""Hubbe Rasool"" while in reality they are devoid of the Love of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). Their functions of meelaad and moulood are punctuated with calls and cries of ""Hubbe Rasool."" This veil of deception deludes people into believing that these functions are designed in honour and love of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). At these functions ostentatious acts of shirk, e.g. sajdah and ruku to the ""peer saheb"" are not committed. Innocent and gullible people, therefore, are unable to detect the evil of this sect. The perpetration of the acts of shirk and kufr occurs at the graves of the Auliya and in the private haunt of the ""peer."" The illustrious Sahaabah, when they set out into the world to raise the glory of Allah's Name, erected Musaajid in all places where they went. The Ummah has been following this Sunnah throughout the corridor of Islamic history. But, the followers of the qabar-puja cult set up tombs to worship wherever they go. Their headquarters are tombs and their gods are dead saints." 35,"The Milaad Celebration",5525,637,636,"Milad Celebrations - rom Discourses On Islamic Way of Life (vol 2) - By Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani All praise is for Allah. We praise Him and seek His help and His forgiveness and we believe in Him and rely on Him. We seek refuge with Allah from the evils of our selves and the vices of our deeds. There is no one to let go astray whom Allah guides and there is no one to guide whom Allah lets go astray. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone. He has no partner. I also bear witness that our authority, our prophet salaalahu alayhi wa salam and our master, Muhammad is His servant and His messenger salaalahu alayhi wa salam. May Almighty Allah send on him, on his household and on his companions his mercy and bless them and send peace on them in abundance. Indeed, you have beautiful model for such of you as looks for Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah a great deal. (33:21) The Blessed Discourses about the Holy Prophet salaalahu alayhi wa salam To mention the biographical anecdotes of the Prophet?s salaalahu alayhi wa salam sacred life is a source of great blessing and fortune. To talk about no one?s biographical sketches who lived or is living in this world is so praiseworthy and rewarding as to talk about the Holy Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam sacred life. Notwithstanding thus, we have begun to mention in these gatherings of the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam birthday celebrations unauthentic and baseless anecdotes. So we do not reap the true reward and benefit from these birthday gatherings. The sacred biography of the Holy Prophet alayhi salatul wa salam and the attitude of the Noble companions. One of the serious mistakes we commit on this auspicious occasion is that we have confined these speeches, addresses or the celebration exclusively to the month of Rab?iul Awwal and that too only to one day and only to a few hours of that day. We think that by so doing we have done full justice to the discourse about the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam sacred ?Seerat? (biography). This is indeed a great rather the greatest, injustice to the Holy Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam biography. We find that no ttraces of such trends in the lives of the noble companions radiallahu anhum of the Holy Prophet alayhi salatul wa salam. You will also not get a single occasion in their lives on which they ever celebrated the twelfth day of the month of Rab?iul-Awwal or held special gatherings in this month to celebrate the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam birthday. On the other hand, every moment of their life reflected a remembrance of the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam beautiful biography. Whenever two companions radiallahu anhum met, they talked about the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam Ahadith, his teachings and different events and aspects of his salalaahu alayhi wa salam sacred life. In this way every gathering or meeting of the noble companions radiallahu anhum was a meeting of discussion on the Prophet?s salalaahu alayhi wa salam biography. As such, they did not require any formal celebration or procession in the name of the birthday of the Prophet salaalahu alayhi wa salam to express the love of, and attachment they had with, the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam not a single instance of such showy and formal activities can be produced from the times of the noble companions, radiallahu anhum the tabbies and their followers. Islam is not the faith of Formalities. In fact it was not the practice of the noble companions radiallahu anhu to indulge in formal and showy processions and celebrations. They had imbibed the very spirit of the sunnah and the practices of the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam sacred life. They always tried to understand why the holy Prophet alayhi salatul wa salam had came to this world, what were his mission and teachings and what he salalaahu alayhi wa salam expected from the world concerning his mission. The noble companions radiallahu anhu had devoted their entire lives on reflection on, and promotion of, such ideals concerning the faith; they were not after such formal, empty and showy celebrations and processions which we have borrowed from the non-muslims, like Christians and hindus. We invented the festival of celebrating the prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam birthday in blind imitation of these infidel nations living around us who celebrate the birthdays and death anniversaries of their prominent leaders in some other field of worldly activities. These leaders were not, in general, men to be emulated on account of some moral spiritual or religious distinction. The Life of the Holy Prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam is a prefect model. As for the Holy Prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam, the very divine intention of sending him to this world was that he salalaahu alayhi wa salam should present a perfect practical model for the entire humanity, so that men may follow his way of life and try to mould their own lives on the pattern available in the holy prophet?s salalaahu alayhi wa salam sunnah. Every moment of his life is a valuable example for us to follow. As muslims, it is a binding on all of us to imitate the prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam life to the best of our abilities. The holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam should not be compared to any other leader in the world in memory of whom a particular day relating to his life is celebrated and the matter ends there. Every day of our lives is a day to celebrate the memory of the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam life concerning everything we do or say, Allah sent him salalaahu alayhi wa salam to this world to serve as a complete model till the day of judgement. We are not sincere in our intentionsIt is true that Seerah (biographical) meeting are held from place to place and speeches are delivered there in about the sacred life and practices of the Holy Prophet alayhi salatul wa salam. However good and appreciable this action may be in itself, it will not produce the desired effect in the heart of the doer of that action unless he is true and sincere in his intention. If the action is not based on sincere intentions it is fruitless. At times such actions may become harmful and even sinful. For example, how highly dignified is the prayer! It is an act of worship of Almighty Allah. The Quran and ahadith are full of its virtues and importance, this dignified worship goes waste, if anyone does it only to show it to the people, so that they may regard him as a very pious and righteous man. It is not only useless, but it is possible that such worship may attract punishment instead of reward. It is said in a Hadith: This means: He who prays only to show his praying to the people, commit?s the grievous sin of attributing a partner to Allah. This is quite obvious, because he is not praying to please Allah, but he is praying to please the people and to impress upon them that he is a pious and righteous man. It is just as if he has made someone a partner in the divinity of Allah. An action so virtuous and elevated as prayer became a sin for want of sincerity of intention. The same applies to those who arrange and take part in assemblies held for having discourses and speeches on the sacred life of the holy Prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. It is no doubt an act of great virtue and reward which may produce revolutionary results, if such assemblies are arranged and attention in right earnest and, true intention, sincerity of purpose and warmth of faith. If there is a man or a group that participates in Seerah (biography of the Prophet alayhi salatul wa salam) Assemblies and processions, devoid of sincere intentions but prompted only by some hidden, wordly purposes and not in honour of and obedience of him alayih salatul wa salam in whose sacred name these celebrations are being staged, then all this is a bad bargain. To all apperance these activities are very righteous deeds, but in reality they are sins incurring Allah?s wrath and punishment. Adultrated intentions. If we review our attitude and activities from this angle of vision to find if the gatherings we are holding and the celebrations we are staging on the twelfth of Rabi?ul-Awwal are to please Allah and follow the sunnah of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam and to make his teachings the guiding light of our lives, the result will be disappointing. There may be a few sincere persons attending these functions to reform their lives, but on the whole, the intention of holding these glamorous shows is something else. Some local groups usually arrange for purposes other than religion. There may be a group participating in these celebrations, so that people may praise the grandeur illumination and the number of the audience, the number of the speakers taking part and their formal high worded, well-prepared speeches eleciting applaus from the listeners. At places assemblies may be held to gain some political advantage or some sectarian attainment, not possible to attain it through open and direct approaches to the public. The general practice on such occasions is to open the meetings with a few words devoted to the topic of the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam biography then to shoot, accusations and charges against the rival parties or sects in cleverly concealed words. These assemblies are held, in general, for such irreligious and mundane purposes. The Functions are attended to please the friendsThe form and method of these celebrations would have been totally different had they been intended to sincerely seek guidance from them. These birthday celebrations take the form of private functions in which invitation cards are issued and displeasure is expressed against those who do not attend the functions held in the name of the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. Those attending these functions do not do so out of love for the prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam, but they participate in such functions only to avoid resentment and complains of the patrons of the function arranged to please men and the society and not Allah and His Prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. Enjoying the oratory and force of the orator?s speeches Sometimes a person attends this function to enjoy the exciting speech of a famous speaker because he is renowned for his firy and thrilling speeches. In short, this gentleman is going to attend the birthday assembly only to satisfy his lust for enjoying the sophisticated, well studied speeches and not to take any useful lessons from the sacred life of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam. Just to while away spare time Some people attend seerah assemblies for no purpose other than whiling away their spare time in listening to speeches, enjoying the lights and decoration and thus having a good time. It is obvious that a good number of men attending these auspicious assemblies have no special interest in listening to speeches and learning lessons from the sacred sunnah of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam projected in these assemblies. They attend them, as mentioned above, to satisfy their own desires. Although even while attending these gathering, in such a carefree and amusing mood, a man may be moved by some word or point and his life may be reformed, yet this happens in very exceptional cases. People in general do not participate in the gatherins with sincere intention to learn lessons from the life of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wasalam. The Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam life guides those whom Allah wills The holy Qur?an declares: You have a beautiful model in the Prophet alayhi salatul wa salam of Allah (33:21) In the light of this Qur?anic verse, it may be emphasized that the Prophet?s alayhi sallatul wa salam sacred life is a beacon of light, a message of guidance and a complete, flawless model. It is, however, a beautiful model only for such people as desire to please almighty Allah, have unflinching belief in the hereafter and want to ameliorate their hereafter, and are busy most often with the remembrance of Allah. So the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam life is a message of guidance only for those who are endowed with these attributes and qualities. There is no guarantee that the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam life will prove a guiding light also for those who are devoid of these qualities, particularly, belief in the hereafter and a desire to reform and beautify it. The light of the Prophet alayhi salatul wa salam shone brightly even before abu jahl and abu lahab, but they could not receive any benefit from the light. (He recites a person couplet) This person couplet means: The rain-water has the same refreshing and reviving properties, but in the gardens it brings out the beautiful crimson tulip flowers but it brings out the useless, thorny shrubs in the saline, barren lands. The meaning of this couplet applies with equal force to these two wretched infidels into whose hearts the light of the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam life could not penetrate, as they neither believed in, nor had they any desire to prepare for the hereafter, nor to please Allah. What effect can the discourse about the sacred life of the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam have on such errant and hard-hearted persons? Most often we are not sincere and true in our intentions in organizing these assemblies and the birthday celebrations. The result of all this is that no change for the better takes place in our lives even after listening to thousands of speeches on the prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam life and after attending thousands of gatherings held in the month of Rabi?ul awwal in every nook and corner of the country. The temptation to commit sins and enjoy worldly pleasures is not at all eradicated or even reduced through these celebrations. A fun is being made of the sunnah of the Prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam Moreover, during these assemblies held on the subject of the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam life we indulge in activities which are totally opposed to the injunctions of the Holy Prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. This is nothing but making a fun of the sunnah, teachings and the guidance of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam. These are topics on which we are delivering, and listening to, and attending full-throated speeches, without paying any serious attention to them. Seerat assemblies and the violation of Purdah It is an increasing practice in our society that male and female joint gatherings are held on the topic of seerah. This is being done in flagrant violation of the command of the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. The command lays down that if women have to offer prayer they should do this in their houses instead of going to mosque. Even in the house women have been commanded to pray not in the courtyard, but in a room, rather in a separate small room. This is the command of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam about purdah, but in an assembly held to talk about his life and sunnah men and women are present side by side. None feels how fun is being made of the seerah assemblies. Women are participating in the assemblies along with men with glamorous make-up, in attractive dresses and without purdah. Music in seerah assemblies The holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam is reported to have said that one of the important duties for the sake of which he alayhi salatul wa salam was sent to this world was the total eradication of music and the forms of musical instruments. What an irony of fate it is that meetings are held in the name of seerah of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam in which his praise ?Nat? is sung to the accompaniment of musical instruments along with Qawwali ?Shareef? (a special musical performance of the mystics). This Qawwali is called ?Shareef? meaning pious. No difference is made between the songs sung in praise of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam and song on other worldly themes. What a greater fun one can make of the sacred, theme of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam! More than this, both men and women are taking part in the radio and television Seerah programmes together with female partners with highly attractive make-up, showy attires and without purdah. Is she not the same women about whom the Qur?an has said? That is ?Do not display your features (before men) as you used to display in the early days of Ignorance? What a greater wrong and disrespect can be done to the pious Na t (Praise) and seerah of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam that such ornately prepared women are taking part in these seerah celebrations by delivering speeches and singing Na t along with males. You are in a great delusion if you think that this behaviour and conduct on your part will attract Allah?s Mercy. You are trying to efface the sunnah of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam, to violate his teachings and ridiculing his sacred seerah. These are sins which can invite only Allah?s wrath and punishment. While holding the seerah meetings and making speeches on his sunnah, we flagrantly violate and disobey the prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam teachings. May Allah guide us on the right path. Missing prayers during Seerah assembliesIn the beginning only some rules of the shariah were violated during participation in these seerah gatherings and none minded this, but with the passage of time things have gone too far. People involved in managing these gatherings and listening to the speeches delivered therein forget to offer their prayers and miss them quite frequently. These gatherings with their programmes continue till two O clock in the night and the fajr prayer is missed deliberately. The injunctions of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam about the importance of prayer are violated, although he alayhi salatul wa salam has emphasized in his injunctions that if a man who misses his one asr prayer is like one who loses all his property and all the members of his family: What a tremendous loss indeed! How strange it is that, we are busy with an apparently sacred programme concerning the holy prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam life and at the same time we are freely violating his salalaahu alayhi wa salam imperative command regarding the protection and preservation of the obligatory prayers! Disturbing the muslims through seerah gathering The seerah programmes are in progress with only about two or three dozens of participant but a very big loud speaker has been installed which is transmitting the speeches of the speakers at its full volume disturbing all the living in the surrounding area. This means that no sick, old or disabled person of the area can sleep as long as the programmes are going on. Was this the pious conduct of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam? When the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam got up at night for the Tahajjud prayer, as narrated by hadrat aye shah radiallahu anha he rose from his bedding very quietly, and opened the door also quietly, lest aye shah radiallahu anha should be awakened from her sleep. As for the holy prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam behaviour in an obligatory duty like the prayer, he alayhi salatul wa salam is reported to have said: When I hear during prayer a child weeping I shorten the prayer, lest by hearing the child?s weeping his mother should be in distress. But look! What is being doone in these seerah celebrations. Such powerful loudspeakers are installed unnecessarily only for the sake of two or three dozen participants with the result that an old and sick person cannot sleep in his house peacefully. Those responsible for all this are ignorant of the fact that by so doing they are commiting grievous and major sins, because to cause distress to a muslim is a major sin. Yet nobody is mindful of this serious situation )Nasaee, book of ten women? Hadith no:3963) Taking out processions in imitation of others. All these activities prove that we are not true in our intentions- which are concentrated on something other than adopting and acting upon the teachings of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam. As already mentioned, in the beginning our activities are confined only to holding gatherings and meetings at various places. Crossing the limit we have now gone ahead to the extent of taking out processions on the plea that such and such sect takes out processions in rembrance of the name of its imam in a particular month. Why should we , too, not take out processions in rabiul awwal in the name of our prophet alayhi salatul wa salam? In other words, in taking out processions in the month of Rabi?ul awwal we are imitating the sect that takes out processions in the month of muharram. By so doing we are only deluding ourselves into the belief that we are following the commands of the holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam and are doing full justice to his alayhi salatul wa salam dignity and honour. Would the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam appreciate the processions, if he alayhi salatul wa salam was ever to see them which are being taken out in his name? Our holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam has always taught this ummah to refrain from such formal and showy processions and demonstrations. He salaalaahu alayih wa salam has commanded us that instead of hankering after showy, useless and formal activities like these, we should resort to his sacred teachings and try to make them the guiding light of our lives. Nobody can point out a single instance from the pious lives of the noble companions radiallahu anhum that they ever took out any procession in the month of Rabi?ul awwal or any other month of the year in the name of the Prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam seerah (biography). I atleast have not come across even a single evidence during the history of this entire period of thirteen centures which may prove that anyone ever took out such a profression. It is, however, true that the shia community take out processions in the month of muharram in the name of their imams. We also become tempted to take out processions in the name of our prophet alayhi salatul wasalam in imitation of the shi?as, in violation of this hadith of the Prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. A man who tries to make resemblance with any community becomes one of them. (Abu Dawood, book garments? hadith no:4031) It is a pity that we have not confined our activities to taking out only processions. We have gone too far beyond that. Now we are making images of the sacred Ka?bah the sacred Rozah of the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam including the green dome. A large number of men, women and children visit these images and touch them with their hands for blessings and ask for boons there and vow fferings for some need and the fulfillment of some desire. And all this is in the name of the sacred seerah of the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. The holy prophet alayhi salatul wa salam was sent to this world to efface from the surface of the earth, apostasy, idoltry, bid?ah, and ignorance, but today we have started all these innovations and sinful practices in the very name of the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. Which you have made with your own hands has absolutely no virtue in it. Ye this false and artificial image is being touched and kissed for blessings. May Allah save us from this. Hadrat Umar Farooq radiallahu anhu and Hajr e aswad At the time of kissing the black stone hadrat umar farooq radiallahu anhu said: O black stone! I know that you are nothing more than a piece of stone. By Allah, I would never have kissed you, if I had not seen the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam kissing you. I am kissing you only because I have seen the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam kissing you and because this is his sunnah. (Sahih bukhari chapter on hajj-blackstone, hadith no: 1597) This is what hadrat umar farooq radiallahu anhu said to the black stone, but here we have made with our own hands a green dome, and an image of the kabah which are regarded as a source of blessing and which are being kissed. This is reviving what the prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam had uprooted. There is illumination, record playing, musical entertainments and enjoyments. Festivals are held in the name of the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. This is an excuse for turning the deen (faith) into a play and sport, which satan has taught us to do. I appeal to you to have, for Allah?s sake, mercy on your souls and do full justice to the dignity and honour of the Prophet?s alayih salatul wa salam seerah. The prophet?s alayhi salatul wa salam dignity and honour demand of us that we should try to mould our lives on the pattern of the Prophet?s salalaahu alayhi wa salam sacred practice. For the sake of Allah change this practice How many people attend these meetings with the intention that they shall change their practices according to the sunnah? If they are deviating fifthy of the prophetic practices after listening to these sermons they shall correct at least ten of them. Is there a single osul who changed himself like this? They are, however always ready to devote their time, effort, and spend money to take out processions, stage festivals, erect arches and arrange illuminations, because they receive joy and satisfaction from such activities. On the other hand neither the Self nor satan are pleased with the real conduct and course of life shown by the holy Prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam. An Appeal I appeal, in the name of Allah, to relinquish this misconduct and disobedience and do full justice to the dignity and honour the holy prophet salalaahu alayhi wa salam by strictly following his teachings. May Almighty Allah help us all to follow the straight path of his sunnah. Aameen. And we close with the call that the praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds." 36,"The Placing of Sheets on Graves",5526,637,636,"The placing of sheets on graves is also forbidden. None of the graves during the honourable period of Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam, sahabah, Tab’ien had sheets placed on them. Allamah ibn Aabideen Shaami Rahmatullahi alayh says: It is mentioned in Ahkam on the authority of Hujjaj that the placing of Sheets on graves is Makrooh. (Durre Mukhtaar pg228 Vol2) The Burning of Lamps and Lights on Graves. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam did not only prohibit us from burning lamps, lights, candles, etc. but also cursed those observing these customs. Hadhrat Abdullah ibn Abbas radhiallahu anhu says: Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa slaam has cursed those women who go to the graves and those people who make graves places of Sajdah (prostration) and those who burn lamps and lights at graves. Allama Ali Qari Hanafi commentating on this hadith says The prohibition of burning lights, lamps, candles etc. at graves is because it is unnecessary spending of wealth there exists no benefit in the burning of such lights and lamps consisting of fire and these are actually signts of Jahannam. Hadhrat Qadi Thana ullah pani Pati Says: The raising of the Auliya’s graves, erecting of walls and domes, making of urs, burning of lamps, are all innovations- among these, some are haraam while others are makrooh. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam cursed those who burn lamps etc. and make sajdah at graves. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam is reported to have said: Do not make my grave a place of worship. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam commanded Hadhrat Ali radhiallahu anhu to flatten all raised graves and destroy all pictures of animate thing" 37,"Vows and Offering At Graves",5527,637,636,"Differences in the Ummah and the Straight Path by Maulana muhammad Yusuf Ludhianvi Translated by Maulana Zahier Ahmed Ragie pg65-70 Vows and Offering At Graves Many People do not only ask for Aid at the graves of the Auliya but make vows eg. That if their needs are fulfilled they would spread a sheet on the grave or place sweets, sweetmeats, etc at graves of the Auliya or would offer a certain amount of money in the name of these Auliya, etc. Regarding these practises it is necessary to establish a few points. 1. To make vows, to gives alms, to distribute food (niyaz) are all acts of ibaadah (worship) Furthermore to worship anyone besides Allah is not permissible. In the famous Hanafi Book “Durre Muktaar” it is stated ‘It should be known that the vows and offerings in the name of the dead the placing of money, food, in the name of the Auliya to gain their nearness and blessings, are unanimously haraam. Many people are involved in these customs especially in our time and Allama Qasim has explained this mas’ala in detail in the commentary of “Dural Bihar” Allama Shami says: There are many reasons for such vows (Nazar) to be void and haraam. Firstly: These vows are for created beings and to make vows in the name of any creation is not permissible. Since vows constitute an Ibaada and Ibada of creation is not permissible. Secondly: The person in whose name the vow is pledged is dead, and the dead do not have any power to do anything. Thirdly: If the person making the vow believes that these dead also have the power to fulfill their needs, it is an act of kufr. (Raddul Mukhtaar pg 139) Qadi Thana ullah Pani Pati says: “Ibaada of anyone besides Allah is not permissible, nor is it permissible to ask aid from anyone besides Allah. Hence it is not permissible to make (nazar) a vow in the name of any auliya, since vows are acts of ibaadah. It is affirmed that vows (nazar) are ibaadah and ibaadah is reserved solely for Allah. Therefore to make vows, place food, flowers, sheets, at graves of the Auliya is unanimously void and haraam. 2. If someone has made a vow in the name of any Auliya it is not permissible for him to fulfill it. If he fulfills it he will be punished for commiting a sin. It is explicitly explained in Fatawa Alamgiri, Bahrul Raiq and other fatwa books that it is not permissible to make a vow (make a nazar) of a non permissible acts of shariah, nor is it necessary to fulfill it. (Fatawa Alamgiri pg208 vol1). In fact it is incumbent to repent for making such vows. Hadhrat Qadi Thana Ullah Pani Pati Rahmatullahi alayh says: “If someone has made such a vow, he should not fulfill it because it is incumbent to refrain from sins as far as possible.” (Irshadul Taalibeen pg 18) It is a sin to make such a vow and to fulfill it is a separate sin. Therefore one should repent for the first sin and refrain from committing another sin. 3. If such a vow was made and fulfilled as well, then the thing vowed will be haraam because of veing vowed in the name of someone besides Allah. Thus the cunsumption of such things will not be permissible for anyone. However the person who has made the vow is allwoed to take back his thing and repent provided the thing is still in its original condition. This is the ruling of every such animal intended to be slaughtered in the name of someone besides Allah; As long as the animal is living the person who has vowed is allwoed to take back his animal and repent. And if it is slaughtered in the name of someone besides Allah irrespective of having read Bismillah or not at the time of slaughtering the animal would not be permissible for consumption. Imam Rabbani Mujaddid Alf Thanie Rahmatullahi alayh writes in his Maktoob pg 41 the following: “In accordance with the traditions of fiqh the animals offered in the name of saints and slaughtered at the gravesides of saints are also acts of shirk. Great emphasis is laid on refraining from such acts. There types of offerings are also classified as the offerings in the name of the Shayateen.” 4. If someone has made an offering (vow) exclusively for Allah and only intends the conveyance of it’s reward to the soul of a saint by means of Isaale Thawaab will not be classified as shirk. However, since the general masses are unable to differentiate this from the latter it is advisable to refrain from this type of vows as well. Hadhrat Imam Rabbani Mujaddid Alfi Thanie after his above qoutation writes: This act should also be refrained from as it also has the taint of shirk in it. There are many forms of vows that can be made in the name of Allah: 5. It is correct for someone to vow that “If my wish is fulfilled I will distribute sweets or any other thing to the people living around the grave of a saint”. However, if his wish is fulfilled it will not be necessary for him to distribute the sweets, etc to the people of the area he has vowed to distribute it to. If he insisst that it must be distribute in that area and he feels that until he does not distribute it to that area his vow will be incomplete, then it would clearly indicate that he had not vowed in the name of Allah but rather his offering was for the saint of that area. 6. Another important factor to note, which not only the ignorant masses are victims of but also the learned are unaware of is that vows do not have any effect in the fulfillment of ones wishes. Nor does it have any effect on changing ones “Taqdeer” It is reported in Bukhari and Muslim that Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam is reported to have said: “Do not make vows, for these do not change ones taqdeer, it only takes out money from the misers. Sheikh abdul haq Muhaddith Dehlawi rahmatullahi alayh commentating on this hadeeth says: The reason for prohibiting these types of vows is that they do not change or delay what has been destined to happen. It was the habit of eople to make vows for the removal of difficulties and fulfillemtn of needs, thus they were prohibited as this was the habit of miserly people. The generous people make vows and give charity without the conditions of fulfilment of needs etc. This was prohibition so as to encourage charity without conditions attached for the charity. It is reported in a hadeeth that charity removes difficulties . But in vows there is a form of bargaining, that if my need is fulfilled I will give charity. When vows exclusively offered in the name of Allah do not change Taqdeer, how would it change taqdeer when offered in the name of saints. How unfortunate is man that when he makes a vow and it is not fulfilled he blames Taqdeer and if this need is fulfilled he goes around boasting that I had made a vow at the grave of a certain saint or peer and my needs have been fulfilled. This is the root of falsehood and evil in belief and upon which Shaytaan drives man away from his Creator and makes him a victim of shirk eventually. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam has tried to destroy this root cause of shirk in this hadeeth, that vows are to be offered in the name of Allah and then too they do not change what is going to happen. What then is the condition of vows made in the name of peers, etc?" 38,"Ziyaaaraatul qubur (visiting the graves )",5528,637,636,"The visiting of graves and associated acts performed at these graves are another point wherein there exists differences of opinion between the different sects. I wish to express my views on this matter under the following points: Differences in the Ummah and the Straight Path by Maulana muhammad Yusuf Ludhianvi Translated by Maulana Zahier Ahmed Ragie pg 54-58 Ziyaarat-E-Quboor- The visiting of Graves The visiting of graves and associated acts performed at these graves are another point wherein there exists differences of opinion between the different sects. I wish to express my views on this matter under the following points: 1. To instill abhorence and hatred in the hearts of the people in regard, to grave-worshipping which was practiced in the days of ignorance. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam in his early days of prophethood prohibited the sahabah radhiallahu anhum from the visiting of graves. Once the environment had been purified from the menace of graveworshpping an efford had been made on the hearts of the sahabah radhiallahu anhum, rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam permitted them the visiting of graves saying: I previously prohibited you from visiting the Graves (This prohibition is now abrogated) therefore go and visit the graves for it makes you forget the luxuries of this world and remind you of the hereafter. Thus it became permissible to go to the grave yards. However, differences of opinion have arisen on two points. Firstly: Is this permission for both men and women, or men only? Some ulama are of the opinion that this permission pertains to men only. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam is reported to have said regarding women: Allah’s curse be upon those women who visit the graves Some ulama are of the opinion that this was said prior to the visiting of the graves becoming lawful. Thus it is now permissible for women to go to the graves. Women were prohibited due to their soft natures that would be unable to exercise patience thus resulting in many outbursts of uncontrolled emotion which could sow the seed to many innovations and unislamic actions. However, if they are able to control their emotions, exercise patience and be careful not to indulge in innovations etc. they would be permitted to visit the graves. It would be advisable if young women don’t go to these places. (Shaami; pg 246, vol 2) Secondly: Is it only permissible to visit the graveyard in the vicinity where one is residing or is it also permissible to undertake special journeys to go and visit the graves of various saints etc? Some ulama are of the opinion that if one has gone to another district for some other purpose he may visit it’s graveyard by the way, but to undertake a special journey with the sole object of visiting the grave of some pious person would not be permissible. Imam Ghazali Rahmatullahi alayh and many other ulama are of the opinon that to undertake a special journey would also be permissible, and this is the correct ruling. However the strict restrictions that governs this permissibility is that under no circumstances are any anti-shariah acts to be perpetrated (Ibid) 2. Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam has taught us that when one goes and visit the graveyard, he should greet the inmates with the following words Thereafter we should pray for their forgiveness and recite some verses of the Quraan and ask Allah to (send) grant it’s reward to the deceased therein. There is mention of certain surahs to be recited on these occasions in the ahaadith of Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam. Similarly there are great virtues of reciting Durood shareef on these occasions. Dua at the grave should be made wither without raising the hands, or one should face the qibla keeping his back towards the grave. (Fatawa Aalamgiri pg350 vol 5) 3. The reason rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam had encouraged the visiting of the graves is firstly, by visiting the graves, love for this world may be diminished and one is reminded of his death as a result he himself will prepare for the hereafter. Secondly, he may fulfil the rights (reasons) of the deceased by praying for them, thus benefiting them in their graves. The visitor may himself benefit from visiting the graves of the pious servants of Allah by being inspired to emulate their ways and teachings. 4. The shariah has kept no room for excess in regard to graves. Hence it has disallowed showing of disrespect to the graves and at the same time has not allowed excessive emotion in showing respect to the graves. It is reported by Hadhrat Jabir radhiallahu anhu that rasulullah salalahu alayhiw a salam has prohibted the erecting of walls, (cementing or casting concrete ) on or around the graves, and has prohibited sitting on graves. (Mishkat) In another hadith it has been narrated: Do not sit on graves nor face them while praying. In another Hadeeth it is reported “It is better for you to sit on fire and burn your clothing rather than sitting on graves.” It is also reported that Rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam has prohibited the building of kerbstones around graves (no amount of building should protrude above the surface of the earth) writing on graves and trampling on graves. On one occasion rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam saw hadhrat umar bin hazam radhiallahu anhu leaning against a grave, He said to him Do not cause harm to the inmates of the graves It is substantiated from the above traditions that rasulullah salalahu alayhi wa salam did not approve unnecessary excess and respect to the graves either. however, any anti-sunnah activities on graves, should immediately be abandoned. Hadhrat Ali Radhiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah salalhau alayhi wa salam commanded him to destroy photos and flatten graves that had been raised. It is also learnt from these ahaadith that it is not permissible to build around and on top of a grave nor is it permissible to build a tomb or shrine on a grave. The grabes of Rasullah sallah alayahi wa salam and his two companions; Hadhrat abu bakr and umar radhiallahu anhuma have not been surrounded by tombs, in fact they are kept natural. 5. Let us now consider the actions of our ignorant friends at the gravesides of the Auliya eg. placing of sheets on the graves, burning of lamps and incense at graves, making sajdah infront of graves, circumbulating (tawaaf) of the graves, kissing the graves, rubbing of the forehead and eyes at the graves, standing infront of the graves with hands folded as if one is standing in Salaah etc…etc. If ever you had the opportunity of visiting the graves of the Auliya you might have witnessed these reprehensible actions; whereas these actions are termed unlawful by the ulama of ahlus sunnah and the hanafi jurists." 39,"Aqeedah Tahawiyya - The Aqeedah - Beliefs - of Ahlus-Sunnah",5529,637,636,"We belongs to Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat School of thought, which is in absolute conformity with the dictates of Qur'an & Sunnah and conduct of all Fellows Sahaba [ RA ] of the Holy Prophet [SAWS] & the immediate next generations of TTabiyeen & Taba Tabiyeen. In Brief Basic Aqeedah - We belongs to Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat School of thought, which is in absolute conformity with the dictates of Qur'an & Sunnah and conduct of all Fellows Sahaba [ RA ] of the Holy Prophet [SAWS] & the immediate next generations of Tabiyeen & Taba Tabiyeen . As such we firmly believes in 1. the absolute unity of Allah, 2. His angles, 3. His Prophets & Messengers and 4. the Divine revelations & Holy Books received through them. 5. We have has unflinching faith in resurrection after death and 6. the accountability of good & bad deeds on the Day of Judgment to be followed by reward of Jannah to the nobles and eternal condemnation to the sinners, as per Allah's decision 7. We also believes that Muhammad [SAWS] was the absolutely last of the Allah's Prophets & Messengers, and considers every claimant of continuity of partial or full Prophet-hood as condemned Murtad . 8. The Holy Book Qur'an has descended down to us in its true original version as revealed upon the Prophet [SAWS]. Any efforts to alter or amend Qur'an shall always remain futile since Allah Almighty has Himself guaranteed His own protection for His last Divine revelation. Alkitab, Sunnah, Ijma & Qiyas are reckoned as the true sources of Islamic knowledge – to be followed by Ijtehad by an acknowledged Mujtahid only if & when felt absolutely necessary. Tahawi began his studies with his maternal uncle Isma`il ibn Yahya al-Muzani, a leading disciple of Imam Shafi`i. However, Tahawi felt instinctively drawn to the corpus of Imam Abu Hanifa's works. Indeed, he had seen his uncle and teacher turning to the works of Hanafi scholars to resolve thorny issues of fiqh, drawing heavily on the writings of Abu Hanifa's two leading companions, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani and Abu Yusuf, who had codified Hanafi fiqh. This led him to devote his whole attention to studying the Hanafi works and he eventually joined the Hanafi school. He now stands out not only as a prominent follower of that Hanafi school but, in view of his vast erudition and remarkable powers of assimilation, as one of its leading scholars. His monumental scholarly works, such as Sharh ma`ani al-athar and Mushkil al-athar, are encyclopedic in scope and have long been regarded as indispensable for training students of fiqh. He was in fact a mujtahid across the board and was thoroughly familiar with the fiqh of all four schools, as stated by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and related by Kawthari, and as shown by Tahawi's own work on comparative law entitled Ikhtilaf al-fuqaha'. Tahawi's ""Doctrine"" (al-`Aqida), though small in size, is a basic text for all times, listing what a Muslim must know and believe and inwardly comprehend. There is consensus among the Companions, the Successors and all the leading Islamic authorities such as the four Imams and their authoritative followers on the doctrines enumerated in this work, which are entirely derived from the undisputed primary sources of Religion, the Holy Qur'an and the confirmed Hadith. Being a text on Islamic doctrine, this work sums up the arguments set forth in those two sources to define sound belief, and likewise, the arguments advanced in refuting the views of sects that have deviated from the Sunna. As regards the sects mentioned in this work, familiarity with Islamic history up to the time of Imam Tahawi would be quite helpful. More or less veiled references to sects such as the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Karramiyya, the Qadariyya, and the Jabariyya are found in the work. It also contains allusions to other views considered unorthodox and deviant from the way of Ahl al-Sunna. There is an explicit reference in the work to the controversy on the creation of the Qu'ran in the times of al-Ma'mun and others. While the permanent relevance of the statements of belief in the `Aqida are obvious, the historical weight and point of certain of these statements can be properly appreciated only if the work is used as a text for study under the guidance of some learned person able to elucidate its arguments fully, with reference to the intellectual and historical background of the sects refuted in the work. Since the present book is intended exactly as one such aid towards understanding the details of Islamic belief with clarity, it is hoped that the quotation of the entire text of Tahawi's ""Doctrine,"" which we consider as the doctrine of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, will be of benefit to the reader. And may Allah grant us a true understanding of faith and count us among those described by the Prophet as the Saved Group. --TAHAWI'S STATEMENT OF ISLAMIC DOCTRINE (AL-`AQIDA AL-TAHAWIYYA) In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate Praise be to Allah, Lord of all the worlds. The great scholar Hujjat al-lslam Abu Ja'far al-Warraq al-Tahawi al-Misri, may Allah have mercy on him, said: This is a presentation of the beliefs of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, according to the school of the jurists of this religion, Abu Hanifa al-Nu`man ibn Thabit al-Kufi, Abu Yusuf Ya`qub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari and Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani, may Allah be pleased with them all, and what they believe regarding the fundamentals of the religion and their faith in the Lord of the worlds. We say about Allah's unity, believing by Allah's help that: 1. Allah is One, without any partners. 2. There is nothing like Him. 3. There is nothing that can overwhelm Him. 4. There is no god other than Him. 5. He is the Eternal without a beginning and enduring without end. 6. He will never perish or come to an end. 7. Nothing happens except what He wills. 8. No imagination can conceive of Him and no understanding can comprehend Him. 9. He is different from any created being. 10. He is living and never dies and is eternally active and never sleeps. 11. He creates without His being in need to do so and provides for His creation without any effort. 12. He causes death with no fear and restores to life without difficulty. 13. He has always existed together with His attributes since before creation. Bringing creation into existence did not add anything to His attributes that was not already there. As He was, together with His attributes, in pre-eternity, so He will remain throughout endless time. 14. It was not only after the act of creation that He could be described as ""the Creator"" nor was it only by the act of origination that He could he described as ""the Originator."" 15. He was always the Lord even when there was nothing to be Lord of, and always the Creator even when there was no creation. 16. In the same way that He is the ""Bringer to life of the dead,"" after He has brought them to life a first time, and deserves this name before bringing them to life, so too He deserves the name of ""Creator"" before He has created them. 17. This is because He has the power to do everything, everything is dependent on Him, everything is easy for Him, and He does not need anything. ""There is nothing like Him and He is the Hearer, the Seer."" (al-Shura 42:11) 18. He created creation with His knowledge. 19. He appointed destinies for those He created. 20. He allotted to them fixed life spans. 21. Nothing about them was hidden from Him before He created them, and He knew everything that they would do before He created them. 22. He ordered them to obey Him and forbade them to disobey Him. 23. Everything happens according to His degree and will, and His will is accomplished. The only will that people have is what He wills for them. What He wills for them occurs and what He does not will, does not occur. 24. He gives guidance to whomever He wills, and protects them, and keeps them safe from harm, out of His generosity; and He leads astray whomever He wills, and abases them, and afflicts them, out of His justice. 25. All of them are subject to His will either through His generosity or His justice. 26. He is Exalted beyond having opposites or equals. 27. No one can ward off His decree or delay His command or overpower His affairs. 28. We believe in all of this and are certain that everything comes from Him. 29. And we are certain that Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is His chosen Servant and elect Prophet and His Messenger with whom He is well pleased, 30. And that he is the Seal of the Prophets and the Imam of the godfearing and the most honored of all the messengers and the Beloved of the Lord of all the worlds. 31. Every claim to prophethood after Him is falsehood and deceit. 32. He is the one who has been sent to all the jinn and all mankind with truth and guidance and with light and illumination. 33. The Qur'an is the word of Allah. It came from Him as speech without it being possible to say how. He sent it down on His Messenger as revelation. The believers accept it, as absolute truth. They are certain that it is, in truth, the word of Allah. It is not created as is the speech of human beings, and anyone who hears it and claims that it is human speech has become an unbeliever. Allah warns him and censures him and threatens him with Fire when He says, Exalted is He: ""I will burn him in the Fire."" (al-Muddaththir 74:26) When Allah threatens with the Fire those who say ""This is just human speech"" (74:25) we know for certain that it is the speech of the Creator of mankind and that it is totally unlike the speech of mankind. 34. Anyone who describes Allah as being in any way the same as a human being has become an unbeliever. All those who grasp this will take heed and refrain from saying things such as the unbelievers say, and they will know that He, in His attributes, is not like human beings. 35. The Seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is true, without their vision being all-encompassing and without the manner of their vision being known. As the Book of our Lord has expressed it: ""Faces on that Day radiant, looking at their Lord."" (al-Qiyama 75:22-3) The explanation of this is as Allah knows and wills. Everything that has come down to us about this from the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in authentic traditions, is as he said and means what he intended. We do not delve into that, trying to interpret it according to our own opinions or letting our imaginations have free rein. No one is safe in his religion unless he surrenders himself completely to Allah, the Exalted and Glorified and to His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and leaves the knowledge of things that are ambiguous to the one who knows them. 36. A man's Islam is not secure unless it is based on submission and surrender. Anyone who desires to know things which it is beyond his capacity to know, and whose intellect is not content with surrender, will find that his desire veils him from a pure understanding of Allah's true unity, clear knowledge and correct belief, and that he veers between disbelief and belief, confirmation and denial and acceptance and rejection. He will he subject to whisperings and find himself confused and full of doubt, being neither an accepting believer nor a denying rejector. 37. Belief of a man in the seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is not correct if he imagines what it is like or interprets it according to his own understanding, since the interpretation of this seeing or indeed, the meaning of any of the subtle phenomena which are in the realm of Lordship, is by avoiding its interpretation and strictly adhering to the submission. This is the religion of Muslims. Anyone who does not guard himself against negating the attributes of Allah, or likening Allah to something else, has gone astray and has failed to understand Allah's glory, because our Lord, the Glorified and the Exalted, can only possibly be described in terms of oneness and absolute singularity and no creation is in any way like Him. 38. He is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all created things are. 39. Al-Mi`raj (the Ascent through the heavens) is true. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was taken by night and ascended in his bodily form, while awake, through the heavens, to whatever heights Allah willed for him. Allah ennobled him in the way that He ennobled him and revealed to him what He revealed to him, ""and his heart was not mistaken about what it saw"" (al-Najm 53:11). Allah blessed him and granted him peace in this world and the next. 40. Al-Hawd, the Pool which Allah has granted the Prophet as an honour to quench the thirst of his Community on the Day of Judgement, is true. 41. Al-Shafa`a, the intercession which is stored up for Muslims, is true, as related in the hadiths. 42. The covenant which Allah made with Adam and his offspring is true. 43. Allah knew, before the existence of time, the exact number of those who would enter the Garden and the exact number of those who would enter the Fire. This number will neither be increased nor decreased. 44. The same applies to all actions done by people, which are done exactly as Allah knew they would be done. Everyone is eased towards what he was created for and it is the action with which a man's life is sealed which dictates his fate. Those who are fortunate are fortunate by the decree of Allah, and those who are wretched are wretched by the decree of Allah. 45. The exact nature of the decree is Allah's secret in His creation, and no angel near the Throne, nor Prophet sent with a message, has been given knowledge of it. Delving into it and reflecting too much about it only leads to destruction and loss, and results in rebelliousness. So be extremely careful about thinking and reflecting on this matter or letting doubts about it assail you, because Allah has kept knowledge of the decree away from human beings, and forbidden them to enquire about it, saying in His Book, ""He is not asked about what He does, but they are asked"" (al-Anbiya' 21: 23). Therefore, anyone who asks: ""Why did Allah do that?"" has gone against a judgement of the Book, and anyone who goes against a judgement of the Book is an unbeliever. 46. This in sum is what those of Allah's Friends with enlightened hearts need to know and constitutes the degree of those firmly endowed with knowledge. For there are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge which is accessible to created beings, and knowledge which is not accessible to created beings. Denying the knowledge which is accessible is disbelief, and claiming the knowledge which is inaccessible is disbelief. Belief can only be firm when accessible knowledge is accepted and the inaccessible is not sought after. 47. We believe in al-Lawh (the Tablet) and al-Qalam (the Pen) and in everything written on the former. Even if all created beings were to gather together to make something fail to exist, whose existence Allah had written on the Tablet, they would not be able to do so. And if all created beings were to gather together to make something exist which Allah had not written on it, they would not be able to do so. The Pen has dried having written down all that will be in existence until the Day of Judgement.Whatever a person has missed he would have never got, and whatever he gets he would have never missed. 48. It is necessary for the servant to know that Allah already knows everything that is going to happen in His creation and has decreed it in a detailed and decisive way. There is nothing that He has created in either the heavens or the earth that can contradict it, or add to it, or erase it, or change it, or decrease it, or increase it in any way. This is a fundamental aspect of belief and a necessary element of all knowledge and recognition of Allah's oneness and Lordship. As Allah says in His Book: ""He created everything and decreed it in a detailed way."" (al-Furqan 25: 2) And He also says: ""Allah's command is always a decided decree."" (al-Ahzab 33: 38) So woe to anyone who argues with Allah concerning the decree and who, with a sick heart, starts delving into this matter. In his deluded attempt to investigate the Unseen, he is seeking a secret that can never be uncovered, and he ends up an evil-doer, telling nothing but lies. 49. Al-`Arsh (the Throne) and al-Kursi (the Chair) are true. 50. He is independent of the Throne and that which is beneath it. 51. He encompasses all things and that which is above it, and what He has created is incapable of encompassing Him. 52. We say with belief, acceptance and submission that Allah took Ibrahim as an intimate friend and that He spoke directly to Musa. 53. We believe in the angels, and the Prophets, and the books which were revealed to the messengers, and we bear witness that they were all following the manifest Truth. 54. We call the people of our qibla Muslims and believers as long as they acknowledge what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought, and accept as true everything that he said and told us about. 55. We do not enter into vain talk about Allah nor do we allow any dispute about the religion of Allah. 56. We do not argue about the Qur'an and we bear witness that it is the speech of the Lord of all the Worlds which the Trustworthy Spirit came down with and taught the most honoured of all the Messengers, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is the speech of Allah and no speech of any created being is comparable to it. We do not say that it was created and we do not go against the Congregation (jama`a) of the Muslims regarding it. 57. We do not consider any of the people of our qibla to be unbelievers because of any wrong action they have done, as long as they do not consider that action to have been lawful. 58. Nor do we say that the wrong action of a man who has belief does not have a harmful effect on him. 59. We hope that Allah will pardon the people of right action among the believers and grant them entrance into the Garden through His mercy, but we cannot be certain of this, and we cannot bear witness that it will definitely happen and that they will be in the Garden. We ask forgiveness for the people of wrong action among the believers and, although we are afraid for them, we are not in despair about them. 60. Certainty and despair both remove one from the religion, but the path of truth for the People of the Qibla lies between the two. 61. A person does not step out or belief except by disavowing what brought him into it. 62. Belief consists of affirmation by the tongue and acceptance by the heart. 63. And the whole of what is proven from the Prophet, upon him be peace, regarding the Shari`a and the explanation (of the Qur'an and of Islam) is true. 64. Belief is, at base, the same for everyone, but the superiority of some over others in it is due to their fear and awareness of Allah, their opposition to their desires, and their choosing what is more pleasing to Allah. 65. All the believers are Friends of Allah and the noblest of them in the sight of Allah are those who are the most obedient and who most closely follow the Qur'an. 66. Belief consists of belief in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, the Last Day, and belief that the Decree -- both the good of it and the evil of it, the sweet of it and the bitter or it -- is all from Allah. 67. We believe in all these things. We do not make any distinction between any of the messengers, we accept as true what all of them brought. 68. Those of the Community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who have committed grave sins will be in the Fire, but not forever, provided they die and meet Allah as believers affirming His unity even if they have not repented. They are subject to His will and judgement. If He wants, He will forgive them and pardon them out of His generosity, as is mentioned in the Qur'an when He says: ""And He forgives anything less than that (shirk) to whomever He wills"" (al-Nisa' 4: 116); if He wants, He will punish them in the Fire out of His justice, and then bring them out of the Fire through His mercy, and for the intercession of those who were obedient to Him, and send them to the Garden. This is because Allah is the Protector of those who recognize Him and will not treat them in the hereafter in the same way as He treats those who deny Him, who are bereft of His guidance and have failed to obtain His protection. O Allah, You are the Protector of Islam and its people; make us firm in Islam until the day we meet You. 69. We agree with doing the prayer behind any of the People of the Qibla whether rightful or wrongful, and doing the funeral prayer over any of them when they die. 70. We do not say that any of them will categorically go to either the Garden or the Fire, and we do not accuse any of them of kufr (disbelief), shirk (associating partners with Allah), or nifaq (hypocrisy), as long as they have not openly demonstrated any of those things. We leave their secrets to Allah. 71. We do not agree with killing any of the Community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, unless it is obligatory by Shari`a to do so. 72. We do not accept rebellion against our Imam or those in charge of our affairs even if they are unjust, nor do we wish evil on them, nor do we withdraw from following them. We hold that obedience to them is part of obedience to Allah, the Glorified, and therefore obligatory as long as they do not order to commit sins. We pray for their right guidance and ask for pardon for their wrongs. 73. We follow the Sunna of the Prophet and the Congregation of the Muslims, and avoid deviation, differences and divisions. 74. We love the people of justice and trustworthiness, and hate the people of injustice and treachery. 75. When our knowledge about something is unclear, we say: ""Allah knows best."" 76. We agree with wiping over leather socks (in ablution) whether on a journey or otherwise, just as has come in the hadiths. 77. Hajj and jihad under the leadership of those in charge of the Muslims, whether they are right or wrong-acting, are continuing obligations until the Last Hour comes. Nothing can annul or controvert them. 78. We believe in the the noble angels who write down our actions, for Allah has appointed them over us as two guardians. 79. We believe in the Angel of Death who is in charge of taking the spirits of all the worlds. 80. We believe in the punishment in the grave for those who deserve it, and in the questioning in the grave by Munkar and Nakir about one's Lord, one's religion and one's prophet, as has come down in the hadiths from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and in reports from the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. 81. The grave is either one of the meadows of the Garden or one of the pits of the Fire. 82. We believe in being brought back to life after death and in being recompensed for our actions on the Day of Judgement, and the exhibition of works, and the reckoning, and the reading of the book, and the reward or punishments, and the Bridge, and the Balance. 83. The Garden and the Fire are created things that never come to an end and we believe that Allah created them before the rest of creation and then created people to inhabit each of them. Whoever He wills goes to the Garden out of His bounty and whoever He wills goes to the Fire through His justice. Everybody acts in accordance with what is destined for him and goes towards what he has been created for. 84. Good and evil have both been decreed for people. 85. The capability in terms of divine grace and favor which makes an action certain to occur cannot be ascribed to a created being. This capability is integral with action, whereas the capability of an action in terms of having the necessary health and ability, being in a position to act, and having the necessary means, exists in a person before the action. It is this type of capability which is the object of the dictates of the Shari`a. Allah the Exalted says: ""Allah does not charge a person except according to his ability."" (al-Baqara 2: 286) 86. People's actions are created by Allah but earned by people . 87. Allah, the Exalted, has only charged people with what they are able to do and people are only capable of doing what Allah has granted them to do. This is the explanation of the phrase: ""There is no power and no strength except by Allah."" We add to this that there is no stratagem or way by which anyone can avoid or escape disobedience to Allah except with Allah's help; nor does anyone have the strength to put obedience to Allah into practice and remain firm in it, except if Allah makes it possible for him to do so. 88. Everything happens according to Allah's will, knowledge, predestination and decree. His will overpowers all other wills and His decree overpowers all stratagems. He does whatever He wills and He is never unjust. He is exalted in His purity above any evil or perdition and He is perfect far beyond any fault or flaw. ""He will not be asked about what He does, but they will be asked."" (al-Anbiya' 21: 23) 89. There is benefit for dead people in the supplication and alms-giving of the living. 90. Allah responds to people's supplications and gives them what they ask for. 91. Allah has absolute control over everything and nothing has any control over Him. Nothing can be independent of Allah even for the blinking of an eye, and whoever considers himself independent of Allah for the blinking of an eye is guilty of unbelief and becomes one of the people of perdition. 92. Allah is angered and He is pleased but not in the same way as any creature. 93. We love the Companions of the Messenger of Allah but we do not go to excess in our love for any one individual among them; nor do we disown any one of them. We hate anyone who hates them or does not speak well of them and we only speak well of them. Love of them is a part of Islam, part of belief and part of excellent behavior, while hatred of them is unbelief, hypocrisy and rebellion. 94. We confirm that, after the death of Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, the caliphate went first to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, thus proving his excellence and superiority over the rest of the Muslims; then to `Umar ibn al-Khattab; then to `Uthman; and then to `Ali ibn Abi Talib; may Allah be well pleased with all of them. These are the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and upright leaders. 95. We bear witness that the ten who were named by the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and who were promised the Garden by him, will be in the Garden, as the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, whose word is truth, bore witness that they would be. The ten are: Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman, `Ali, Talha, Zubayr, Sa`d, Sa`id, `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf, and Abu `Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah whose title was the Trustee of this Community, may Allah be pleased with all of them. 96. Anyone who speaks well of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his wives and offspring, who are all pure and untainted by any impurity, is free from the accusation of hypocrisy. 97. The learned men of the Predecessors, both the first community and those who immediately followed: the people of virtue, the narrators of hadith, the jurists, and the analysts-- they must only be spoken of in the best way, and anyone who says anything bad about them is not on the right path. 98. We do not prefer any of the saintly men among the Community over any of the Prophets but rather we say that any one of the Prophets is better than all the awliya' put together. 99. We believe in what we know of the karamat or marvels of the awliya' and in the authentic stories about them from trustworthy sources. 100. We believe in the signs of the Hour such as the appearance of the Antichrist (dajjal) and the descent of `Isa ibn Maryam, peace be upon him, from heaven, and we believe in the rising of the sun from where it sets and in the emergence of the Beast from the earth. 101. We do not accept as true what soothsayers and fortune-tellers say, nor do we accept the claims of those who affirm anything which goes against the Book, the Sunna, and the consensus of the Muslim Community (umma). 102. We agree that holding together is the true and right path and that separation is deviation and torment. 103. There is only one religion of Allah in the heavens and the earth and that is the religion of Islam (""submission""). Allah says: ""Surely religion in the sight of Allah is Islam."" (Al `Imran 3: 19) And He also says: ""I am pleased with Islam as a religion for you."" (al-Ma'ida 5: 3) 104. Islam lies between going to excess and falling short, between the likening of Allah's attributes to creation (tashbih) and divesting Allah of attributes (ta`til), between determinism and freewill, and between sureness and despair. 105. This is our religion and it is what we believe in, both inwardly and outwardly, and we renounce any connection, before Allah, with anyone who goes against what we have said and made clear. We ask Allah to make us firm in our belief and seal our lives with it and to protect us from variant ideas, scattering opinions and evil schools of view such as those of the Mushabbiha, the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Jabriyya, the Qadariyya, and others like them who go against the Sunna and Jama`a and have allied themselves with error. We renounce any connection with them and in our opinion they are in error and on the path of destruction. We ask Allah to protect us from all falsehood and we ask His Grace and Favour to do all good." 40,"Towards the Final Hour",5530,637,636,"No tribulation on the face of the Earth since Allah created the children of Adam will be greater than the trial of the Dajjal. Verily, no prophet was sent who did not warn his people of the Dajjal, and I am the last of the prophets, and you are the last of the nations, and so he will inevitably appear among you."" (ibn Majah, ibn Khuzaymah, and al-Hakim). Most of the Dajjal's followers will be from the Jews: ""Seventy thousands of the Jews of Isfahan will follow the Dajjal, wearing cloaks."" (Muslim). The Jews will believe that he is a miracle from Allah, that he will return to them their Kingdom. They will call him the Messiah, son of David. Verily, no prophet was sent who did not warn his people of the Dajjal, and I am the last of the prophets, and you are the last of the nations, and so he will inevitably appear among you."" (ibn Majah, ibn Khuzaymah, and al-Hakim). Most of the Dajjal's followers will be from the Jews: ""Seventy thousands of the Jews of Isfahan will follow the Dajjal, wearing cloaks."" (Muslim). The Jews will believe that he is a miracle from Allah, that he will return to them their Kingdom. They will call him the Messiah, son of David. THE DAJJAAL Just before the appearance of the Dajjal, the Muslims will be at the peak of their military power. It seems that the Dajjal's purpose will be to destroy the Muslims' power. At that time, Muslims will make a peace treaty with the Christians, and together they will conquer and win, but the Christians will then break the treaty. Prophet Muhammad, (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), informed us, ""You will make a peace treaty with them [Christians] and together you will invade an enemy beyond Rome. You will be victorious and take much booty. Then, you will camp on a hilly pasture when one of the [Christians] will come and raise a cross and say: 'Victory to the Cross', so one of the Muslims will come and kill him. Then the [Christians] will break the treaty and prepare for al-Malhamah."" (Abu Dawud). AL MALHAMAH As this battle between Muslims and Christians approaches, men will abandon Christianity to embrace Islam in large numbers. They will become the best of Muslims, and the remaining Christians will pursue them aggressively. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: ""The Hour will not come until the [Christians] camp at al-Amaq or Dabiq. An army, composed of the best people on Earth at that time, will come out of Madinah to meet them. When they arrange themselves in ranks, the [Christians] will say: 'Do not stand between us and those who took prisoners from amongst us. Let us fight them.' The Muslims will say: 'No! by Allah, we will not stand aside and let you fight our brothers.' Then they will fight. One third will run away and Allah will never forgive them; one third will be killed and will be the best of the martyrs in the sight of Allah; another third, who have never been subject to trials, will win and conquer Constantinople. After they hang their swords on the olive trees and begin to divide the booty, Satan will shout to them that the Dajjal has taken their places amongst their family. They will run out but will find that it is not true. However when they reach ash-Sham (the area of present day Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon), the Dajjal will appear. While they are preparing to fight him, and drawing up their ranks, Salaat time will come and then, Eesa the son of Maryam will descend."" (Muslim). Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) has talked at length about this battle - how terrible it will be and the great sense of sacrifice the Muslims will display. He said, ""The Hour will not come until people will not be able to divide inheritance, nor rejoice over booty."" Pointing toward ash-Sham, he said: ""An enemy will gather forces against the Muslims, and the Muslims will gather forces against them.' A companion asked: 'Do you mean the [Christians]?' He said: 'Yes, and at that time there will be terrible fighting. The Muslims will prepare a detachment to fight to death, and not return unless they are victorious. They will fight until night intervenes, both sides will take booty but none will be victorious, and the detachment will perish. Then the Muslims will prepare another detachment to fight to death, and not return unless they are victorious. They will fight until night intervenes, both sides will take booty but none will be victorious. On the fourth day, the Muslims who are left will return to fight, and Allah will make their enemy to be defeated. There will be a battle the like of which has never been seen, so that even if a bird were to pass between the rank, it will fall dead before it reaches the end. Out of a family of one hundred, only one man will survive. So, how could he rejoice over any booty or divide any inheritance?""' (Muslim) IDENTIFYING THE DAJJAAL The Dajjal will claim that he is Allah. He will perform mighty acts to convince people of his claim. But, every true believer, whether literate or illiterate, will be able to read the word kafir on his forehead, as stated by Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). He (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) has also described his physical appearance as: short, fat, red-faced, bow-legged, with curly hair and one-eyed. One of his eyes is extinguished, and is neither protruding nor deep-seated, but resembles a floating grape. ""If you are confused, know that your Lord is not one-eyed, and that no one will be able to see the Lord [in this world]."" (paraphrased from Bukhari, Muslim, Ahmad and Abu Dawud). And in the narration related by Muslim and Bukhari, the Prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) told us that, ""There has never been a Prophet who did not warn his people against the one-eyed Dajjal. Verily he is one-eyed and your lord is not one eyed. On his forehead will be written the letters Kaf, Fa', Ra, i.e., the root letters for 'kafir' or 'unbeliever').” These words will actually be written between his eyes on the forehead. He will move with great swiftness around the Earth, ""like a cloud driven by the wind.” (Muslim) Also, Prophet Mohammed (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) has informed us, ""He [the Dajjal) will have two flowing rivers. One will appear to be pure water, and the other will appear to be flaming fire. Whosoever lives to see that, let him choose the river that seems to be fire, then let him close his eyes and drink from it, for it will be cold water"" ""...and the cool water will be fire."" (Bukhari). The Dajjal will acquire assistance from devils: “He will say to a Bedouin: 'What do you think if I bring your father and mother back to life for you'? Will you bear witness that I am your Lord?' The Bedouin will say, 'Yes', so two devils will assume the appearance of his father and mother and will say: 'O son follow him, for he is your Lord.’” (ibn Majah, ibn Khuzaymah, and al-Hakim). Animals and objects will execute his orders: ""He will come to people and call them, and they will believe in him and answer his call. Upon his order, the sky will rain, and the Earth will produce crops. Their animals will graze on these crops, and will come back with their udders full of milk and their flanks stretched. Then he will go to other people and will call them, but they will reject his call. He will depart from them and then they will suffer great famine and will possess nothing in the form of wealth. He will pass by the wasteland and say: 'bring forth your treasures' and its treasures will follow him like swarms of bees."" (Muslim). His time will be filled with extreme trials as Allah created him to be a test for people. Only those whose faith is strong will resist the great temptation and might of the Dajjal. He will rule on Earth for forty days but they would not be like other days. They are: ""Forty days, and one of these days will be like a year, another day like a month, yet another like a week, and the rest will have the same length as normal days. The companions who were always concerned about the matters of faith and worship, asked Prophet Muhammad: 'O Messenger of Allah, for the day which is like a year, will one day's prayer be sufficient?' He said: 'No, you must estimate the time and observe the salah.’” (Muslim). This means that the day will truly be lengthened, and it will not be due to the people's imagination. Prophet Mohammed (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: ""There will be no town the Dajjal will not visit, except Makkah and Madinah, for all their gates will be guarded by angels surrounding them. So he will camp at the salt-marsh (near Madinah). Madinah will be shaken by three tremors, after which every disbeliever and hypocrite will leave it."" (Bukhari and Muslim). The Dajjal will finally be destroyed by Prophet Eesa (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) who will descend to Earth and spread peace. THE DAJJAAL IS ALIVE AND IS IMPRISONED ON A REMOTE ISLAND Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) once gathered the Muslims in the masjid and said: ""I have kept you here because Tamim ad-Dari, a Christian man who has embraced Islam, told me something which agrees with what I have told you about the Dajjal. He told me that he had sailed in a ship with thirty men from Banu Lakham and Banu Judham. The waves tossed them about for a month, then they came near an island at sunset. They approached the island on the ship's rafts, and landed. They were met by a beast that was so hairy that they could not tell its front from its back. They said: 'Woe to you! What are you?' It said: 'I am al-Jassasah.' They said: 'What is al-Jassasah?' It said: 'O people, go to this man in the monastery, for he is very eager to know about you,’” Tamim said that when it named a person to us we were afraid lest it be a devil. Tamim said: ""We quickly went to the monastery. There we found a huge man with his hands tied up to his neck and with iron shackles between his legs up to the ankles. We said: 'Woe to you, who are you?' It said: 'You will soon know about me. Tell me who you are.' We said: 'We are people from Arabia. We sailed on a ship, but the waves have been tossing us about for a month, and they brought us to your island, where we met a beast which was so hairy that we could not tell its front from its back. We said to it: 'Woe to you what are you?' She said: 'I am al-Jassasah.' We asked: 'What is al-Jassasah?' and it told us: 'Go to this man in the monastery, for he is very eager to know about you.' So we came to you quickly, fearing that it might be a devil.' The man said: 'Tell me about the date-palms of Beisan.' We said: 'What do you want to know about them'?' He said: 'I want to know whether these trees bear fruits or not.' We said 'Yes'. He said: 'Soon they will not bear fruits.' Then he said: 'Tell me about the lake of Tabariyah (in Palestine).' We said: 'What do you want to know about it?' He said: 'Is there water in it'?' We said: 'There is plenty of water in it.' He said: 'Soon it will become dry.' Then he said: 'Tell me about the spring of Zughar.' We asked: 'What do you want to know about it'?' He asked: 'Is there water in it, and does it irrigate the land'?' We said: 'Yes, there is plenty of water in it, and the people use it to irrigate the land.' Then he said: 'Tell me about the illiterate Prophet [Muhammad], what has he done?' We said: 'He has left Makkah and settled in Yathrib (later Madinah).' He said: 'Do the Arabs fight against him'?' We said 'Yes'. He said: 'How does he deal with them'?' So we told him that Prophet Muhammad had overcome the Arabs around him and that they had followed him. He asked: 'Has it really happened?' We said yes. He said: 'It is better for them that they follow him. Now I will tell you about myself. I am the Dajjal. I will soon be permitted to leave this place: I will emerge and travel about the Earth. In forty nights, I will pass through every town, except Makkah and Madinah, for these have been forbidden to me. Every time I try to enter either of them, I will be met by an angel bearing an unsheathed sword, who will prevent me from entering. There will be angels guarding them at every passage leading to them.'” (Muslim). THE DESCENT OF EESA Eesa will return at the end of time, as stated in the Qur'an 'And he [Jesus] shall be a Sign of the Hour"" [43:61]. Glad tiding for Muslims The Qur'an tells us of Prophet Eesa's ascension to heaven and his future return to Earth: 'They denied the truth and uttered a monstrous falsehood against Mary. [The Jews] declared: 'We have put to death the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the messenger of Allah.' They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, as he was made to resemble another for them. Those that disagreed about him were in doubt concerning him; they knew nothing about him that was not sheer conjecture; they did not slay him for certain. Allah lifted him up to Him; Allah is mighty and wise. There is none among the People of the Book but will believe in him before his death; and on the Day of Resurrection he will bear witness against them."" [4:157-159]. Prophet Eesa, alayhes salam, will descend at a time when the Muslims are experiencing the greatest hardships. He will come to their help and make the religion of Allah prevail on Earth. At that time, the only two options for humanity will be to embrace Islam or die. The Muslims will recognize him by the features which Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) described him. He said: ""I am the closest of all the people to Eesa, son of Maryam, for there is no prophet between him and myself. He will come again, and when you see him, you will recognize him. He is of medium height and his complexion is reddish-white, he will be wearing two garments, and his hair will look wet, although no water will have wet it."" (Ahmad). In addition he said; ""Allah will send the Messiah, son of Maryam, and he will descend to the white minaret in the east of Damascus, wearing two garments dyed with saffron, placing his hands on the wings of two angels. When he lowers his head, beads of perspiration will fall from it, and when he raises his head, beads like pearls will scatter from it. Every disbeliever who smells the fragrance (of his breath) will die, and his breath will reveal as far as he can see. He will search for the Dajjal until he finds him at the gate of Ludd where he will kill him. Then, a group of people whom Allah has protected will come to Eesa, son of Maryam, and he will wipe the traces of hardship on their faces and tell them of their place in Paradise. At that point, Allah will reveal to Eesa: 'I have brought forth some of my servants whom no-one will be able to fight. Take my servants safely to at-Tour."" (Muslim) Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) informed us: ""... While the Imam is going forward to lead them [the Muslim soldiers] in Fajr salah, Eesa son of Maryam will descend. The Imam will step back to let Eesa lead people in salah but Eesa will place his hands between the man's shoulders and say: 'Go forward and lead the salah for the call to commence the salah (iqamah) was made for you, and so the Imam will lead the people in salah."" (ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaymah and al-Hakim). This symbolic gesture from Eesa to let the Imam lead the salah will show that he follows the Islamic Shari'ah. The First thing Prophet Eesa (Alayhis salaam) will accomplish, will be to kill the Dajjal with his own hands: After the Imam finishes the salah, ""Eesa will say: 'Open the gate.' They will open it and behind it will be the Dajjal and seven thousand Jews, each bearing a sword and a shield. When the Dajjal sees Eesa, he will begin to dissolve like salt in water, and will run away. Eesa will say: 'You will remain alive until I strike you with my sword.' Eesa will catch up with him at the eastern gate of Ludd and kill him, and the Jews will then be defeated with the help of Allah."" (Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaymah, and al-Hakim). Therefore, the first person to be killed at the hands of Eesa will be the Dajjal. The Jews will be defeated with the help of Allah. They will not be able to hide behind any stone, wall, animal, or tree (except the Boxthorn, for it is of their trees), without it saying: 'O Muslim, O servant of Allah! Here is a Jew come and kill him.'"" (ibn Majah and ibn Khuzaymah). After killing the Dajjal and relieving the people of his oppression, Eesa will concentrate on the task he was sent to accomplish. This task will be to rule people with justice and equity by applying the Islamic Shari'ah, which Prophet Muhammad, (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) was sent to establish. He will abolish all practices that do not conform to the Shari'ah: ""By the One in Whose Hand my soul is, surely the son of Maryam will come down among you as a just ruler. He will break the cross, kill the swine and abolish the Jizyah. Wealth will be in such abundance that no one will care about it, and a single prostration (sajdah) will be better than the world and all that is in it."" (Bukhari, Fathul Bari). Eesa will fight the disbelievers and abolish all other religions until everyone worships Allah. PEACE ON EARTH Before the end of the world, there will be one last battle between truth and falsehood. Truth will triumph, and peace and prosperity will prevail on Earth. In this great battle, Prophet Eesa (Alayhis salaam) and the Muslims will be on one side, while the disbelievers, led by the Dajjal will be on the other side. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: ""Peace will prevail and people will use their swords as sickles. The sky will send down rain in abundance, and the Earth will bring forth its blessings.' (Ahmad) ""Hatred will disappear. Every harmful animal will be made harmless, so that the infant will put his hand into the snake's mouth without being harmed, and the little girl will be able to make the lion run away from her, the wolf will go among the sheep as if it were a sheep-dog. The Earth will be filled with peace as a container is filled with water. People will be in complete agreement, and only Allah will be worshipped. Wars will cease and the authority of Quraysh will be taken away. The Earth will be like a silver basin, and it will produce fruit so abundantly that a group of people will gather to eat a bunch of grapes or one pomegranate and will feel satisfied. A bull will be worth so much money, but a horse will be worth only a few Dirhams.' (ibn Majah). Then Eesa (Alayhis salaam) will die, and mankind will again plunge into the abyss of ignorance and apostasy to the end of time when the Hour will come upon the worst of people and destroy them. CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH BELIEFS REGARDING THE RETURN OF THE MESSIAH Islam, Christianity, and Judaism all believe in the coming of the leader of the great and final battle whom they all call the Messiah. The Jews are look forward to his coming because they claim he will bring about God's kingdom on Earth, after the establishment of a Jewish nation in Palestine. They await a leader from among the children of Prophet Dawud (Alayhis salaam). According to Imam Ibnul Qayyim, when this leader ""moves his lips in prayers all the nations will die."" They claim that he is the promised Messiah, and call him the 'Prince of Peace'. Believing that he will make all mankind subservient to the state of Israel, they are preparing for his arrival by gathering in Palestine. According to their beliefs, he will come to rule the Earth and reside in Jerusalem, which he will take as his capital. The person they are waiting for is the Dajjal, whom the Christians call the Antichrist. This is why the majority of the Dajjal's followers will be from the Jews. The Christians and the Muslims agree that this promised Messiah leader is Eesa who will descend from heaven and return to Earth to lead the great battle. This battle will be led by Eesa against the Dajjal and his followers. The Christians believe that before the second coming of Eesa, those who believe in Eesa as the son of God will experience 'the rapture' when they will be raised up into the heavens to meet their Lord, and thereby will be saved from the Antichrist. They base their belief on the corrupted text of the Bible: ""For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ [i.e., the dead Christians] will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord."" (I Thessalonians 4:16-17). The rest of the people will be left to perish with the king of darkness, son of Satan. ""Then the king [Dajjal] shall do according to his own will: He shall exalt and magnify himself above every god, shall speak blasphemies against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the wrath has been accomplished; for what has been determined shall be done"" (Daniel I 1:36). The Christians believe that the Armageddon will take place in a small valley called Meggido in Palestine. They claim that the battle which will be led by Eesa against the Dajjal and his followers, will be crowned by victory for the Christians and the complete destruction of the non-Christians who will all drown in a lake of fire burning with brimstone. This is based on the corrupted text of the Bible: ""Then I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the birds that fly in the midst of heaven, 'Come and gather together for the supper of the great God, that you may eat the flesh of kings, the flesh of captains, the flesh of mighty men, the flesh of horses, and of those who sit on them, and the flesh of all people both free and slave, both small and great.' And I saw the beast, the kings of the Earth, and their armies gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse against his army. Then the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet who worked signs in his presence, by which he deceived those who received the mark of the beast, and those who worshipped his image. These two were cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone. And the rest were killed with the sword which proceeded from the mouth of him who sat on the horse. And all the birds were filled with their flesh."" (Revelation 19:17-21) Why the Judeo-Christian Alliance in Palestine? Allah the Exalted said: ""O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for friends. They are but friends of one another"" [5:51]. Although they differ in their theories of the outcome of al-Malhamah, the Jews and Christians have become allied against the Muslims in Palestine. Al-Aqsa masjid is located in Jerusalem and is the third holiest site for Muslims. According to the corrupted text of the Old Testament, all of the Jews must return to Palestine and establish a temple in the exact location of al-Aqsa before the Messiah will come. It is from this perspective that both the Jews and the Christians agree on the establishment of the state of Israel, and the immigration of all the Jews to Palestine. The Christians believe that the Messiah will come at the end of the Gregorian millennium, and rule on Earth for one thousand years. Allah says: 'Each tone of us, for the outcome of this] is waiting, so wait, and assuredly you shall know who are the travelers on the even path, and who is guided."" [20:135] Al-Aqsa Masjid is in Danger The Christians, specially the evangelicals, believe that Eesa will kill the Dajjal who would be a Jew as well as his followers. But they believe that all of the Jews will convert to Christianity after the defeat of the Dajjal. Therefore the Christians do not object to the gathering of the Jews in Jerusalem. The Jews, however, believe that their victory and the re-establishment of their state will not take place until the 'Temple' has been rebuilt. This temple will have to be build in the same spot on which al-Aqsa exits today. They are waiting for signs that cause this to happen but because they believe that they can (and should) hasten their occurrence, they would like very much see al-Aqsa masjid be destroyed sooner than later. They are, however, ready to rebuild the temple anytime now because they have taken all the necessary steps to prepare for that. Some are mentioned in the following: PREMIDITATED AGGRESSION 'The temple' is an ancient name for the chosen place of worship before Islam. The temple that existed two millenniums ago in Jerusalem represented the steps of Al-Aqsa mosque before Islam. The Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, was asked about the first masjid ever built. He said: ""Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Makkah)."" and when asked about the second masjid, he said: ""Al-masjid al-Aqsa."" then he added that between the two were forty years (Bukhari). Both were built by prophet Ibrahim, alayhes salaam. The first temple that was built was destroyed around 587 BC at the hands of the king of Babylon, and the second temple was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE and was not rebuilt since. At the advent of Islam the great event of al-Israa (The night journey of the Prophet from Makkah to Jerusalem) was an indication that the area has become the heritage of the Muslims, and that such a sacred place should not stay at the hands of disbelievers. Therefore freeing the land from them was the Muslims' immediate goal after uniting the Arabian Peninsula (hence the battle of Tabuk). Now after two thousand years of the destruction of the temple and 1344 years of the building of al-Aqsa mosque the Jews want to destroy the mosque and rebuild a third temple at its place. Unfortunately they have made great steps toward this goal: Occupation of al-Quds by the Jews: Al-Quds (Jerusalem), the town where al-Aqsa masjid was built, has been half eaten by the Jews when they annexed its Western part after the 1948 war. Now they have a plan (called Jerusalem 2000) to swallow the Eastern part, where Muslims are. First, Jewish settlers invaded the area which was 100% inhabited by Palestinians, to the point that the town became 'a stronghold of the radical Jews' (Newsweek 9/5/96). Their goal is to assure a strong Jewish majority in the Eastern town. Second, urban sprawl is allowed for the Jewish settlers all around the town to isolate it from the rest of the Palestinian land and hence its annexation would become easier. Collecting holy stones to build the temple: In 1989 the Jews claimed that they found a 'holy' stone weighing more than five tons which they put as the foundation stone for the third temple near al-Aqsa masjid. Since then, they went on a frenzy looking for holy stones everywhere, even uprooting the city's pavements to look for them. The radical Jews prepared everything according to their rituals to build the temple. They brought stones from the Neguev desert to be cut and polished in Jerusalem. They will need six million stones. 'It is no more a secret that the temple has been designed in the USA by American Jewish architects. The blueprints are at the disposition of the Israeli government.' (France Agence Press, August 1997). Other preparations are underway to revive the rituals that were practiced in the temple. The altar is now ready. Rabbis are preparing whole generations to attend to the execution of the rituals. All utensils, such as recipients and even prayer rugs, that would be needed once the temple is built are now ready. The menorah, the tabut, and the sacred cow For the Jews, the sacredness of the temple is not complete without the menorah, their religious symbol. The Jews believe that the menorah which was in the first temple still exists, and was saved from fire when this later was burned down, but it has been missed since then. They are incessantly looking for it. Meanwhile, a huge menorah costing three million dollars was made of gold to be put in the temple. The Jews are also looking for the tabut (the Ark of the Covenant) a wooden box containing a remnant of what Musa and Harun left behind (Muslims believe that this tabut was given to the people of Israel as a sign of the kingship of Saul as stated in the Qur'an (2:248). They believe that it still exists buried under the rubbles of the first temple. To search for it, they are undertaking extensive excavations under al-Aqsa masjid! In summary, the Jews have got everything ready before even the temple is built. But they can not start building until they get a sign from God as they believe. This sign is a red cow that should fulfill the description mentioned in their book. This cow would be slaughtered and burned and its ashes would be used to 'purify' the people of Israel, for you see none can enter the temple without being purified, and the Jews believe that they all are impure now until they are cleaned by the cow's remains! Well this cow they claim was born in 1997. ""The ritual slaughter of the red cow will take place three years after its birth; the count down to the great return of the Jews to their original place of worship, and the glad tidings of the coming of the savior, the Messiah. The attempt to accomplish this return will lead to an unforgettable beginning of the third millennium."" (The Observer, 9/7/97) Excavations under the masjid This perhaps is the most dangerous and most malicious plot to destroy the mosque. These excavations have been going on for decades and are still underway. The goal is: to empty the ground under the two mosques, al-Aqsa and the Dome of the Rock, leaving them standing on hollow foundations so that they are vulnerable to collapse at the slightest natural or man-made tremor. Of course the Israeli government does not reveal this goal, but claims that the only purpose of the excavations is archeological; to find the remains of the second temple and other artifacts. Digging tunnels under al-Aqsa: These operations not only contribute to threatening the foundations of the mosque but also will facilitate and complement the project of the temple in future phases. In September 1996 a tunnel has been officially inaugurated, an indication that the steps to turn the mosque into a Jewish temple has officially started. Other tunnels are being dug under the masjid, which means that now the Jews share the area with the Muslims. These tunnels can be used temporarily for worship, while the Israeli government has put electronic screens inside them showing al-Quds (Jerusalem), and at the place of al-Aqsa masjid and the Dome of the Rock, the Jewish temple is shown surrounded by new buildings of Jewish architecture." 41,"Belief in the Angels",5531,637,636,"Allah created them and they are fully occupied in worshipping Him and are completely obedient to Him. As Allah says: ""..those who are near Him (i.e. the angels) are not too proud to worship Him, nor are they weary (of His worship). They (i.e. the angels) glorify His Praises night and day, (and) they never slacken (to do so).""Suratul Anbiya 21:19-20 We believe in the Allah’s Angels and also that : We believe in the Allah’s Angels and also that : ""They are but honoured slaves. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His Command.""Suratul Anbiya 21:26-27 Allah created them and they are fully occupied in worshipping Him and are completely obedient to Him. As Allah says: ""..those who are near Him (i.e. the angels) are not too proud to worship Him, nor are they weary (of His worship). They (i.e. the angels) glorify His Praises night and day, (and) they never slacken (to do so).""Suratul Anbiya 21:19-20 Allah has kept them away from our vision, that’s why we cannot see them. But in some instances Allah has enabled some of His servants to see them. Like our Prophet (saw) saw the Angel Jibreel (as) in his real form, he had six hundred wings and he spanned the whole horizon. Similarly Jibreel (as) appeared in front of Mary in a human form and they spoke to each other. Likewise, one day in the gathering of the sahaaba , Jibreel (as) came in the form of unfamiliar person in front of the Prophet(saw), there were no signs of travel on him, the clothes were exceptionally white and the hair extremely black. He sat keeping his knees opposite the knees of the Prophet (saw), and he kept his hands on his thighs and started speaking to him (saw). (After he departed), the prophet(saw) said that he was Jibreel (as). Some angels are entrusted with duties We believe that there are some angels who are entrusted with some specific duties. And among them is the Jibreel (as) to whom the task of revelation was assigned, with which he descended and which he gave to the Prophet or the Messenger of Allah whom Allah willed to receive. And among them is Mikaa’eel, who is entrusted with the task of rainfall and growth of crops. And there is Israafeel, who will blow the horn on the day of judgment when the people will fall unconscious and again when they will be brought back to life. And among them is malak-al-maut (angel of death), who when death approaches is appointed to take possession of the soul. And there is malak-al-jabaal who is entrusted with the affairs of the mountains, and there is an angel named Maalik, who is the incharge of the Hell. Similarly, there are some angels who protect and safeguard the unborn babies in the wombs of mothers and some are assigned to protect some men and some (angels) write their (mens') books of deeds, and for this each person is assigned two angels. As Allah says: ""(Remember!) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive (each human being ), one sitting on the right and one on the left (to note his or her actions) . Not a word does he (or she) utter, but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it).""Surah Qaf 50:17-18 And there are some angels (whom we call Munkar and Nakeer) who question the dead. When someone is taken to the grave after his death there come two angels who question him about his Lord, his Deen and his Prophet. Allah says in Holy Qur’an : ""Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter. And Allah will cause to go astray those who are Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.), and Allah does what He wills. Surah Ibrahim 14:27 And there are some angels who are assigned the task to take care of people of Jannah, as Allah says: ""And angels shall enter unto them from every gate (saying): ""Salaamun 'Alaikum (peace be upon you) for that you persevered in patience! Excellent indeed is the final home!"" Surah Ra'd 13:23-24 Al-Baitul Ma’moor The prophet (saw) said: ""In the heavens there is bait (house) al-Ma’moor in which enter seventy thousand angels every day."" In one narration, they pray in it. ""Those who enter it once will never enter it again.""" 42,"Belief in the Messengers ",5532,637,636,"""Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allaah after the Messengers. And Allaah is Ever AllPowerful, AllWise."" Suratun-Nisa 4:165 We believe that Allaah has sent Messengers (and Prophets) to His creation. We believe that Allaah has sent Messengers (and Prophets) to His creation. The wisdom in sending of the Messengers Allaah, the Most High says: ""Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allaah after the Messengers. And Allaah is Ever AllPowerful, AllWise."" Suratun-Nisa 4:165 The first Messenger was Nuh (alaihis Salaam) and the last is Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) We believe that the first Messenger was Nuh (alaihis Salaam) and the last is Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam). Allaah says: ""Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad) as We inspired Nuh and the Prophets after him;"" Suratun-Nisa 4:163 And He said: ""Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allaah and the last (end) of the Prophets."" Suratul-Ahzab 33:40 A mention of Determined and Messengers of Excellence The best amongst the group of Messengers and Prophets is Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam). And after him in rank and position are Ibrahim (alaihis Salaam), Musa (alaihis Salaam), then Nuh (alaihis Salaam) and then Isa, son of Maryam (alaihis Salaam). These are the five Messengers who exclusively are mentioned in the following verse. ""And (remember) when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you (O Muhammad ), and from Nuh , Ibrahim , Musa, and 'Iesa , son of Maryam (Mary). We took from them a strong covenant."" Suratul-Ahzab 33:7 The best Shar’iah among all the Shar’iah’s We believe that the Shar’iah that was brought by Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) was all-inclusive and all-encompassing of the qualities and excellences of the Shar’iah’s brought by the past Messengers. The proof is this statement of Allaah: ""He (Allaah) has ordained for you the same religion (Islam) which He ordained for Nuh , and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad ), and that which We ordained for Ibrahim , Musa and 'Iesa saying you should establish religion , and make no divisions in it (religion) (i.e. various sects in religion)."" Suratush-Shura 42:13 All the Messengers were human beings, creation and slaves of Allaah We believe that all the Messengers (and Prophets) were human beings created by Allaah. They did not possess anything from the properties of Ruboobiyyat (Lordship). And Allaah ordered Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) to proclaim that: ""I don't tell you that with me are the treasures of Allaah, nor (that) I know the unseen; nor I tell you that I am an angel. I but follow what is revealed to me by inspiration."" Suratul-An'am 6:50 And He said: ""Say (O Muhammad ): ""I possess no power of benefit or hurt to myself except as Allaah wills. Suratul-A'raf 7:188 And He also said: ""Say: ""It is not in my power to cause you harm, or to bring you to the Right Path."" Say (O Muhammad ): ""None can protect me from Allaah's punishment (if I were to disobey Him), nor should I find refuge except in Him. Suratul-Jinn 72:21 - 22 And it is our belief that they ( the Messengers and Prophets) are slaves of Allaah who were honored with prophethood and messengership by Allaah. And He mentioned about their virtue and merit at honored and praised places. And He said about Nuh (alaihis Salaam): ""O offspring of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nûh (Noah)! Verily, he was a grateful slave."" Suratul-Isra 17:3 And He said about the last of the Messengers, Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) : ""Blessed be He Who sent down the criterion (of right and wrong, i.e. this Qur'an) to His slave (Muhammad ) that he may be a warner to the 'Alamin (mankind and jinns).""Al-Furqan 25:1 And He said about other Messengers : ""And remember Our slaves, Ibrahim , Ishaque , and Ya'qub , (all) owners of strength (in worshipping Us) and (also) of religious understanding.""Surah Sad 38:45 And He said about Dawood (alaihis Salaam): ""and remember Our slave Dawud , endued with power. Verily, he was ever oft-returning in all matters and in repentance (toward Allaah).""Surah Sad 38:17 ""And to Dawud We gave Sulaiman . How excellent (a) slave! Verily, he was ever oft-returning in repentance (to Us)!Surah Sad 38:30 And He said about Isa (alaihis Salaam), ""He ['Iesa ] was not more than a slave. We granted Our Favour to him, and We made him an example to the Children of Israel (i.e. his creation without a father)."" Suratuz-Zukhruf 43:59 And we believe that Allaah, the Most High terminated the succession of Messengers and Prophets with Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) as the last Messenger and made him the Messenger for all mankind. Allaah says: ""Say (O Muhammad ): ""O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allaah - to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He); It is He Who gives life and causes death. So believe in Allaah and His Messenger (Muhammad ), the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believes in Allaah and His Words [(this Qur'an), the Tauraat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and also Allaah's Word: ""Be!"" - and he was, i.e. 'Iesa (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary),], and follow him so that you may be guided."" Suratul-A'raf 7:158 The Shar’iah of the Messenger (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) is the religion of Islaam We believe that the shar’iah brought by the last Messenger (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) is the religion of Islaam, which has been chosen and preferred by Allaah, the Most High for His slaves, and no other religion or Shar’iah other than this is acceptable to Allaah. Allaah, the Most High said: ""Truly, the religion with Allaah is Islam.Surah Aali Imran 3:19 And He said: ""This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. Suratul-Ma'idah 5:3 And He said: ""And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers.""Surah Aali Imran 3:85 To accept any other religion other than Islaam is Kufr (disbelief) We believe that if any person accepts or prefers any other religion, like Judaism or Christianity, over Islaam then he is a Kaafir (disbeliever). Accordingly it is required from him to make tawbah (repentance), if he repents then it is good or else he will be considered a murtad or the rejecter of Qur’an and should be killed. To reject that the Messengership of the Last Prophet (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) is to reject all Messengers We believe that a person who rejects that the last Prophet (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) was sent for whole mankind and the creation then he is the rejecter of all Messengers, rather he is even the rejecter of that Prophet whom he claims to believe in and obey. Allaah, the Most High says: ""The people of Nûh (Noah) belied the Messengers."" Suratush-Shu'ara 26:105 Allaah declared the people of Nuh as rejecters of all the Messengers even though there had come no Messenger before prophet Nuh (alaihis Salaam). Allaah, the Most High says: ""Verily, those who disbelieve in Allaah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allaah and His Messengers (by believing in Allaah and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, ""We believe in some but reject others,"" and wish to adopt a way in between. They are in truth disbelievers. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment."" Suratunn-Nisa 4: 150-151 Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) is the last Prophet We believe that there will come no prophet after Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam). Anyone who claims to be a prophet or affirms prophethood for anyone after prophet Muhammad (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam), then without doubt he is a Kaafir (disbeliever), because he is a rejecter of Allaah, His Messenger and the Ijmaa’ (agreement) of the Muslim Ummah (nation). Khulafaa ur-Raashideen were most deserving of the Khilaafa We also believe that there were rightly guided Khulafaa after the Prophet (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) from this Ummah who were the truest followers of the Prophet (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) in Knowledge, Dawah and Khilaafah. The best among them and the one who rightly deserved the first Khilaafah is Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq (radiallahu anhu) and after him in order of stature and rank are Umar bin al-Khattaab (radiallahu anhu), Uthmaan bin Affaaan (radiallahu anhu) and Ali bin Abee Taalib (radiallahu anhu). And they became the Khalifah in the same rank and order of excellence. And Allaah does not appoint a person as a ruler amongst that best generation if there existed a person who was better and more deserving of Khilaafah, because whatever He does is based on mature wisdom. Partial excellence cannot prove Complete Excellence We also believe that sometimes amongst these Khulafaa the succeeding Kahlifah may partially excel in excellence and rank in some matters than the one who preceeded him but it does not mean that he is entitled with complete excellence (over the preceeding Khalifah), because there are many reasons and causes for the excellence and honor. The degrees of Excellence We also believe that with Allaah, this ummah (of Muhmmad (sallalaahu Alaihi Wassallam) is better and higher in rank than all other ummah’s. Allaah the Most High says: ""You are the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma'rûf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden), and you believe in Allaah."" Surah Aali Imraan 3:110 We also believe that the best of people in this ummah are the companions of the Messenger of Allaah (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) then the ta’bi’een (the following generation) and then the tab’i ta’bi’een (the generation that followed that generation). One group will always remain steadfast on truth and will always be victorious And one group amongst this ummah will always remain steadfast on truth and will always be victorious. No one who doesn’t help them or who opposes them can do any harm to them till the command of Allaah comes. The differences among the companions of Prophet (sallalaahu alaihi wassallam) were based on ijtihaad (authoritative interpretation) We believe that all the differences and disputes that arose among the companions arose because of interpretation based on ijtihaad, so whosoever was on truth will receive two rewards and the one who erred will receive one reward and his error will be forgiven. It is waajib (obligatory) to refrain from speaking about the companions in an impudent manner We believe it to be of great importance that one should refrain from speaking ill of them or to point out their mistakes, rather one should praise them with beautiful words that they are deserving of. And we clear our hearts of abhorrence and hatred towards them as Allaah says regarding them,: ""Not equal among you are those who spent and fought before the conquering (of Makkah) (with those among you who did so later). Such are higher in degree than those who spent and fought afterwards. But to all, Allaah has promised the best (reward). ."" Suratul-Hadid 57:10 And Allaah the Most High says about us: ""And those who came after them say: ""Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful."""" Suratul-Hashr 59:10" 43,"Belief in the Revealed Books",5533,637,636,"""Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice.""Suratul-Hadid 57:25 We believe that Allah has revealed books to His Messengers so that they can be a proof against the worlds and a guide for those who abide and live by them, and so that the Prophets can teach people the religion and guidance through them and they can purify their hearts. We also believe that Allah revealed a book to all Messengers. As Allah the Most High says: ""Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice.""Suratul-Hadid 57:25 Some Heavenly Books Out of those books we know of the following: Tauraat: which was revealed upon Prophet Musa (as) and which is a magnificient book of Bani Isra’eel. Allah says: ""Verily, We did send down the Tauraat (Torah) (to Musa ), therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah's Will, judged the Jews. And the rabbis and the priests [too judged the Jews by the Tauraat (Torah) after those Prophets] for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's Book, and they were witnesses thereto."" Suratul-Ma'idah 5:44 Injeel: which was revealed upon Prophet Isa (as) and which was in affirmation of Torah and which its completion. Allah the most High says: ""And in their footsteps, We sent 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), confirming the Tauraat (Torah) that had come before him, and We gave him the Injeel (Gospel), in which was guidance and light and confirmation of the Tauraat (Torah) that had come before it, a guidance and an admonition for Al-Muttaqun (the pious - see V.2:2).""Suratul-Ma'idah 5:46 And Allah says: ""And I have come confirming that which was before me of the Tauraat (Torah), and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden to you, and I have come to you with a proof from your Lord. So fear Allah and obey me."" Surah Aali Imran 3:50 Zuboor: This book was revealed upon Prophet Dawood (as). Suhuf: These Scriptures were revealed upon prophet Ibraheem (as) and prophet Musa (as). Qur’an: This book was revealed upon the last Messenger, prophet Muhammad (saw). Allah the Most High says: "" a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong).""Suratul-Baqarah 2:185 Qur’an is the protector of all heavenly books and Allah is the protector of Qur’an Allah says in Qur’an: "".. confirming the Scripture that came before it and Mohayminan (trustworthy in highness and a witness) over it (old Scriptures)."" Suratul-Ma'idah 5:48 Accordingly, Allah the Most High abrogated all the previous books through Qur’an and He took the responsibility of preserving it against the deceit and fraud of every imprudent and one who changes (from original). Allah , the Most High says: ""Verily We: It is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qur'an) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)."" Suratul-Hijr 15:9 So that till the last day it remains preserved as a proof and evidence for the creation. Some examples of change, subtraction or addition in the previously revealed books As for the past heavenly books, they were revealed only for a limited period of time, and the newly revealed heavenly books would abrogate them. And these newly revealed books would clarify what occurred of change in the older books, because those books were not preserved form change and modification, rather there occurred in them alteration and many such deficiencies. Allah the Most High says: ""Among those who are Jews, there are some who displace words from (their) right places .."" Suratun-Nisa 4:46 And: ""Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands and then say, ""This is from Allah,"" to purchase with it a little price! Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby."" Suratul-Baqarah 2:79 And He said: ""Say (O Muhammad SAW): ""Who then sent down the Book which Musa (Moses) brought, a light and a guidance to mankind which you (the Jews) have made into (separate) papersheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing (much).” "" And He the Most High said: ""And verily, among them is a party who distort the Book with their tongues (as they read), so that you may think it is from the Book, but it is not from the Book, and they say: ""This is from Allah,"" but it is not from Allâh; and they speak a lie against Allah while they know it. It is not (possible) for any human being to whom Allah has given the Book and Al-Hukma (the knowledge and understanding of the laws of religion, etc.) and Prophethood to say to the people: ""Be my worshippers rather than Allah's."""" Surah Aali Imran 3:78-79 And He said: ""O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Now has come to you Our Messenger (Muhammad SAW) explaining to you much of that which you used to hide from the Scripture and passing over (i.e. leaving out without explaining) much. Indeed, there has come to you from Allah a light (Prophet Muhammad SAW ) and a plain Book (this Qur'ân). Wherewith Allah guides all those who seek His Good Pleasure to ways of peace, and He brings them out of darkness by His Will unto light and guides them to a Straight Way (Islamic Monotheism). Surely, in disbelief are they who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary)."" Suratul-Ma'idah 5:15-17" 44,"Branches of Eeman (Faith)",5534,637,636,"The Holy Prophet (Rasulullah )(Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) has said, “Imaan has more than seventy branches* of which the most important is the recitation of Kalimah (Laa ilaha illallaho) ""There is no one worthy of worship but Allah"", and the least one is to remove some obstacle (stone, wood, thorn, etc.) from the way; and modesty also is a special requisite of Imaan. Islam is not the name of a caste or community so that anyone who is born in it automatically becomes a Muslim without having to do anything on his own part. Branches of Eeman (Faith) Islam is not only the name of a faith but complete way of life, which was brought into the world from Almighty Lord, Allah through His true and devoted Apostle, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam)...The Islamic way of Life is preserved to this day in its pristine purity in the Quran and the holy Traditions (Ahadith). Those who accepts the correct Islamic beliefs and practices are called Muslims and those who practice upon them according to their ability are on their way to become true believer. The Holy Prophet (Rasulullah )(Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) has said, “Imaan has more than seventy branches* of which the most important is the recitation of Kalimah (Laa ilaha illallaho) ""There is no one worthy of worship but Allah"", and the least one is to remove some obstacle (stone, wood, thorn, etc.) from the way; and modesty also is a special requisite of Imaan. According to some Imaan has Seventy Seven (77) branches. Modesty: Modesty has been specially mentioned, because it serves as a safeguard against many sins like adultery, theft, dirty talk, nakedness, abusive language, etc. Similarly, the fear of bad reputation leads to virtuous acts, in fact, fear of getting a bad name in this as well as in the next life actuates a man towards all good deeds including of course Salaat, Hajj, and is incumbent on every believer. Removing Obstacles: The least thing (in the order of merit) is the removal of anything that is likely to cause obstruction or inconvenience to anyone The degree of importance of all the remaining essentials of Imaan lies in between the two; (i.e. Kalimah and removing obstacle) it is enough to believe in them in a general way just as it is necessary to believe in the angels in a general way without knowing their nearness and details. Some Mohaddiths (scholar of Hadith) have however written books about their details. Abu Abdullah Halirni (Rahmatullah alaih) wrote a book, Fawaidul Minhaj on this topic, Imam Behaqi (Rah-matull-ah alaih) and Shaikh Abdul Jalil (Rahmatullah alaih) wrote books which they called Shuabul Imaan. Ishaq bin Qartabi (Rahmatullah alaih) wrote Kitabul N saaih and Imam Abu Hatim wrote `'Wasful Imaan wa Shuabehi.""The commentators of Bukhari, the most famous collection of Hadith, have summarized the contents of these books at one place. The gist of this summary is that complete Imaan in reality consists of three components: firstly, confirmation by heart of all the essentials of Imaan, secondly, confirmation of word of mouth; and thirdly, confirmation by our physical actions. Thus, the branches of Imaan are divided into three categories, the first of which concern the intention, belief and action of the heart, the second concern the use of the tongue, and the third concern all the remaining parts of the body. All the things of Imaan are included in these three categories. The first category includes thirty articles of faith, as follows: Articles of Faith; Confirmation of heart (30): 1. To believe in Allah-in His Being and His Attributes, and that He is One, has no partner, and none like of Him. 2. To believe that all things, except Him, were created afterwards by Him, and that only He has been there forever. 3. To believe in the angels. 4. To believe in the revealed Books. 5. To believe in the Apostles of Allah. 6. To believe in the Destiny, i.e. whether good or bad, it is ordained by Allah. 7. To believe in the life after death, including interrogation in the grave, punishment in the grave, resurrection, the Day of Judgment, rendering account of ones deeds, and passing over the Siraat Bridge. 8. To believe in the existence of Paradise, and that (by the grace of Almighty Allah) the believers will live in it for ever. 9. To believe in the existence of Hell, with its severest punishments, and that it will last for ever. 10. To love Almighty Allah. 11. To love or hate other people for the pleasure of Allah (i.e. to love the pious and hate the disobedient ones). It includes, of course, loving the Sahabah specially Muhajirs, Ansars, and descendants of Rasulullah (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam). 12. To love Rasulullah (Sallallaho alaihe wasallam) which includes cherishing the highest esteem for him offering Durood on him, and following the Sunnah i.e. his way of life. 13. To practice Ikhlas, which includes avoiding show and hypocrisy. 14. To do Taubah' i.e. to repent over one's sins from the core of the heart, and to determine not to repeat them. 15. To fear Almighty Allah. 16. To hope and pray for the Mercy of Allah. 17. Not to despair of the mercy to be granted by Almighty Allah. 18. To remain thankful to Allah. 19. To be faithful in one's promise. 20. To exercise patience. 21. To show humility, which includes respect for the elders. 22. To show kindness and pity, which includes kindness to children. 23. To be resigned to one's fate. 24. To practice Tawakkul i.e. to depend on Almighty Allah 25. To refrain from self-praise and self-aggrandizement. This includes self-reformation also. 26. Not to harbor rancor and jealousy against other. 27. To cultivate modesty (omitted by Ainee) 28. To restrain one's rage. 29. Not to deceive, cheat or suspect others. 30. To expel from one's heart the love of the worldly things, including that for wealth and status. According to Allamah Ainee (Rahmatullah alaih) this list covers all the functions of the heart. If anything is found apparently missing, a little thought will show that it is covered by one item or the other of this list. The second category includes the functions of the tongue, and there are Seven essentials in this respect, as follows: Articles of Faith; Confirmation by tongue (7): 1. Recitation of Kalimah Tayyabah. 2. Recitation of the Holy Qur'an. 3. Acquisition of 'Ilm' (Religious Knowledge). 4. Propagation of religious knowledge to others. 5. Duaa, i.e. supplication. 6. Zikr of Allah, including 'Istighfar'. 7. To abstain from loose and useless talk. The third category includes bodily actions. In this respect, there are forty essentials which are divided into three parts. The first part includes actions that relate to the self or person of an individual. These are sixteen, as follows: Articles of Faith; Bodily Actions “Personal Responsibility” (16): 1. Observing cleanliness of body, clothes and place. The cleanliness of body includes perform Wudhu and obligatory bath, purification from menstruation and post birth blood. 2. Offering Salaat, including Fardh, Nafl and Kadhaa Salaat. This would mean offering and fulfilling its pre-requisites. 3. Giving Sadaqah (Charity), which includes Zakaat, Sadaqah-tul-Fitr, voluntary alms, feeding people entertaining guests, and liberating slaves. 4. Fasting (obligatory as well as Non-obligatory). 5. Performing Hajj, obligatory or non-obligatory, It includes doing Umra and Tawaaf. 6. Perform Aitikaaf, (remaining in a mosque in full devotion), which includes search for Lailatul Qadr. 7. Leaving one's home for the defense of the Islam, this includes Hijrat (migration for the sake of Allah), 8. Fulfilling one's vows. 9. Steadfastness in one's oaths. 10. Payment of atonement money, if due. 11. Covering the essential parts of the body, as required by Islam, during and outside Salaat. 12. Offering of sacrifice of animals and taking care of them 13. Making arrangements for the funeral. 14. Payment of debt. 15. Fair business dealings, and abstaining from usury. 16. Giving correct evidence, and not concealing the truth. The second part, which include actions involving treatment with ones relatives and others, has six essentials: Articles of Faith; Bodily Actions “Family Responsibility” (6): 1. Getting married as a safeguard against adultery. 2. To discharge obligation towards one's family members, servants and subordinates 3. Good treatment towards one's parents and being kind and obedient to them. 4. Bringing up one's children in a proper way. 5. Remaining on good terms with one's relatives. 6. Obeying one's elders, and following their advice. The third part includes eighteen essentials, which relates to our social obligations to society in general. Articles of Faith; Bodily Actions “Social Responsibility” (18): 1. To rule one's domain with justice. 2. To support the rightful party. 3. To obey the rulers, provided their orders are not against religion. 4. To work for the betterment of mutual relations, including punishing the wrong doers and action against the rebels. 5. To help others in their noble deeds. 6. To enjoin the good and forbid the evil; it includes work and speech for propagation of religion. 7. To carry out the punishments enjoined by religion (for specific offenses). 8. To take part in Jihad i.e. to fight in the path of Allah It includes guarding the defense lines. 9. To pay off our dues and return the 'Amanat (Trust); this includes payment of Khums (payment of tax equal to one fifth of the booty). 10. To lend (to the needy) and to pay back the debt. 11. To discharge our obligations to our neighbors, and to be kind and helpful to them. 12. To be fair in one's business dealings; it includes savings and earnings in a lawful manner. 13. To be careful in expenditure; one Could guard against extravagance as well as miserliness. 14. To wish 'salam' and respond to the 'salam.' 15. To say Arhmukllah (May Allah have mercy on you) when somebody happens to sneeze. 16. Not to be the cause of trouble and loss to others 17. To avoid idle and useless pursuits. 18. To clear troublesome obstructions from the way." 45,"Conditions and stages of Jahannam ( hell )",5535,637,636,"Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)stated : ""Four walls surround Jahannam. The width of each wall is a walking distance of 40 years "". This publication is divided into two parts. One examines the conditions

Depth of the pits of Jahannam

Hadhrat Abu Musa Ash'ari (Radhiallaahu-anhu) narrates that Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said (while describing the depth of Jahannam):
"If a rock is dropped into Jahannam, it will remain plummeting for 70 years before touching the pith of Jahannam".
Hadhrat Abu Hurrairah (Radhiallaahu-anhu) states :
"Once while we were sitting in the company of Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) we heard the sound of a dropping object. Then Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) asked:
"Do you know what sound it is ?"
"Allaah and His Rasul know best ". We replied.
"This is a stone which was dropped by Allaah from the mouth of Jahannam, and it has landed on the bottom after 70 years of continuous falling ; this was the sound of the falling of the same stone." [Muslim]

Walls of Jahannam


Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam)stated :
"Four walls surround Jahannam. The width of each wall is a walking distance of 40 years ".

Gates of Jahannam

The Noble Qur'aan describes the gates of Jahannam in these words:
"And verily, Jahannam is the promised place for them all! Entering into it are seven gates; for each of these gates are assigned (special) class (of sinners) ." [Qur'aan 15:43-44] Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) himself explained :
"Jahannam has seven gates; one of them is for the one who unsheathes a sword against my Ummah." [Mishkat]

Fire and Darkness of Jahannam

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) narrated :
"Jahannam was heated for a thousand years and its fire turned red; It was then heated for another thousand years and it became white; it was again heated for another thousand years and it turned black. At present, Jahannam is pitch black and dark." [Tirmidhi]
Bukhari and Muslim report that Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"The fire in which one will burn is the 70th part of the Fire of Jahannum.'

Degrees of Torment in Jahannam

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Among the men of Jahannam, the least punishment given will be that both his shoes and laces will be made of fire, which will make his head boil like a cauldron such, that he will think that he is receiving the most severe punishment, although his punishment is the least." [Bukhari, Muslim]
Muslim reports Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"On the Day of Resurrection, a dweller of Jahannam who indulged excessively in lust. , will be gripped and dipped into Jahannam and then asked:
"O son of Adam, have you ever enjoyed the comforts of life?" . He will reply:-
"Never by Allaah, I have never enjoyed the comforts of life." .
"Again, on the Day of Resurrection, a Jannati , who was surrounded with troubles in the world , will be put into Jannat and then asked:
"O son of Adam, have you ever experienced any trouble?"
He will reply:- "By Allaah, I have never faced any trouble,"

Breath of Jahannam

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
When the heat is intense , Zuhr (Midday) salaat should be delayed a little, because the intensity of heat is due to the heat of Jahannam."
He further stated :
"Once Jahannam complained to Allaah Ta'aala against the increasing heat because one portion was eating into another. Then the Rabb of the Worlds allowed it to have two breaths -- one during summer and another during winter. Therefore the heat you feel is the effect of the heave of Jahannam (with it the breath is taken out) and similarly, the rigid cold you experience is the effect of the breath (taken in). [Bukhari]
According to a tradition , Jahannam is kindled every day at noon.

Fuel of Jahannam

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"O Muslims ! Save yourselves and your families from the Fire whose fuel is men and stones." [Qur'aan 66:6]
What are these stones ? Hadhrat Ibn Mas'ud (Radhiallaahu-anhu) explained ;
"Stones which are the fuel of Jahannam are made of sulphur (brimstone) which Allaah Ta'aala created in the nearest heaven on the day heaven and earth were created." [Hakim]
Besides these brimstones, those idols which the polytheists worshipped will also be present in Jahannam.
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"Verily you, (Unbelievers) and the (false) gods that you worship besides Allaah, are (but) fuel for Jahannam! To it will you (surely) come!" [Qur'aan 21: 98]

Layers of Jahannam

It has already been mentioned that Jahannam has seven gates.
Hadhrat Ali (Radhiallaahu-anhu) has said that the gates of Jahannam are one upon each other . This denotes that Jahannam has layers.
According to Allama Ibn Kathir ( RA ), Jahannam has seven gates.
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"The Hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire." [Qur'aan 4:145]
Muslim Scholars name each layer with its details. According to them they are :
1. Hawia: This is for the hypocrite, Pharaoh and his associates.
2. Jahim: This is above Hawia which is for the polytheists.
3. Saqar: This is above Jahim which is for the Saibeen, a sect having no religion.
4. Nati: This if the forth which lies above Saqar . It is for Iblis and his associates.
5. Hatma: This is the fifth which lies above Nati .It is for the Jews.
6. Sa'ah: This is for the Christians.
7. Jahannam: This is the seventh and the uppermost which is meant for general Muslim sinners.

The Neck of Jahannam

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) stated :
"On the Day of Resurrection, a neck will come out from Jahannam, having two eyes, two ears and one tongue to see, hear and speak. It will say that it has been designated for three types of persons:
a. On every rebellious and stubborn one;
b. On everyone who made an associate with Allaah; and

c. On the painter of a picture. [Tirmidhi]

Pillars of Fire

The Nobel Qur'aan says:
"(It is) the Fire of Allaah kindled (to a blaze), that which climb ( straight ) into the Hearts; It shall be made a vault over them, in columns outstretched." [Qur'aan 104: 6-7-8-9]
When a fire burns a person ,he dies before it reaches the heart. But since there is no death in Jahannam, the Fire will rise up to the heart, enclosing the entire body. "Pillars of Fire" refers to the high flames of Fire in which the dwellers of Jahannam will be encompassed . [Bayan al-Qur'aan]

Number of Angels appointed over Jahannam

The Noble Qur'aan indicates their number as 19:
"Over it are Nineteen". [Qur'aan 74:30]
They have been commissioned to carry out various duties assigned to them by Allaah.
The Noble Qur'aan says about Jahannam:
"........... Over which are (appointed angels stern (and) severe, who flinch not (from Executing) the Command they receive from Allaah, but do (precisely) what they are commanded." [Qur'aan 66:5]

Anger of Jahannam

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"For those who reject their Rabb (and Cherisher) is the Chastisement of Jahannam; and evil is (such) a destination. When they are cast therein, they will hear the (terrible) drawing in of breath even as it blazes , almost bursting with fury." [Qur'aan 67: 6-7-8]
AND.....
"When it sees them from a place far off, they will hear its fury and its raging sigh. And when they are cast bound together, into a constricted place therein, they will plead for destruction there and then!" [Qur'aan 25: 12-13]
Ibne Abi Hatim reports that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), after reciting "Idha ra'at hum" proved that there are two eyes of Jahannam.
The Noble Qur'aan says: "Inviting (all) such that turn their backs and turn away their faces (from the Right), and collect (wealth) and hide it (from use)!" [Qur'aan 70: 17-18]
It is recorded in Ibne Khatir that Jahannam will pick out evil doers from the Resurrection surface just as animals pick up food grains. The above ayah refers to those who are in the habit of hoarding wealth.
Hadhrat Qatadah (Radhiallaahu-anhu) writes in his commentary of this ayah.
"One who fails to make any difference between permitted and prohibited and does not spend inspite of the clear order from Allaah is most unfortunate."
Hadhrat Abdullaah bin Hakim (RA) never zipped the opening of his purse for fear of this ayah.
"O Son of Adam! you hear the truth and disapproval of Allaah and still go on hoarding wealth and property."
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"On the day of Resurrection men will be brought like children (in a state of disgrace) to Allaah, the Almighty who will ask him:
"Did I not give you wealth and property, cattle and slaves and other favours? How did you thank Me ? "
Thereupon they would say:
"My Rabb ! I collected wealth and property, multiplied it abundantly and left behind more than I had. Thus let me bring all that."
In short, that person had sent nothing ahead in the form of virtues. Hence he will be hurled into Jahannam. [Tirmidhi]
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"His house is the world who has no house; his wealth who has not wealth; and who collected the world who has no wisdom at all." [Mishkat]

Reins of Jahannam and Angels Pulling them.

Hadhrat Ibn Mas'ud (Radhiallaahu-anhu) reported that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"That Day, Jahannam will be hauled by 70 thousand angels ,appointed to each 70 thousand reins." [Muslim}
Hafiz Abdul Aziz Mundhari (RA ) writes in his ' Al-Targheeb wal-Tarhib' from Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (Radhiallaahu-anhu):
" If the angels release the reins of Jahannam, it will hold all the good and bad elements in its grip."

Snakes and Scorpions of Jahannam

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Verily, there are long-necked camel-like snakes in Jahannam. If anyone of these smites a Jahanami , he will feel pain for 40 years."
He then added:
"Verily, there are donkey size scorpions in Jahannam. If anyone of these stings a Jahanami , he will feel pain for 40 years." [Ahmad]
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"For them will We add Chastisement upon Chastisement because they spread mischief." [Qur'aan 16:88]

No Death in Jahannam

The Nobel Qur'aan says:
"No way will the (punishment) be lightened for them, and in despair will they be there overwhelmed." [Qur'aan 43:75]
AND....
"No term shall be determined for them, so they should die, or shall its Chastisement be lightened for them." [Qur'aan 35:36]
Meaning that none will die due to the torments of Jahannam but they will remain alive despite the endless punishments.
According to a Hadith, when the dwellers of Jannat will go to Jannat and the Jahannamis to Jahannam, death will be brought in the shape of a ram. Thereafter a proclaimer will proclaim:
"O Jannatis, now there will be no death; O Jahannamis now there will be no death; On hearing this call , the Jannatis will be delighted and the Jahanamis will become more depressed." [Bukhari, Muslim]

Call of Jahannam

The Noble Qur'aan says: The Day We will ask Jahannam: "Are you full?' It will say: "Are there any more (to come?)' [Qur'aan 50:30]
According to the Hadith, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Jahanamis will continually be flung into Jahannam and despite being filled to the brim, it will demand more. In the end, Allaah Ta'aala will put His leg into it and it will get satisfied." [Mishkat]

No Salvation from Punishment In spite of being Patient.


It is a pattern of worldly life that one receives comfort after enduring patience but as for the torment of Jahannam.
"Burn you therein: The same is it to you whether you bear it with patience, or not; yet but receive the recompense of your (own) actions ." Qur'aan 52:16

Thorns of Fire as Food and Drink for Jahannamis.

The Noble Qur'aan says:
Then while they are given, to drink, of a boiling hot spring, no food will there be for them but a bitter Dharri which will neither nourish nor satisfy hunger." [ Qur'aan 99: 5-6-7]
Dharri is a thorny tree which is so poisonous that even animals stay away from it. If they eat it, they die immediately.

Foul Pus

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"So no friend have you here this day. Nor have you any food except the foul pus from the washing of wounds. which none do eat but those in sin." [Qur'aan 35: 36-37]

Zaqqum

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"Verily the Tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinful, -- like molten brass, it will boil in their insides, like the boiling of scalding water." [Qur'aan 44: 43-44-45]
AND...
" As for you sinners who deny the truth ; you will surely taste of the Tree of Zaqqum. Then will you fill your insides therewith, and drink boiling water on top of it. Indeed you shall drink like diseased camels raging with thirst! Such will be their fate on the Day of Requital!" [Qur'aan 56: 51-56]
AND FURTHER...
"For it is a tree that springs out of the bottom of Jahannam-Fire shoots of its fruit-stalks like the heads of devils." [Qur'aan 37 : 64-65]
Zaqqum is a famous tree which is dreadfully bitter, and the bitterness of the tree of Jahannam is beyond comparison. A horrible odour will emanate when they eat from that tree and on top of that they will drink boiling water like thirsty camels.
The Blessed Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:
"If a bucket of Ghassaq is dropped into the world, the people of the entire world would rot." [Tirmidhi, Hakim]
What is Ghassaq? Scholars have explained :
1. It is the foul pus of the Jahannamis.
2. It is the tears of the Jahannamis.
3. It means the punishment of biting cold.

Melted Brass

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"If they implore relief they will be granted water like melted brass, but this will scale their faces, how dreadful the drink! How uncomfortable a couch to recline on!" [Qur'aan 18: 29]

Boiling Stinking Water

The Noble Qur'aan Says:
"He is given for drink, boiling water, in gulps will he sip it, but never will he swallow it down his throat; death will come to him for every quarter, yet he will not die." [Qur'aan 14:17]

Boiling Water

The Noble Qur'aan says:
".... they shall dwell forever in the Fire, and given to drink, boiling water so that it cuts up their bowels (to pieces)." [Qur'aan 47:15]

Food that Throttles

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"With us are Fetters (to bind them), and a Fire (to burn them). And a food that throttles , and a Chastisement Grievous." [Qur'aan 73: 12-13]
Hadhrat Abu Darda (Radhiallaahu-anhu) reports that Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"The dwellers of Jahannam will experience such intense hunger, that this alone be equal to the terrible torment which will be rendered . Then they will seek for food and they will be given food that will stick to the throat (i.e. it will neither go in nor come out.)" [Mishkat]

Different Ways of Punishment

The Fire of Jahannam with its scorching heat, snakes, scorpions, pugnacious food and drink, darkness, etc. are the punishment for the dwellers therein, The Qur'aan and Hadith explain many other chastisement. A few are given below.

Boiling Water Poured over Heads

The Noble Qur'aan says:
'Over their heads will be poured boiling water. With it will be melted what is within their bodies. As well as (their) skins." [Qur'aan 22: 19-20]
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Verily boiling water will be poured over the heads of Jahannamis ,which will cut everything in their stomachs, then it will be restored to the original state, and this procedure will continue." [Tirmidhi, Baihaqi]

Rods of Iron

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"In addition there will be rods of Iron (to punish) them. Every time they wish to get away therefrom, due to anguish, they will be forced back therein, and (it will be said). "Taste you the Chastisement of Burning!" [Qur'aan 22:21-22]
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"If the rod of iron is placed on the ground, all men and jinn put together will not lift it." [Ahmad]

Fresh Skins

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"Those who reject Our Signs. We shall soon hurl into the Fire:. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall replace these for fresh skins, that they may taste the Chastisement:, for Allaah is Exalted in Power, Wise." [Qur'aan 4:56]
Hadhrat Hasan Basri (R.A.) said:
"The Fire will burn the Jahannmis 70 thousand times every day. And each time the Fire burns them, it will be said: "Be as you were before , and they will become so."

Chastisement for Concealing Knowledge

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) stated :
"Anyone who conceals when asked whilst HAVING knowledge, will have a bridle of Fire in his mouth." [Mishkat]
Chastisement for Drinking Wine or Anything Intoxicating
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"My Exalted Rabb has sworn by His Honour that whoever among His servants drinks even a gulp of wine will be given pus to drink in the same quantity; and whoever abandons it for His fear will be made to drink from clean and pure containers " [Ahmad]
Muslim reports that Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Allaah has made a vow that anyone who drinks any intoxicating thing will be made to drink "tinatul khabul " on the Day of Resurrection. "The Companions (Radhiallaahu-anhu) submitted"
"What is "tinatul khabul"?"
He explained:
"It is the sweat of the Jahannamis." [Mishkat]

Preaching Without Practice

Rasululaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"On the night of Ascension I saw some people whose lips were going to be cut with the scissors of Fire. I asked:
"O Jabraeel ,who are they?"
"These are those preachers of your Ummah who called for righteous deeds and forgot about themselves; they read and recited the Book of Allaah but did not put it into practice." [Mishkat]
Bukhari and Muslim reports, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"On the Day of Qiyaamat, a person will be brought and hurled into Jahannam. His intestines will come out immediately and he will start revolving like the ass with the grinding stone. Having seen this, the men of Jahannam will centre around him and ask:
"What happened to you? You asked us to do good and avoid evil?"
"Yes, of course! I asked you to do good and avoid evil but did not do so myself."

Punishment for Using Utensils of Gold and Sliver

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) stated:
"One who eats and drinks in the utensils of gold and silver or the utensils having something of these metals will have his stomach filled with the Fire of Jahannam" Darqutni

Punishment for picture makers

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
The picture makers will be given the severest punishment." [Bukhari, Muslim] He is reported to have said further:
"Every picture maker will be in Jahannam; his pictures will be changed into a living figure who will then give punishment to him." [Bukhari, Muslim]
Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (Radhiallaahu-anhu) expressing his opinion about the above Hadith:
"If it is essential for you to make a picture, let trees and soulless objects be your subjects." [Mishkat]

Punishment for Suicide

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"One who commits suicide by falling from a mountain will be in Jahannam, and will keep on ascending an descending. One who dies by taking poison will have his poison in his hand and will be taking it in Jahannam; and the person who kills himself with an object of iron, will repeatedly pierce his stomach with an iron object in the fire of Jahannam." [Bukhari]

Punishment for Arrogants

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"The arrogants will be raised in the forms of ants, having the body of ants and faces of humans. They will be driven towards the jail of Jahannam very disgracefully." [Mishkat]

Punishment for Boasting Devouts

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) is reported to have said:
"Seek refuge with Allaah from the well of sorrows." "What is this well of sorrows?" The Companions asked
He explained:
"There is a ditch in Jahannam which is such that Jahannam itself seeks refuge from it 400 times a day."
"The devouts who repeatly boast their virtues deeds will be there ." [Mishkat]

Mountain of Fire

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"Soon will I visit him with a mount of calamities!" [Qur'aan 74:17]
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Su'ad is a mount of Fire upon which Jahannami will be made to ascend for 70 years and the same time one will take in falling from the that place and this procedure will continue." [Tirmidhi]

Very Long Chain

The Noble Qur'aan says:
(The stern command will say): "Seize him, and bind him, and burn him in the Blazing Fire. Further, insert him in a chain, whereof the length is seventy cubits!" [Qur'aan 69: 30-32]
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"If a piece of metal is dropped from the sky to earth, it will touch the ground before nightfall, which is the duration of 500 years of journey. If it is released from one side of the chain of Jahannam, it will reach another side after a fall of 40 years."
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"For the Rejectors we have prepared chains, Yokes, and a Blazing Fire." [Qur'aan 76:4]
The Noble Qur'aan says; "But soon shall they know, when the yokes (shall be) round their necks, and the chains; they shall be dragged along, in the boiling stinging fluid; then in the Fire shall they be burned." Qur'aan 14:50

Garments of Pitch


The Noble Qur'aan says:
"Their garments of pitch, and their faces covered with Fire." [Qur'aan 14:50]
According to Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (Radhiallaahu-anhu) 'qateran' is melted brass. Jahannamis will be made to wear this dress which is extremely hot. [Ibn Kathir]
Muslim reports Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) saying
"The woman who cries at the dead and does not repent before her death, will be raised in a state that the garments of pitch will be given to her to wear."
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"But those who deny (their Rabb ), for them will be cut out garments of Fire." [Qur'aan 22:19]

Tauntings of the Inspectors of Jahannam


Besides many physical tortures of Chastisement, Jahannamis will have to endure a further torment, and that is the tauntings and chiding of the Inspectors of Jahannam.
The Noble Qur'aan says:
Taste you the chastisement of the Fire, that which you rejected as false." [Qur'aan 32:20]
Hadhrat Zayd bin Aslam (Radhiallaahu-anhu) reports:
"Once Hadhrat Umar (Radhiallaahu-anhu) asked for water. He was given water mixed with honey. But he refused to drink it saying: 'Although it is tasteful but I will not take it because I have read in the Noble Qur'aan that Allaah Ta'aala condemns those who run after one's desire in this world and he will be told that he had enjoyed comforts of life in the world; I fear of the same consequences."

States and Conditions of Jahannam

Majority of Women in Jahannam

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"I glanced at Jannat and found majority of poor people; I looked into Jahannam and found majority of women." [Mishkat]
Hadhrat Abu Saeed Khudri (Radhiallaahu-anhu) reports:
"Once Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) was going for Eid Salaat and he passed by some women in the way of the Salaat ground and remarked:
"O women! give charity, for I have seen women most in Jahannam."
"Why?" the women submitted.
"It is because you curse and show ungratefulness to your husband ." [Bukhari, Muslim]

Ugliness of the dwellers of Jahannam.

The Noble Qur'aan says:
"But those who have earned evil will have a reward of the like evil; disgrace will cover their (faces); no defender will they have from (the anger of) Allaah; their faces will be covered, as it were, with pieces from the depths of the darkness of night." [Qur'aan 10:27]
This ayah denotes clearly that the faces of Jahannamis will be extremely black.
Hadhrat Abdullah Umar (Radhiallaahu-anhu) said:
"If any Jahannami is driven out to the world, all the worldly people will die of his horrific face and repulsive stink. Having said so, Hadhrat Abdullah (Radhiallaahu-anhu) wept distressly."
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"The Fire will burn their faces, and they will grin therein , with their lips displaced."
Tears of Jahannamis
Hadhrat Anas (Radhiallaahu-anhu) reports that Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) narrated to his Companions (Radhiallaahu-anhum):
"O people! Weep or at least appear to be weeping, for Jahannamis will weep in Jahannam so much that gutters of tears will flow from their faces; when tears will dry up, blood will commence flowing causing sores in the eyes." [Sharh Sunnah]
Tongues of the Jahannamis.
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Verily the tongue of the Unbelievers will be pulled out up to one or two 'fersakh'(1)(three miles)and the people will walk over it."

Bodies of Jahannamis.

Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"The distance between two shoulders of an Unbeliever will be so wide that it will take three days if a mount covers it rapidly; his jaw-tooth will be equal to Mount Uhad, and the thickness of his skin will be equal to the passage of three days." [Muslim]
Tirmidhi reports from Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) :
"On the day of Qiyaamat the jaw-tooth of the Unbeliever would be equal to Mount Uhad; his thigh would be equal to Mount Baida; and his sitting place would be long and wide as the distance between Madinah and Radha village." [Mishkat]
Falling into Jahannam While Passing through Pulsiraat(2)
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"Not one of you but will pass over it; this is, with your Rabb , a Degree which must be accomplished." [Qur'aan 19:71]
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Pulsiraat will be on the back of Jahannam. And among the Ambiyaa, I shall be the first to pass over it with my Ummah. That day only the Ambiyaa will speak and the words will be: "Allaahumma sal'lim sal'lim.""
Thereafter he stated :
" Pulsiraat has crocked nails like those of thorns. On the Day of Resurrection they will try to drag the wrongdoers towards Jahannam resulting in some of them falling into Jahannam. Some of them will never emerge while others will come out after being punished."
According to some other traditions some of them will pass over in the twinkling of an eye; while others will pass over with lightening speed, some with the speed of fast running horses and camels; some of them will pass over peacefully, some after being injured, while some of them will be pushed into Jahannam upside down [Bukhari, Muslim]
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"But we shall save those who guarded against evil, and we shall leave the wrong-doers therein, (humbled) to their knees." [Qur'aan 19:72]

Nature of Entrance

The ayats of the Noble Qur'aan describe how the Jahanamis will enter Jahannam.
"And We shall drive the sinner into Jahannam, (like thirsty cattle driven to water).' [Qur'aan 19:86]
'Then they will be flung headlong into the (Fire), they and those straying in evil, and the whole hosts of Iblis together." [Qur'aan 26:94-95]
Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (Radhiallaahu-anhu) explains the above :
"Hands and legs of the sinners will be broken into pieces and they will be cast into Jahannam." [Al-Targhib wal Tarhib]
The Noble Qur'aan says: "Bring you up" It shall be said. to the wrong-doers and their wives, and the things they worshipped besides Allaah, "and lead them to the way to the (Fierce) Fire! But stop them. For they must be asked: "What is the matter with you that you help not each other?" Nay, but that they shall submit (to judgement). [Qur'aan 37:22-26]

Shaytaan And the Jahannamis.

On one hand the Jahannamis will be repenting for following Shaytaan. On the other hand, the Shaytaan will be condemning them.
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"And Shaytaan will say when the matter is decided: 'It was Allaah Who gave you a promise of Truth: I too promised, but I failed in my promise to you. I had no authority over you except to call you, but you listened to me, then reproach not me, but reproach your own souls. I cannot listen to your cries, nor can you listen to mine. I reject your former act in associating me with Allaah. For wrong-doers there must be grievous Chastisement." [Qur'aan 14: 23]
The Jahanami will indeed suffer immensely when Shaytaan absolves himself of all aid to the evil-doers. One can just imagine the anger and anguish of the Jahanami.

Anger of Jahannamis.

Jahannamis will become very angry against their misguides and they will say :
"For us, we but followed you; can you then avail us at all against the Wrath of Allaah?" [Qur'aan 14:21]
They will reply:
"If we had received the guidance of Allaah, we should have given it to you; to us it makes no difference (now) whether we rage, or bear (these) torments with patience: for ourselves there is no way of escape." [Qur'aan 14:21]
Following their wrath against the misguides , they will submit to Allaah Ta'aala.
"Our Rabb ! Show us those, among jinn and men, who misled us: we shall crush them beneath our feet, so that they become the vilest." [Qur'aan 41:29]

Argument with the Inspectors of Jahannam

The Jahannamis will start arguing and entreating the inspectors of Jahannam.
"Pray to your Rabb to lighten on us the Chastisement for a day (at least)." [Qur'aan 40:49]
"Did there not come to your messengers with clear signs?" [Qur'aan 40:50]
Thereupon the Jahannamis will reply "Bala", i.e. yes, they did come but we did not listen to what they said to us. Thereupon the angels will reply:
"Then pray (as you like): But the Prayer of those without Faith is nothing but (futile wondering) in (mazes of ) error." [Qur'aan 40:50]
Thereafter they will submit to the master of Jahannam.
"O Malik! would that your Rabb put an end to us!" He will say: "Nay, but you shall abide." [Qur'aan 43:77]
At last they will pray to Allaah Ta'aala for none is more Exalted then He:
"They will say: "Our Rabb ! Our misfortune overwhelmed us, and we became a people astray! Our Rabb ! Bring us out of this: if ever we return (to evil) then shall we be wrong-doers indeed!" [Qur'aan 23: 106-107]
Hadhrat Abu Darda (Radhiallaahu-anhu) used to say:
"On this rejection of Allaah the Exalted, they will be disappointed and will start braying like asses." [Mishkat]
Ibn Kathir says that their faces will change and become disfigured to the extent that some of the Jannatis will approach to intercede but will fail to recognise the Jahanamis. Thereupon the Jahannami will say:
"I am so and so" . To this the Jannatis will reply:
"You are wrong: we recognise you not", they will say. Thereafter the gates of Jahannam will be closed."

Screaming and Crying of the Jahannamis.

Allaah Ta'aala says: "Those who are wretched shall be in the Fire . Therein (nothing but) the heaving of sighs and sobs." [Qur'aan 11:106]
Ransom for Salvation from Chastisement of Jahannam
"Even if the wrong-doers had all that there is on earth, and as much more, (in vain) would they offer it for ransom for the pain of the Chastisement on the Judgement." [Qur'aan 39:47]
Sura Ma'arij denotes that on that Day every sinner will express his desire to get rid of this Chastisement even after offering his sons, wife, brother and his entire family. But there will neither be any wealth and property to be offered in return for wrong deeds; even if these things are there nothing from these will be accepted.
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"As to those who reject Faith, if they had everything on earth, and twice repeated, to give as ransom for the Chastisement of the Day of Qiyaamat, it would never be accepted from them. Theirs would be a grievous Chastisement." [Qur'aan 5:36]

Laughter of the Jannatis.

"But on this Day the Believers will laugh at the Unbelievers: On raised couches they will command (a sight) of all things." [Qur'aan 83:35]
Hadhrat Qatada (Radhiallaahu-anhu) is reported to have said that Jannatis will see the state of the Jahannamis through windows and will laugh at them out of revenge as they used to laugh at the Believers in the world.
They would laugh at them by winking at one another and talk about them in jest.
The Noble Qur'aan says:
"Those in sin used to laugh at those who believed." [Qur'aan 83:29]
It is mentioned in Sura Mumunun that Allaah, the Exalted will say addressing the Jahannami:
"A group of Believers would say: O our Rabb ! we believed and hence forgive us and send Your mercy on us and You are the greatest of all the mercifuls", "But you laughed at them and kept yourselves away from remembering Me. I have, today given you the return of patience."

Anxiousness and Trust

The events regarding Jahannam and the Jahannamis which you have read up till now was not meant to merely think about for a while and then to be forgotten.
In fact all the events and incidents related thus far must be read through again and again to change the wrong actions in our lives. This can only be done by seriously pondering over it and by taking some action as well. The basic fact is strengthening Faith in Allaah Ta'aala and His Rasul and taking account of one's deeds and evil -actions ".
The Believers regularly take stock of their lives and seek mercy, forgiveness and salvation from the Fire of Jahannam. How can a person who is aware of all these sad and depressing plights keep himself engaged in hankering behind comforts and luxuries of life?
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
'Jahannam has been concealed by pleasure, while Jannat by unpleasant things." [Bukhari, Muslim]
Those indulged in the pleasure of life are engaged in those actions which lead to Jahannam while the unpleasant tasks lead to Jannat. And for those who think that they will get rid of the sorrows and sufferings of life by committing suicide, they should start associating with people who are in a worse plight than themselves. Indeed self pity is the root of many evils and opens the doors for Shaytaan through depression and ungratefulness.
In fact, if the Fire of Jahannam, its snakes, scorpions, garments of Flames, modes of Chastisement, food of Jahannam, etc.,are kept constantly in focus by the people, then the temporary comforts of this world ,after which people kill steal and sell their characters, will be put into perspective and the value of the Aakhirat will increase in their souls and hearts.
Can anyone who has knowledge about the hunger in Jahannam abandon Saums (fasts)? Can anyone fail to offer Salaat (prayer) who knows about the punishment in Jahannam? Can anyone paint a picture who knows about the consequences of doing it? Can anyone consume wine who is aware of the punishment of drinking in Jahannam? No, no at all.
Truly speaking, we pay only lip service to the consequences of Jannat and Jahannam. What is required of us is the total Faith and Trust in their existence.
Hadhrat Ali (Radhiallaahu-anhu) said:
'If Jannat and Jahannam are placed in front of me , these will increase nothing to my Faith and Trust. Meaning , my Faith in the Unseen is so strong that I do not rely on even the vision of my healthy eyes in comparison to it." [Ahmad]
The Noble Rasul (Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) once asked Hadhrat Jibraeel (Alaihis-Salaam):
"What is the reason that I have never seen Mikail (Michael)."
" Since the day Jahannam was created, Mikail never laughed." He submitted."
Muslim reports that Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"By One in Whose possession lies my life, had you witnessed that scene that I have viewed, you would weep more and laugh less! The companions (Radhiallaahu-anhu) submitted"
"What have you seen?
"I have seen Jannat and Jahannam." [Targhib]
Hadhrat Ibn Masud (Radhiallaahu-anhu) says:
"I am astonished that people laugh although they are not sure of being safe from Jahannam."
Hadhrat Abu Saeed Khudri (Radhiallaahu-anhu) reports:
"Once Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) came out and saw the people laughing heartily. Thereupon he remarked:
"Had you remembered that which removes the pleasures of life (i.e. death), you would have found no time for doing what I see." [Mishkat]
In short, it is wise to make efforts to improve our Aakhirat -Hereafter, because when surrounded by it's torments it is futile to repent and entreat as clearly warned in the Qur'aan.:
"Ah! would that (death) had made an end to me! Of no profit to me has been my wealth! My power has perished from me!" [Qur'aan 69: 27-29]
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Seek Jannat as far as possible and keep away from Jahannam as far as possible, for the seeker of Jannat and the one fleeing from Jahannam cannot have (careless) sleep." [Al-Targhib wal-Targhib]
Hadhrat Yahya bin Maudh (Radhiallaahu-anhu) said:
"If a man fears Jahannam as much as he fears poverty, he is sure to go straight to Jannat."
When Hadhrat Muhammad bin al Munkhadir(RA) wept, he rubbed his tears on his mouth and beard. He explained that he had been informed that the Fire of Jahannam does not touch the areas which had been touched by tears.
An Ansari offered Tahajjud prayer and wept bitterly saying:
"I request you O'Allaah to look into my affairs."
Having heard this, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) stated : "You have made angels weep."
Hadhrat Zainul Abdin (Radhiallaahu-anhu) was once saying Salaat. In the meantime his house was set on fire. But he remained engaged in Salaat. When the people enquired :
"Were you not aware?"
"The Fire of the Aakhiraat- Hereafter kept me unaware of the fire of the world." he replied .
A person used to retire to bed to sleep but could not do so inspite of all his efforts. Thus he would rise and perform Salaat. He would then implore Allaah Ta'aala:
"O Allaah, You know it very well that the fear of the fire of Jahannam has constantly broken my sleep."
Having said so he would resume his prayer.
It is reported that Hadhrat Abu Yazid(RA) would always keep weeping. When he was asked the reason he explained:
"Had Allaah said that if you sinned you would have been made a captive in a bathroom, I would keep control over my shedding tears; how can I check my tears; when I have been frightened with the Fire of Jahannam on committing sin."

Conclusion


"O' Allaah I seek Your refuge from the Chastisement of Jahannam; I seek Your refuge from the torment of the grave, and from the mischief of Dajjal , and from the calamities of life and death."
Hadhrat Anas (Radhiallaahu-anhu) reports:
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) would very often invoke:
"Our Rabb ! give us good in this world and good in the Aakhiraat-Hereafter. And save us from the punishment of the Fire!" [Qur'aan 2:201]
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) informed a Companion named Muslim (Radhiallaahu-anhu):
"If you say 'Allahumma ajirni minannaar 'are' seven times after Maghrib (after sunset) Salaat before talking to anyone and die the same night, you will get salvation; similarly, if you do so after Fajr (before sunrise prayer) you will get salvation." [Abu Dawud]
Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu alayhi wassallam) said:
"Anyone who seeks Jannat three times, it invokes Allaah: 'Allahumma adkhilul-jannatah' (O' Allaah make him enter Jannat )."
Similarly, anyone who seeks refuge from Jahannam, it invokes Allaah:
"Allahumma ajirhu minannare" (O' Allaah! save him from Jahannam) . [Targhib]

Last Lines

"This is sufficient for men of comprehension; and for the negligent, even a volume is ineffective. The readers are requested to pray for mercy of Allaah upon us." 1418-1997
1. One 'fersakh' is equal to three miles
2. The bridge over which the righteous will pass into paradise." 46,"Detailed Essential Beliefs of a Muslim",5536,637,636,"There are seven (7) essentials to basic Islamic faith not believing in one of these essentials a person remained outside the fold of Islam.

IMAN MUFASSAL:

"I believe in Allah, in His Angels, His Scriptures, His Prophets, the Day of Judgement, and in the fact that every thing good or bad (in the world) is pre-destined by Allah the Exalted, and in the resurrection after death."

In summary the Muslims believe in Allah, in His Angels, Holy Scriptures (Quran, true bible and Torah etc.), the Prophets, believe in the life after death, including interrogation in the grave, punishment in the grave, Distraction of this Universe one day (doom day) resurrection, the Day of Judgement, rendering account of ones deeds, and passing over the Siraat Bridge, believe in the existence of Paradise, and the believers will live in it for ever, believe in the existence of Hell, with its severest punishments, and that it will last for ever. All the seven things stated in Iman Mufassal are quite evident from the sacred text of the Holy Qur'an, as well as, from the holy words of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him).

FIVE (5) PILLARS OF ISLAM:

The Prophet (Peace be on him) has described five fundamentals article (pillars) of Islam.
Which are (1) Believe in oneness of Allah (2) Five time daily Salaat (3) Payment of Zakat poor due (4) Fasting in month of Ramadhan (5) Hajj ( pilgrimage to Mecca).

The five (5) fundamental pillar of Islam do not include: belief in angels; the Divine Scriptures; the Day of Judgement and Fate (Taqdir) etc. The simple explanation is that the five pillars of Islam are supported by the Holy Quran and saying of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him). Therefore believing in them (7 essential Iman Mufassal) a muslim is obliged to believing in their saying i.e. Holy Prophet and Holy Quran.

Believes in the seven (7) essentials of Iman Mufassal from the core of his heart, and also affirms these to be true with his tongue but fails in performing the prayers; giving the Alms (Zakaat); observing the Fasts; not going for the holy pilgrimage (Hajj) remain a Muslim, but a big sinner, and disobedient to Allah. A person of this description is called Faasiq (transgressor). Such a person will be taken into task and might get salvation after undergoing punishment for the sins.

THE BELIEFS OF MUSLIMS REGARDING ALLAH:

Muslims should have the belief about Allah:

  1. Allah the Most Exalted is One.

  2. None is worthy of worship and devotion except Allah.

  3. There is no partner of Allah.

  4. He Knows everything; nothing is hidden from Him

  5. He is All Powerful and Mighty.

  6. It is He who created the earth, the sky, the moon, the sun, the stars, the angels, human beings, genies and the entire universe.

  7. He gives life and death. In other words, life and death of all creatures take place by His command.

  8. He feeds all His creation.

  9. He does not eat, drink, or sleep.

  10. He is Self-existent from eternity and will last till eternity.

  11. No one has created Him.

  12. He has no father, no son, no daughter, no wife, or other relations. He is above all such relationships.

  13. All depend on Him. He does not depend on anyone, and He has no needs.

  14. He is Peerless. There is nothing like Him. Nothing resembles Him.

  15. He is free from all imperfections.

  16. Unlike His creatures, He does not have hands, legs, nose, ears, face and shape.

  17. After creating the angels He has appointed them to carry out specific tasks, and to manage the affairs of the universe.

  18. He sent messengers for the guidance of His creatures; to teach people how to follow the true religion, do good deeds, and forbid them from the evil things.

THE ANGELS (MALAAIKAH):

Angels are a creation of Allah, the Almighty, created from light (NUR). They are invisible to us. They are neither male nor female. They do not disobey Allah and do not commit acts of sin. They are always busy in doing their task, assigned to them by Allah. The angels are many . No one except Allah know their exact number. We, however, know that there are many angels. Four of them are very famous and close to Allah. The first one of them is Angle Jibra'il (Gabriel) who brought Allah's Scriptures, Messages, and Commands to the prophets. The second is Angle Israfil who will blow the trumpet on the Day of Judgement. The third is Angle Mika'il who is appointed to manage the rains and to deliver livelihood to Allah's creatures. The fourth is Angle Izra'il, responsible for ending the life of Allah's creatures.

THE BOOKS OF ALLAH (The Divine Scriptures):

The Divine Scriptures (Books of Allah) are big and small. They were revealed to the Prophets. The big ones are called the Books, and the small ones are known as the Scrolls (Sahifas). The four famous Divine Books, and who are the Prophets upon whom these were revealed?

  1. The Holy Taurat (Torah) was revealed to Prophet Musa (Moses) (Peace be upon him).

  2. The Holy Zabur (Psalms) was revealed to Prophet Da'ud (David) (Peace be upon him).

  3. The Holy Injil (The New Testament) was revealed to Prophet Isa (Jesus) (Peace be upon him), and the;

  4. The Holy Qur'an, was revealed to our Holy Prophet Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him).

The exact number of the Divine Scrolls (Sahifas) is not known. Nevertheless, some of them were revealed to Prophet Adam (Peace be on him), some to Prophet Sheeth (Peace be on him) and some to Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), peace be on him. Apart from theses there are other Scrolls that were revealed to some other prophets.

THE MESSENGERS OF ALLAH (peace be on them):

The Allah's Messengers (Rasuls) are human beings, and Allah's servants. Allah appointed them to convey His messages to the other human beings. They were truthful; never lie, and did not commit sin. They showed miracles on Allah's commands; convey His messages in full, without adding, or leaving out anything from the orders of Allah. Nor did they withhold any of His messages. The Prophets (Nabi) were also human beings, and Allah's servants, They convey the commands of Allah to His beings; were truthful and never told a lie, nor committed any sins. They did not subtract or add anything in the commands of Allah, nor did they hide any Divine orders.

There is a minor difference between a Messenger (Rasul), and a Prophet (Nabi). A Rasul is that Messenger, who is given a new Shariat (Divine Law) and a new Book. All Messengers are also known as Prophets, whether or not they are given a new Shariat (Divine Law). Thus, a Nabi may followed the previous Shariat and the Book. The prophet were appointed only by Allah's choice; meaning that there were no role for human effort, or intentions in this regard. This bestow, solely, depends on Allah's will. Many Messengers and Prophets came to this world only Allah knows their exact number. A Muslim should believe and testify that all of them were true and right Messengers of Allah. The first Prophet was Prophet Adam (Peace be on him)., The last Prophet was The Holy Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (Peace be on him). The Muslims believe that the appointment of the Prophets and Messengers ended with The Holy Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (Peace be on him). No new Prophet will come until the Day of Judgement. After Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him), whosoever claims to be a prophet, is a liar. Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him) is the most exalted and glorious of all the Messengers and Prophets. He, too, is Allah's servant and obedient to Him. He is the most exalted after Allah, the Almighty.

THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT:

The most single certain and uncertain event in this world is related to the death, everyone certain that he or she will die one day but they are not certain when they will die. It is a fundamental belief of a Muslim that one day this universe will perish on the day of Qiyamma (Doomed day) when Angel Isra'fil (Peace be on him) will blow the trumpet. Its sound will be so frightening and intense that it's shock will kill every living thing and every material will be shattered and destroyed. That day all human beings and living souls Shall die; the entire universe will perish. Mountains will fly like cotton flakes, and the planets and stars etc. will disintegrate and fall down. The Day of Judgement (Qiyamat) is about to come. But no one known its exact time. except Allah. All that is we known is that it will be on (a) Friday, the 10th of Muharram. Our Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace be on him) has foretold some signs of Qiyamat. By observing those signs, nearness of the Day of Judgement can be determined. they are:

  1. Sins begin to increase in the world.

  2. People begin to disobey their parents, and become harsh towards them.

  3. There is breach of trust.

  4. Singing, dancing, and revelry is in abundance

  5. The new generation begins to find fault in their forefathers.

  6. Uneducated, and the ill-educated become the leaders.

  7. Shepherds etc. and lowly placed people begin to build lofty buildings.

  8. Incompetent and unworthy persons are appointed to high positions.

When the above things happen, take that the Qiyamat is near.

THE FATE (TAQDIR):

Allah knows the good and bad of every thing, and He has full knowledge of His creation even before He brings them into existence. This prior knowledge of Allah is known as Fate or Destiny. Nothing good or bad is beyond Allah's knowledge.

RESURRECTION AFTER DEATH:

The On the Day of Judgement Angel Israfil (Peace be on him) will blow the trumpet for the second time when all things would re-emerge. The human beings, too, will come to life and presented before Allah, the Almighty, in the Plain of Resurrection (Maidan-e-Hashr). All shall be called to account, and good and bad deeds Will be paid for. The day when all this takes place is called 'Day of Reckoning' (You-mul-Hashr) i.e. when all are gathered; 'Yau-mul-Jaza' i.e. the Day to repay and 'Yau-mul-Hissab' i.e. the Day of Reckoning.

" 47,"The Conditions of Tawheed ",5537,637,636,"Tawheed is the mother of all obligations. Without it, you cannot be a Muslim and all of your good deeds are fruitless. It is vital for one to understand the pillars and conditions of tawheed in order to ensure that he/she is a real Muslim. Failure to fulfil any condition or pillar of tawheed will nullify a person’s Eemaan and Islam, and hence will either be a mushrik or murtad (apostate). The conditions of tawheed are as follows:

1. Al-‘Ilm - Knowledge

Allah (SWT) says in the Qur’aan: “So know that Laa ilaaha ill-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah)…” (EMQ Muhammad, 47: 19)

If you testify that there is no ilaah worthy of worship and obedience, you must also know and understand all of Allah’s (SWT) attributes and functions or you will become mushrik.

This verse is a decisive request to have knowledge about Allah (SWT). For example, knowing that He is the only Legislator, one will never vote for any kaafir to legislate law. Likewise, by knowing that He is the only Provider, one will never fear poverty.

Having knowledge of tawheed is more vital than studying the Qur’aan, as indicated by the hadeeth of Jundub bin ‘Abdillaah who said: ""We used to study Eemaan before we studied the Qur’aan…"" (Sunan Ibn Maajah, Kitaab ul-Eemaan no.60), and the Messenger Muhammad (SAW) also said: ""The one who dies, knowing (understanding) Laa ilaaha ill-Allah will enter paradise."" (Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab ul-Eemaan)

We are obliged to study, learn and know about Allah (SWT); what He likes and dislikes, loves and hates, His names and attributes etc.

You can only testify that which you have knowledge about. Therefore, if someone claims to be a witness, and he is asked about what he has seen, and replies: ""I’m not sure"", this person is completely daft as he testifies to something which he has no knowledge of. Similar to this person is the one who testifies the Kalimah, yet he does not understand what it means.

Allah (SWT) says: “This (Qur'aan) is a Message for mankind (and a clear proof against them), in order that they may be warned thereby, and that they may know that He is the only One Ilaah (God - Allah) - (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), and that men of understanding may take heed.” (EMQ Ibraaheem, 14: 52)

2. Al-Yaqeen - Certainty

Knowledge is not enough, as many kuffaar know about Islam but they do not believe in it nor do they have certainty about it. Allah says: “Only those are the believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the cause of Allah...” (EMQ Hujaraat, 49: 15), and the Messenger Muhammad (SAW) said: ""Whoever testifies that there is no god worthy of worship and obedience but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah, without any doubt he will enter Jannah."" (Saheeh Muslim)

3. Al-Qubool - Acceptance

After having knowledge and certainty, you MUST accept. Some people may believe, have knowledge, and have certainty, but may not accept, as it may be too difficult for him or he may not accept out of his own personal desires. Allah (SWT) says: “Truly, when it was said to them: ‘Laa ilaaha ill-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah)’ they puffed themselves up with pride (i.e. denied it).” (EMQ as-Saaffaat, 37: 35)

4. Al-Inqiyaad - Submission

Allah (SWT) says: “But nay, by your Lord, they can have no Eemaan, until they make you (Muhammad [SAW]) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.” (EMQ an-Nisaa’, 4: 65)

Allah (SWT) describes those who do not submit to Him as disbelievers, and swears to this by Himself. Having knowledge, certainty and acceptance is not enough; you must also have submission with no haraj (discontent). You must submit to Allah, and all His names and attributes. Allah (SWT) also says: “There is no compulsion in the religion. Verily, the right path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Taaghout and believes in Allah, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break (i.e. he will have submission). And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” (EMQ al-Baqarah, 2: 256)

And also: “The command (or the judgement) is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him (i.e. His Monotheism), that is the (true) straight religion, but most men know not.” (EMQ Yoosuf, 12: 40)

Thus, He (SWT) orders us to worship and submit to none but Him.

5. As-Sidq - Believing

Allah says: “When the hypocrites come to you (SAW), they say: 'We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of Allah.' Allah knows that you are indeed His Messenger and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are liars indeed.” (EMQ al-Munaafiqoon, 63: 1)

Allah testifies that the Munaafiqoon are liars as they claim to be Muslims but they do not believe. Thus, believing is a condition of Tawheed as Allah (SWT) also says: “And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: 'We believe in Allah and the Last Day', while in fact they believe not.” (EMQ al-Baqarah, 2: 8)

Allah testifies again that they are not believers as they never have Eemaan in their hearts. The munaafiq has no talaazum (moulding) between his inner and outer as he shows Islam but conceals kufr. The Messenger Muhammad (SAW) said: ""The one who testifies ‘There is no God worthy of worship but Allah’, (whilst sincerely) believing in the heart; Allah will forbid him from the Hell-fire."" (Al-Bukhaari, Kitaab ul-‘Ilm no.128 and Muslim)

Therefore, the one who does not believe in his heart has the attribute of a munaafiq or kaafir.

6. Al-Ikhlaas - Sincerity

Allah says: “And they were commanded not, but that they should sincerely (with Ikhlaas) worship Allah, and worship none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him), and perform As-Salaat and give Zakaat: and that is the right religion.” (EMQ al-Bayyinah, 98: 5)

The Messenger Muhammad (SAW) said: ""The one who says ‘there is none worthy of worship but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’ seeking sincerely to see the face of Allah, Allah will forbid him from Hell-fire."" (Al-Bukhaari and Muslim)

And also, Abu Hurayrah (RA) asked the Messenger Muhammad (SAW): ""who is the luckiest person to receive your intercession?"" He said: ""the one who says Laa ilaaha ill-Allah sincerely from his heart.’ (Al-Bukhaari)

7. Al-Mahabbah - Love

After having knowledge, certainty, acceptance, submission, belief and sincerity; you must also love those whom Allah (SWT) tells you to love, and hate those whom He tells you to hate.

Allah says: “And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe love Allah more (than anything else). If only those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is severe in punishment.” (EMQ al-Baqarah, 2: 165)

The Messenger Muhammad (SAW) also said: ""The most powerful knot of Eemaan is to love for the sake of Allah and to hate for the sake of Allah."" (Ahmad, Aadaab us-Suhbah)

Therefore you must love the Muslims, believers and mujaahideen, and hate the kuffaar, Shaytaan and all other disbelievers; otherwise you will be violating one of the conditions of tawheed and hence become mushrik

" 48,"The Oneness of Allah",5538,637,636,"In a day and age when nothing seems acceptable without proof, we find many aspects of our religion are based on complete faith. We are required to believe in many things with or without proof. From amongst these things, is the belief that Allah exists and that He is the creator of this world and that He has no partner in His being or any of his infinite qualities. We have to not only believe this, but also proclaim it. As we look into the lives of the pious predecessors, we find that they have been asked as to how Allah exists. They have answered in many different ways: 1) Imam Abu Hanifah was posed with this question in a debate with an atheist. The time and date was set for the debate. The whole village gathered but the Imam did not turn up on time. When he eventually arrived, the atheist began to taunt him that he was scared and that is why he turned up late. The Imam answered calmly: “I was on my way but encountered a river. There was no bridge or boat to cross the river. To my amazement, I see a tree coming out of the ground and begin to shape itself in the form of a boat that enters the water; I was able to board it and cross the river” The atheist began to laugh and disgrace the Imam. The Imam said the real joke is on you. If this is not possible then how can this whole world come into existence and be maintained in this order without a creator. 2) Imam Malik was asked the same question. He replied that I see a cow, a silk worm, and a honey bee, all eat the same leaf but they all produce different products. This proves to me that there is a creator who has the power to do this. 3) Imam Shafi replied to this question that the different language that people speak and use to communicate proves to me that this world has a creator. 4) Imam Ahmed on being asked this question replied that once I took three eggs of a chicken and three of a duck and placed them with the mother hen. When they hatched, they were taken to a pond. The ducks without hesitation jumped into the water but the chicks remained on the bank. Who taught the duckling to jump in the water and who taught the chicks to refrain from this? There surely has to be a creator. Besides this, if a person truly ponders on creation, he himself will find many signs guiding him to the belief that Allah exists and that he is One. Appearances, Identity and Senses There are billions of people but each and every person has unique features, different eyes and also unique finger prints. Allah has created many aesthetic and functional features for us such as eyebrows. These divert sweat away from eyes, enhances the beauty of the face and do not grow at a rate of other hair on the body. Fingertips are used all the time, whenever we use our hands to grip, touch, push or tap an object. They are strengthened and protected by finger nails and Allah the most merciful replaces this protection without inconvenience to us. Imagine trying to peel a banana where your finger tips would be as flimsy as banana skin or with constant use, wear and tear, they become rigid - we would loose our sense of sensitive touch not to mention damaging the computer keyboard! However with this common function of the tip of the digit Allah still made us unique; fingerprints are the ridge pattern of the skin on a person's fingertips; this is constant through life and no two are exactly the same. What kind of system allows siblings to have different fingerprints? Even though the fingerprints of the parents do not change yet each person has unique prints that are different to their brothers/sisters even where they have the same biological mother and father. What king of system design can implement this and keep everyone's finger prints unique all over the world for all time! Brain - The brain consists amongst other things grey and white matter joined by nerves that sends chemical electrical waves reaching speeds of 160 m/525 ft per second. The brain is a magnificent controller encased in bone and capping all emotional interchanges: touch/taste, sight, smell, hearing and speech. Even though its signals can travel at high speed the position of the brain in close proximity to these senses further ensures a smaller distance of signal travel for the most highly used senses. In addition the grouping of the brain with the face and senses (the whole head) reduces the vulnerable areas to one: the head of the body. Thus by protecting it one can avert total incapacity (Other vital organs have been protected by cage of bones – rib cage). Allah has facilitated our survival by providing the mechanisms to enable us to live life safely and in comfort. These features have been designed and replicated millions of times by Allah without mutating the position of these senses. Even our auditory senses are positioned in a prime location so that we can hear sounds 360 degrees in any direction. Had our ears been positioned closer to our eyes our range would have been considerably less; we would be able to hear what was coming but we could see them coming anyway so the ears are there to sense at different frequencies that which we can't see. Our eyes however allow us to view almost 180 degrees and we can perceive objects in 3 dimensions, colour and we can move the components of our eyes so that we can pan and tilt our visual range. The muscles of the eye are used about 100,000 times a day to focus on particular things near or far. The same organ is so unique to each person that the retina of an eye can be scanned and biometrically used for security systems – again the same function of sight, replicated around the world but unique even to same parent siblings – The existence of worlds we have yet to find and the ones we have found and everything within them all are evidence and signs of Allah's supreme intelligence and power. Reproduction Once a sperm has fertilized an egg, the egg's wall cannot be penetrated by other sperm, limiting about 4 million sperm that may have started the journey towards the egg to 1 sperm. Occasionally the fertilised egg will split in two or another sperm will fertilise another egg resulting in twins and on very rare instances triplets or a higher number of eggs are fertilised. However an ordinary pregnancy, if any could be described as such, would be where the egg is fertilised by one sperm thus allowing human population to scale in proportion to physical human capacity. We are one the most complex of species on the planet with physical and psychological needs and so Allah has not overburdened Man or placed an impossible task upon us by allowing all sperm to fertilise all eggs. In fact He has deliberately put factors in place to govern the personal well-being of parents and children and inhibited exponential population surges. However these factors do not inhibit serial reproduction after puberty. For example the head of a sperm contains an acrosin enzyme that dissolves the ovum casing of a woman's egg enabling the sperm to penetrate it. Once a sperm has fertilized an egg, the egg's wall cannot be penetrated by other sperm. The unsuccessful sperm die after about three days even though they have managed to get to the egg. Fertilisation has been pre-determined up to 4Million:1. Another example is of the female ovary, It may have millions of eggs but it will only ovulate one egg every month and stop ovulating whilst pregnant thereby restricting the number of eggs that can be fertilised at any one time. Breast-feeding also often inhibits pregnancy and so these factors govern pregnancy intervals and well-being. The end result is that the specie propagates, survives and inherits the world for the purpose it was created. Animals The common peacock has a fan-shaped tail, brightly coloured with blue, green, and purple 'eyes' on a chestnut background which is raised during courtship displays. It is not used as camouflage and the pattern is not seen elsewhere nor does it change. It is a handsome bird and is aesthetic to see. We humans often marvel at its glorious plumage and derive much enjoyment from the bird's majestic display but rarely do we realise that Allah has designed exquisiteness and beauty in creations to augment the environment we have inherited. He has done this for our benefit. Astronomy Allah created the moon like a mirror in the sky reflecting light for the benefit of Man; it appears partially or completely so that man can measure the day of the month. It has a gravitational pull causing tides that prevent sea water becoming stagnant and help breakdown and deposit particles at beaches. It is an amazing sign of Allah's greatness that he has purposely placed the moon in a particular position as an aid to Man in the darkness of night and as a significant factor in the ecology of the world. Signalling Systems Things that are harmful to humans often have bad smells associated with them. For example, Allah allows Milk to be produced and preserved in the bodies of warm blooded animals on the hottest of days however once the milk is extracted, even if sealed it will sour and smell bad after some time. The sour smell is a signal from Allah that the status of the milk changed and it is no longer fit for normal consumption. Likewise urine and stool smell to signal the risk of contamination and disease; everyone understands this warning from Allah but just in case the sense of smell is compromised Allah also compliments the signals by showing you flies and insects attracted to the filth and allowing buzzing noises from flies to emanate and be heard. To indicate severity of the problem, insects different in type and number appear depending on the strength and type of smell, i.e. a monitored warning level of the problem. Colour changes in water signal possible pollution and are a sign from Allah to be cautious. Similarly pleasant fragrances and scents lead to things which can be beneficial. Aroma Therapist and Purveyors of teas and infusions will be more than happy to vouch for this fact. Herbs, spices and condiments not only smell nice but also act as active ingredients in food and drink; lemongrass, ginger, mint and vinegar being classic examples. Again Allah has put these qualities in objects so that we can recognise them and purposefully use them. Cooperation Cooperation between creations also occurs such as birds that clean the teeth of crocodiles. Crocodiles do not have a way of cleaning their extended set of teeth themselves so Allah has appointed birds to pick their teeth for food/insects and given the intelligence to the crocodiles to allow the birds to do so. Inheritance, Uniqueness and Independence The origin of this cooperation and intelligence in creation is Allah. The ability to share information such as inherited features between generations has been created by Allah. The system of keeping each individual unique is Allah's. The ability to exclude particular traits of a person from his/her progeny (e.g. criminal tendencies) has also been by the mercy of Allah, hence we are all born sinless and have free will. We cannot blame our ill doing to our genetic makeup. Complexity There is no evolution in the scenarios described above however the inputs, outputs and processes of the above scenarios are evidence of a system designed with intelligence. Such a system, if compared with man-made inventions, would certainly require a lead technical designer, a single coordinator - a master controller. Recommendation The above only mentions a small percentage of the signs of Allah's existence and further reading and contemplation on the topic is strongly encouraged to strengthen one's faith however since man's intellect and knowledge is finite and shataaan deploys trickery to misguide, our faith should be proclaimed with or without proof. May Allah guide us to the straight path and accept us all – Ameen." 49,"What Aqidah should we have for the people that are dead? Some people say the Prophets are alive in their graves, is this true? Please give me evidence.",5539,637,636,"What Aqidah should we have for the people that are dead? Some people say the Prophets are alive in their graves, is this true? Please give me evidence. In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful, The belief (Aqidah) of the mainstream Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah is that our beloved Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) and all the other Prophets are alive in their graves. This life is physical and worldly (dunyawiyyah), and not just a spiritual one with the sole (barzakhiyyah), as the latter is common for all the people. They are usually involved in performing Salat and worshiping Allah (out of their own choice and not binding on them), and we can normally not see or feel them. This was the Aqidah held by the Sunni Muslims throughout the ages, and many books in Arabic have been written on this subject. The great Imam Suyuti (Allah have mercy on him) compiled a whole work on this subject titled ‘Inba al-Azkiya bi Hayat al-Anbiya’ (Informing the intelligent regarding the living of the Prophets), in which he quoted many evidences in support of this belief. Similarly, other scholars such as: Imam al-Bayhaqi, Imam Abd al-Wahhab al-Sha’rani and Imam Ibn al-Qayyim in his book ‘al-Ruh (The Soul) have also written and gathered evidences with regards to this. Evidences on the prophets remaining alive in their graves: There are many evidences in the Qur’an, Hadith and sayings of the predecessors regarding the prophets remaining alive after death. Some are reproduced here: 1) Allah Most High says: “And question thou (O Muhammad) our Messengers whom we sent before you. Did we appoint any deities other that Allah, Mot gracious, to be worshiped?” (Surah al-Zukhruf, 45). Many commentators (mufassirun) of the Qur’an have stated in their respective exegeses that the living of the Prophets can be proved from this verse (See: Durr al-Manthur of Suyuti, Ruh al-Ma’ani by al-Alusi and others). 2) Allah Most High says: “And say not of those who are martyred in the way of Allah, “they are dead”, nay, they are living, though you perceive it not” (Surah al-Baqarah, 154). Regarding this verse, the great Hadith expert (hafidh), Imam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (Allah have mercy on him) states in his monumental commentary of Sahih al-Bukhari, ‘Fath al-Bari’: “When the living of the martyrs is proven from the text of the Qur’an, then this is also proven from an analogical point of view. And the Prophets are superior then the martyrs” (Fath al-Bari, 6/379). 3) Sayyiduna Anas ibn Malik (Allah be pleased with him) narrates: “On the night of Isra, the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) passed by the grave of Sayyiduna Musa (Allah bless him), and found him performing Salat in his grave” (Recorded by Imam Muslim in his Sahih, and others). 4) Anas ibn Malik narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “The Prophets are alive in their graves performing Salat” (Recorded by al-Bayhaqi in his ‘Hayat al-Anbiya’ and Abu Ya’la in his Musnad). The above Hadith has been authenticated by many Hadith scholars, such as: Ibn Hajar, al-Haythami, Ali al-Qari, al-Munawi, al-Shawkani and others. 5) Aws ibn Aws narrates the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) as saying: “Send salutations in abundance on me on Friday, as your sending salutations are presented to me. The Companions inquired: “How is it possible that you receive our salutations when your body will have been decayed? The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “Verily Allah has made forbidden on the earth that it eats the bodies of the Prophets” (Recorded by Abu Dawud, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, Darami and others, and authenticated by many, such as Ibn al-Qayyim). 6) Sayyiduna Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “None of you greets me except that Allah returns my soul on me until I return his greeting” (Musnad Ahmad, 2/527 and Sunan Abu Dawud, 1/279). 7) Anas ibn Malik narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said: “The Prophets are not kept in their graves for more than forty nights, but they remain worshiping Allah until the trumpet will be blown” (Sunan al-Bayhaqi). Due to the fact that there are many narrations regarding the living of the Prophets (of which only a few have been reproduced as an example), Imam al-Suyuti (Allah have mercy on him) is of the view that these narrations have reached the level of certainty (tawatur). 8) The great Hadith master, Hafidh Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (Allah have mercy on him) states: “Death will never come to the blessed Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) in his grave, rather he will remain alive, due to the fact that the Prophets remain alive in their graves” (Fath al-Bari, 17/22). 9) Imam al-Subki (Allah have mercy on him) states: “It is from our beliefs that the Prophets are alive in their graves”. (Tabqat al-Shafi’iyya al-Kubra, 6/266). 10) The great Hanafi jurist, Allama Ibn Abidin (Allah have mercy on him) says: “The Prophets are alive in their graves, as proven from the Hadith” (Rasa’il of Ibn Abidin, 2/203). 11) Imam al-Shawkani (whom the Salafis normally refer to) states: “The Prophet (Allah bless him & give him peace)) is alive in his grave, as has been established in the Hadith “The Prophets are alive in their graves”. (See: Nayl al-Awtar, 5/101). 12) Also, one of the major incidents that prove this, is the incident of Me’raj (Ascension of the Prophet to the heavens), where he met and conversed with many Prophets. He also led them in prayer in Masjid al-Aqsa. The above evidences from the Qur’an, Hadith and the sayings of the predecessors (salaf) are sufficient to prove the fact that the Prophets remain alive in their graves after they pass away from this world. There are many other evidences which we have not mentioned here, due to the fear of prolonging our discussion. This is the reason why this Aqidah has been held by the mainstream Sunni scholars throughout the eras. It is only recently that some people have objected to this view. For more details on this subject in Arabic, one may refer to Imam Suyuti’s ‘al-Inba’ and Imam al-Bayhaqi’s ‘Hayat al-Anbiya’. And Allah knows best Muhammad ibn Adam Darul Iftaa Leicester , UK" 50,"Biography of Shaykh al-Hadith, Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi",5548,637,636,"He was born in the village of Kandhla (in Uttar Pradesh, India) on Ramadan 10, 1315 AH (February 12, 1898 CE). In the last century, India has undoubtedly become an important center for the study of hadith, and the scholars of India have become well-known for their passion for religious knowledge. Upon them ended the era of leadership in teaching hadiths, codification of the special fields [funun] of hadith, and commentary upon its texts [mutun]. Such was their mastery of this science that Muhammad Rashid Rida mentions in the introduction of his book Miftah Kunuz al-Sunnah, “Were it not for the superb attention to detail in the science of hadith displayed by our brothers, the scholars of India in the present era, this science would have withered away in the eastern cities. And, indeed, mastery of this science has been waning in Egypt and Syria since the tenth century AH.” There is no doubt that Shaykh Muhammad Zakariyya was among the most distinguished hadith scholars of India and a great contributor in the service of the Sunnah. He was given the honorary title of Shaykh al-Hadith, or “Great Scholar of Hadith,” by his teacher, Shaykh Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri, who recognized his deep insight, clear-sightedness, and extensive knowledge of hadith and related sciences. Lineage and Upbringing He was born in the village of Kandhla (in Uttar Pradesh, India) on Ramadan 10, 1315 AH (February 12, 1898 CE). His full name was Muhammad Zakariyya ibn Muhammad Yahya ibn Muhammad Ismail, and his lineage continues all the way back to Abu Bakr, the great Companion of the Messenger (SallAllahu alaihi wasallam). Shaykh Abu al-Hasan Nadwi said about him, “Shaykh Muhammad Zakariyya was born into a household rooted in knowledge and passion for Islam. His immediate family and his predecessors were distinguished by firm resolve, perseverance, steadfastness, and adherence to religion…. His family included many notable scholars… and his grandmother memorized the entire Qur’an while nursing her son [Shaykh Zakariyya’s father].” His father, Shaykh Muhammad Yahya, was among the great scholars of India, whose primary teacher in hadith was Shaykh Rashid Ahmad Gangohi. Under him he studied Sahih al-Bukhari, Jami al-Tirmidhi, and others of the six famous authentic books of hadith [sihah sitta]. Shaykh Yahya went on to teach at Madrasa Mazahir Ulum, in the district of Saharanpur, but did not accept any payment for his services. He instead made his living through his own book-publishing business. As a young boy, Shaykh Zakariyya moved with his father to the village of Gangoh, in the district of Saharanpur. Since his father and Shaykh Gangohi had a close relationship, Shaykh Zakariyya quickly earned the affection of his father’s teacher. Growing up in this virtuous environment, he began learning how to read with Hakim Abd al-Rahman of Muzaffarnagar. He memorized the Qur’an with his father and also studied books in Persian and the introductory Arabic books with his uncle Shaykh Muhammad Ilyas (founder of the Tabligh movement). He stayed with his father in the company of Shaykh Gangohi until age eight, when the shaykh passed away. At the age of twelve, Shaykh Zakariyya traveled with his father to Mazahir Ulum, There, under his father, he advanced his study of Arabic, tackling many classical texts on Arabic morphology, grammar, literature and also logic. But by the time he was seventeen, hadith became the main focus of his life. He studied five of the six authentic books of hadith with his father, and then he studied Sahih al-Bukhari and Sunan al-Tirmidhi (for a second time) with honorable Shaykh Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri. Out of his immense respect for hadith, Shaykh Zakariyya was extremely particular about always studying the hadith narrations with wudu‘. On Dhu ‘l-Qa’da 10, 1334 AH, when Shaykh Zakariyya was just nineteen, his dear father passed away. This event was extremely traumatic for Shaykh Zakariyya, as he lost not only a father but also a teacher and mentor. His deep sorrow remained with him for the rest of his life. Teachers Shaykh Zakariyya was blessed to live and learn in an era considered by many to be one of great achievements in Islamic knowledge by scholars in the Indian subcontinent. He studied with few but select teachers who reached the highest levels of learning, research, authorship, and piety. In addition to his father (Shaykh Muhammad Yahya) and uncle (Shaykh Muhammad Ilyas), he studied under the hadith scholar Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri, author of the Badhl al-Majhud, a commentary of Sunan Abi Dawud. Shaykh Zakariyya acquired a hadith authorization from him and remained his student until Shaykh Khalil’s death in Madina Munawwara in 1346 AH. Before his death, Shaykh Khalil Ahmad expressed his desire to write Badhl al-Majhud, and he sought Shaykh Zakariyya’s assistance as his right-hand man. This experience revealed Shaykh Zakariyya’s gift of penmanship and, furthermore, expanded his insight in the science of hadith. He worked hard on the project, attained the pleasure and trust of his shaykh, and was even mentioned by name in the commentary. This indeed opened the door to Shaykh Zakariyya’s authoring many literary works and treatises over the course of his life. Teaching Career In Muharram 1335 AH he was appointed as a teacher at Madrasa Mazahir Ulum, where he was assigned to teach books on Arabic grammar, morphology, and literature, as well as a number of primary texts of Islamic jurisprudence. In 1341 AH he was assigned to teach three sections of Sahih al-Bukhari upon the insistence of Shaykh Khalil Ahmad. He also taught Mishkat al-Masabih until 1344 AH. Shaykh Abu al-Hasan Nadwi said, “Although he was one of the youngest teachers at the school, he was selected to teach works generally not assigned to those of his age, nor to anyone in the early stages of his teaching career. Nevertheless, he showed that he was not only able, but an exceptional teacher.” In 1345 AH he traveled to Madina Munawwara, the city of Allah’s Messenger (SallAllahu alahi wasallam), where he resided for one year. There he taught Sunan Abi Dawud at Madrasa al-Ulum al-Shar’iyya. While in Madina, he began working on Awjaz al-Masalik ila Muwatta Imam Malik, a commentary on Imam Malik’s Muwatta. He was twenty-nine at the time. When he returned to India, he resumed teaching at Mazahir Ulum. He began teaching Sunan Abi Dawud, Sunan al-Nasai, the Muwatta of Imam Muhammad, and the second half of Sahih al-Bukhari. The school’s principle taught the first half of Sahih al-Bukhari, and after his death, Shaykh Zakariyya was given the honor of teaching the entire work. In all, he taught the first half of Sahih al-Bukhari twenty-five times, the complete Sahih al-Bukhari sixteen times, and Sunan Abi Dawud thirty times. He did not just teach hadith as a matter of routine; the work of hadith had become his passion, and he put his heart and soul into it. Shaykh Zakariyya taught until 1388 AH, when he was forced to give up teaching after developing eye cataracts. Travels to the Two Holy Cities Allah blessed him with the opportunity to visit the two holy cities of Makka and Madina. He performed hajj several times, and his multiple trips had a profound personal effect on him, both spiritually and educationally. He made the blessed journey with Shaykh Khalil Ahmad in 1338 AH and with him again in 1344. It was during the second trip that Shaykh Khalil completed Badhl al-Majhud; he died shortly thereafter and was buried in the Baqi’ graveyard in Madina. May Allah have mercy on him and put light in his grave. Sincere Love for Allah and the Prophet (SallAllahu alahi wasallam) Shaykh Muhammad Zakariyya inherited piety, honesty, and good character from his father (may Allah be pleased with him). He aspired to follow the Qur’an and Sunnah in all matters, big and small, with a passion not found in many scholars. He had extreme love for the Prophet (SallAllahu alahi wasallam) and the blessed city of Madina. His students have related that whenver the death of the Messenger (SallAllahu alahi wasallam) was mentioned during a lecture on Sunan Abi Dawud or Sahih al-Bukhari, his eyes would well up with tears, his voice would choke up, and he would be overcome with crying. So evocative were his tears that his students could do nothing but weep with raised voices. He was often tested with regard to his sincerity. He was offered many teaching jobs at two or three times the salary that was customarily given at Mazahir ‘Ulum, but he always graciously declined the offers. For most of his teaching career, Shaykh Zakariyya never accepted any money for his services at Mazahir ‘Ulum; he did the work voluntarily, seeking Allah’s pleasure. Although he did accept a small salary at the beginning of his career, he later totaled up the amount and paid it back in its entirety. Househould Shaykh Muhammad Zakariyya was married twice. He first married the daughter of Shaykh Ra’uf al-Hasan in Kandhla. She passed away on Dhu ‘l-Hijja 5 1355 AH. He then married the daughter of Shaykh Muhammad Ilyas Kandhlawi in 1356 AH. Allah blessed him with five daughters and three sons from his first wife, and two daughters and one son from his second marriage. Daily Routine Shaykh Zakariyya organized his time meticulously. He would rise an hour before dawn and occupy himself in tahajjud and recitation of Qur’an before performing the Fajr prayer in the masjid. After Fajr, he would read his morning supplications and litany until sunrise. Thereafter he would go to meet with some people and drink tea (but never ate anything with it). He would then return to his quarters to read. During this time he would also research and compile his literary works, and, with few exceptions, no one was allowed to visit him at this time. When it was time for lunch he would come out and sit with his guests, who were from all walks of life; he would respect and treat them well, irrespective of who they were. After Zuhr prayer, he would take a siesta and then spent some time listening to his correspondence (which amounted to around forty or fifty letters daily from different places) and dictating replies. He also taught for two hour before ‘Asr. After ‘Asr, he would sit with a large group of people, offering them tea. After performing Maghrib, he would remain devoted in solitude to optional prayer and to supplication. He did not take an evening meal except to entertain an important guest. Personality Shaykh Abu ‘l-Hasan ‘Ali Nadwi says about his characteristics, “He was extremely vibrant, never lazy; light-hearted, smiling, cheerful, friendly; and he often jested with his close friends and acquaintances. We saw in him good character and forbearance with people, as well as a rare humilty; and above all, his personal qualities were always governed by his deep faith and sense of contentment.” Death He had always hoped to meet Allah while in the city of the Messenger (SallAllahu alahi wasallam); Allah granted his wish. He died there on Monday Sha’ban 1, 1402 AH (May 24, 1982 CE) and was buried in Jannat al-Baqi’, in the company of the Companions and the noble family members of the Messenger (SallAllahu alahi wasallam). His funeral procesion was followed by a large number of people and he was buried in the Baqi’ graveyard next to his teacher Shaykh Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri. May Allah forgive him, grant mercy, and elevate his status. Amin. Scholars’ Praise of Him Many scholars, both Arab and non-Arab, have praised him and recognized his knowlege and excellence. ‘Allama Muhammad Yusuf Binnori relates, Indeed there are some remnants of the scholars of past generations living today among the scholars of todays generation. They have been guided to praiseworthy efforts in multiple religious sciences, such as jurisprudence; they are on par with the previous generations in their knowlege, excellence, fear of Allah, and piety; they stir up memories of the blessed golden age of scholarship. Among these scholars is a unique figure envied for his excellence in knowlege and action, the author of outstanding, beneficial works and of beautiful, superb commentaries: Shaykh Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi Saharanpuri. Shaykh Sa’id Ahmad, the head of Islamic studies at the University of Aligarh, UP, relates, It is evident to one who take a look at his works that he had a brilliancy, both in knowlege and with the pen, like that of Ibn al-Jawzi and Imam Ghazali. Of the scholars of his era I know of no one comparable to him in this regard, except Imam ‘Abd al-Hayy al-Farangi Mahalli (of Lucknow). Shaykh Abu ‘l-Hasan ‘Ali Nadwi relates that Shaykh ‘Alawi al-Maliki said, When he reports the ruling and evidences of the Maliki school [in his writings], we Malikis are astonished at the accuracy and integrity of the report…. If the author had not mentioned in the introduction of [his] book that he was a Hanafi, I would not have known that he was Hanafi, but would have definately concluded that he was a Maliki, since in his Awjaz he cites by-laws and derivatives of the Maliki school from there books that even we have a hard time obtaining. Students Shaykh Zakariyya had numerous students who spread around the world and continue, to this day, to serve Islam, particularly establishing traditional Islamic schools in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, England, Canada, America, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and other countries. Some of his more prominent students in the field of hadith were Muhaddith Muhammad Yusuf Kandhlawi (d. 1384 AH), author of Amani ‘l-Ahbar Sharh Ma’ani ‘l-Athar, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Jabbar A’zami, author of Imdad al-Bari (Urdu commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari), and Mufti Mahmud Hasan Gangohi (d. 1417 AH). Many other scholars and students also acquired authorizations in hadith from him, including Dr. Mustafa’ al-Siba’i, Shaykh ‘Abd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda, Dr. Muhammad ‘Alawi al-Maliki and Shaykh Muhammad Taha al-Barakati. Written Works Shaykh Zakariyya wrote many works both in Arabic and Urdu. A number of them treat specialized subjects intented for scholars, and the rest have been written for the general public. His works demonstrate his deep knowlege and intelligence; his ability to undertand the issue at hand, research it thoroughly, and present a complete, clear and comprehensive discussion; his moderation, humility, patience, and attention to detail. His respect and awe for the pious predecessors are evident in his works, even when he disagrees with their opinions on any particular aspect. His first written work was a three volume commentary of the Alfiyya ibn Malik (on arabic grammar), which he wrote as a student when he was only thirteen. His written works amount to over one hundred. He did not withhold any rights to his works and made it publicly known that he only published his works for the sake of Allah’s pleasure. Whoever wished to publish them was permitted to, on the condition that they were left unaltered and their accuracy maintained. Hence, his books have gained overwhelming acceptance througout the world, so much so that his work Fada’il al-Qur’an [Virtues of the Qur’an] has been translated into eleven languages, Fada’il Ramadan [Virtues of Ramadan] into twelve languages, and Fada’il al-Salat [Virtues of Prayer] into fifteen languages. He wrote four books on Qur’an commentary [tafsir] and proper recitation [tajwid], forty-four books on hadith and its related sciences, six books on jurisprudence [fiqh] and its related sciences, twenty-four historical and biographical books, four books on Islam creed [aqida], twelve books on abstinence [zuhd] and heart-softening accounts [riqaq], three books in Arabic grammar and logic, and six books on modern-day groups and movements. Some of His Hadith Works One can find a complete list and description of his books in the various biographies written on him. Here is a brief description of a few of his more popular works on hadith: Awjaz al-Masalik ila Muwatta’ Imam Malik: One of the most comprehensive commentaries on the Muwatta of Imam Malik in terms of the science of hadith, jurisprudence, and hadith explication. Shaykh Zakariyya provides the summaries of many other commentaries in a clear, intellectual, and scholarly way, dealing with the various opinons on each issue, mentioning the differences of opinions among the various scholars, and comparing their evidences. This commentary, written in Arabic, has won great acclaim from a number of Maliki scholars. Lami’ al-Dirari ‘ala Jami’ al-Bukhari: Written in Arabic, a collection of the unique remarks and observations on Sahih al-Bukhari presented by Shaykh Rashid Ahmad Gangohi. These life-long acquired wisdoms were recorded by his student Shaykh Yahya Kandhlawi (Shaykh Zakariyya’s father) during their lessons. Shaykh Zakariyya edited, arranged, and commented on his fathers compilation, clarifying the text and adding a comprehensive introduction at the beginning. Al-Abwab wa ‘l-Tarajim li ‘l-Bukhari: An explanation of the chapter headings of Imam Bukhari’s Sahih al-Bukhari. Assigning chapter headings in a hadith collection is a science in itself, known among the scholars as al-abwab wa ‘l-tarajim [chapters and explanations]. In it, the compiler explains the reasons for the chapter heading and the connections between the chapter headings and the hadiths quoted therein. It is well known that the commentators of Sahih al-Bukhari have paid special attention to the titles therein, in tune with the Arabic saying: “The fiqh of Bukhari is in his chapter headings” [fiqh al-Bukhari fi tarajimihi]. Shaykh Zakariyya not only quotes and compiles what has been mentioned by other scholars like Shah Wali Allah al-Dehlawi and Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, but also correlates and clarifies these opinions and presents findings from his own research in many instances. Juz’ Hajjat al-Wida’ wa ‘Umrat al-Nabi (SallAllahu alahi wasallam): A comprehensive Arabic commentary on the detailed accounts of the pilgrimage [hajj] of Allah’s Messenger (SallAllahu alahi wasallam). It includes the details of any juridical discussions on the various aspects of pilgrimage, giving the locations, modern-day names, and other details of the places the Messenger of Allah (SallAllahu alahi wasallam) passed by or stayed at. Khasa’il Nabawi Sharh Shama’il al-Tirmidhi: Composed in urdu, a commentary on Imam Tirmidhi’s renowned work al-Shama’il al-Muhammadiyya, a collection of hadiths detailing the characteristics of the Messenger (SallAllahu alahi wasallam). This commentary explains the various aspects related to the different characteristics and practices of Allah’s Messenger (SallAllahu alahi wasallam). It has been translated into English and is widely available. Excerpted from ""The Differences of the Imams"" by Shaykh al-Hadith Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhlawi." 51,"Establishment of Islamic Institutions of Learning in India",5549,637,636,"The Deobandi are a Muslim religious revivalist movement in South Asia which has more recently also spread to other countries, such Afghanistan, South Africa and the UK. Sure, Darul Uloom Deoband is today a renowned religious and academic center in the Islamic world. In the sub-continent it is the largest institution for the dissemination and propagation of Islam and the biggest headspring of education in the Islamic sciences. Not only that but further more Deoband stands now for even an own thought under the roof of the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jama’at Hanafi. Wikipedia says: The Deobandi are a Muslim religious revivalist movement in South Asia which has more recently also spread to other countries, such Afghanistan, South Africa and the UK. They follow the fiqh (tradition of jurisprudence) of Imam Abu Hanifa and follow Imam Abu Mansur Maturidi’s thought in Aqeedah (Doctrine) and Ilm ul Kalaam (Rhetoric) i.e the science of refuting attacks on Islam made using Greek logic Mu’tazili. The name derives from Deoband, India, where the madrassa Darul Uloom Deoband is situated. Tenets Deobandi thought is characterised by a strict adherence to the Sunnah (the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad) and an emphasis on Shar??a (Islamic law). It has five main principles, which are: 1. Tauhd: (Monotheism) of God; no one shares His attributes. 2. Sunnah: Following and loving the methodology of the Messenger of God, Muhammad in every small and big matter. 3. Hubbu s-Sahabah: Love of the companions of the Messenger of God, and following their way. 4. Taqlid wa l-Ittiba: Giving preference to the jurisprudence of one of the earliest jurists of Islam over that of later jurists. 5. Jihad fi Sabili l-Lah: Doing Jih?d in the way of God against every evil. The Inspired Madrasah & it’s school of thoughts Fundamentally the foremost thing is its school of thought with out elucidating which neither any light can be thrown on its spirituality nor its religious orientation can be exposed. Some questions arise here: Firstly, what is its central thought from which its raison d’être may be determined? What are the constituents of its central thought from which its angles of action may be fixed? What is the head-spring of this thought from which it received this thought? What is the route to reach it whereby its being authentic and satisfactory may become conspicuous? These are the very questions without solving which no light can be thrown on its spirituality and reality. So, the first thing in this connection is that the chain of authenticity of the Darul Uloom starts with the great traditionist of India, Hazrat Imam Shah Waliyullah Dehlwi whose continuous chain of authenticity reaches back the Holy Prophet (Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him!). Shah Waliyullah’s knowledge, taste and thought, through the medium of Shah Abdul Aziz, Shah Muhammad lshaq and then Shah Abdul Ghani, reached Hujjatul Islam (the Proof of Islam), Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanautawi and Maulana Rasheed Ahmed Gangohi, who universalized it through this sacred institution, i.e., the Darul Uloom, Deoband. So, undoubtedly, in the teaching of the Holy Book and the Sunnah and in the elucidating and stating of the greatness and veneration of Divine Unity (Tauheed) and apostle hood (Risalat). Shah Waliyullah has had a peculiar color and a remarkable style of explaining, and whose foremost nuclear matter is Divine Revelation (Wahy) and its discernment, which is the basis of his thought. Then in the sphere of teaching and inculcation there is that specialty of expression which appeals to the psychology of every age, and of which there are different constituents which have been working in it as per the Psychology of time. Then this style of thought is not the result of mere rational deliberation or intellectual exercise; it is rather inspirational, the inspirational specialty of which Shah Waliyullah himself has expressed in his monumental work, Hujjatullahil Baligha. It is clear that to present the handed-down (narrated) and traditional religion in the garb of rational arguments, physical expediencies and spiritual secrets and mysteries. To make religion acceptable to the rationalist dispositions of the period by showing it to be the natural religion is the first part of this inspired school of thought that was inspired by Allah into the Shah Sahib’s heart. But after the elapsing of the age of childhood of this era, when the time of the youth of rationalism came and the English power also, having passed through the hidden and machinating stage began to run full gallop in open courses. The said zest too began to dwindle in the same ratio. Rather, when therewith European theories and atheistic thoughts began to arrive in the shape of a rival vis-a-vis religion, and with the crossbreeding of philosophy with science. These theories began to take the form of percepts, sheer reason also lagged behind and perceptivity, launching an attack, scrounged its throne of sovereignty. And now the presenting of anything traditional in the garb of the rational no more remained a guarantor of its being believed so long as it was not put forth in the guise of percepts. It was so because the pace of the time and the straw in the wind were showing that shortly Lenin and Stalin would replace Newton and Goethe, and instead of theoretical philosophy. Sensory and socialism’s and perceptual philosophies were to be founded which would not be prepared to give importance to any theoretical and rational philosophies as long as practical and perceptible factors were not seen working in them. Rather, even the swords of strength and power should not obstruct the throats of this socialistic and sensory ism. Accordingly, swelling like a turkey cock with the pride of perceptible and material powers, Gladstone’s swollen oratory. It was to echo in the British parliament to the effect that “now we have become so powerful that even if the sky wishes to fall down upon us, we will stop it at the points of our bayonets.” Then, after a brief interval. Stalin’s was to reverberate in the atmosphere that “now we have banned the entry of God into the Russian borders”. And (astronaut) Yuri Gagarian, returning safely from his journey to the moon, was to aver: “I, rising above the gravitational center of the earth went on circling in the atmosphere of the sky and witnessed the rising and setting of the sun seventeen times within an hour. But now where their l saw God”. Moreover, in this mean world anti-God and anti-prophet societies were also to be founded merely for the reason that God is invisible to them through bare eyes. God forfends! In sum, in place of the rational gallop, o perceptual race was starting and in place of the faculties of the heart and the mind the sovereignty of the eye of the forehead was to be installed. In other words, that old Judaism, which had divested the Jews of their faith, was to revive again to come before the world and it was this only that they, striking the adz at the very basis of their faith, had fixed the eye to be their deity; and they had said: “0 Moses! We will not believe in thee till we see Allah plainly”(11:55). ‘And we will not acknowledge the divine speech to be divine till we hear Allah’s voice with our own ears’. As though this abnegation had taken the form of a principle that a thing not seen by the eye does not exist; naturally the sequel was that sense had taken the place of intellect and perceptible things the place of rationalism. Hence, they were desirous of seeing with eyes even those spiritualities, which are things to be seen with the heart and are free from and above perceptible form and shape. Hence, it had become insufficient to explain to them a subtle and spiritual reality like religion by bringing it before them merely in a rational shirt, as long as it was not brought forth covered with the mantle of perceptible abject. Thus, even as at the beginning of this age of rationalism the respectable Imam Shah Waliyullah, through divine inspiration, carved the way of rational argument and proof for the stating of religion, at the start of this period of perceptivity. A unique gem in his own fourth academic lineage, Shah Abdul Ghani Muhaddith Dehlwi also, observing this situation of the world, indicated the dress of perceptions, though its practical period began afterwards. Accordingly, this fact becomes apparent from his own (following) incident, which was related by Haji Ameer Shah Khan Khurjawi, a favorite attendant of Qasimul Uloom Nanautavi, before a group of students among whom. This humble writer was also present; that Hakim Nuruddin (Bhervi), the first khalifa (spiritual successor) of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed Qadiani, was one of the pupils of Shah Abdul Ghani, though later on he reneged. After he completed his studios, Shah Sahib told him: “Mian Nuruddin! Books you have already finished; now learn something about remembering Allah”. He replied “Sir! I have read the Quran, l have read the Hadith. What’s remembrance of Allah besides this?” “Nuruddin! You must have estimated from my lectures on Hadith”, said Shah Abdul Ghani, “that l transform the traditional into the rational by the practice of remembering Allah this rational will become perceptible”. The purport of this observation was that by the excess of Sicker (remembrance of Allah) illumination of the heart (Ishraq-e-Qalbi) is achieved and by its luster, along with the realm of spirituality’s, the realities and knowledge’s of the world of perception are also uncovered. The hint was towards this that now it would not be sufficient to present religion theoretically in the rational color till it was not put before the world with arguments of the perceptual style. And perceptible evidences of which there is no other way except self-discipline (Riyazat), spiritual exertion (Mujahada) and excess of Zikr, whereby gnosis, insight and the dignity of divining realities are created in the heart, and theoretical propositions turn into and look as percepts. So, in this stating of religion, Imam Shah Waliyullah had included rational expediencies and mysteries and a particular disciple of his in the fourth generation (Shah Abdul Ghani). Included along with it perceptual and observational arguments and evidences as well, which was the effect of the light of the same divine inspiration and gnostic intuition. But, anyway, this was the same aesthetic and oratorical manner, which, as regards the wisdom of the verses and the traditions, could be effective and appealing to the sentiments of our own people or those individuals who were intellectually proximate. It was, however, not of such argumentative dignity that it could affect a sheer repudiator and a pure antagonist, carrying a hidden negation of the Book and the Divine Revelation in his heart. And who, ab initio, be a denier of the existence of the Creator and, backsliding from the necessity of prophet hood, be unconvinced, from the very start, of resurrection, and may have taken these beliefs to be an amusing old fable. How could then the wisdom and insight born of verse and tradition or of relevance to them be effective upon one who would shy at the very mention of a verse and tradition? Hence it was necessary that without the initial mention of verses and traditions, religion might be presented before him with mere scientific principle in philosophical manners and in the style of the ism of the current period in such a way that, apart from narrative and tradition and apart from their rational arguments and perceptible proofs. Islam might appear before him independently in the form of a philosophy and ism. In the beginning it may not be sensed that this is some revealed religion which is being presented before him but he may feel that this independent, natural, intrinsic philosophy and a System of life without adopting which man can never pass his life pleasantly. And when love of this religion may have started flowing’ somewhat in the straits of his intellect, he may be told at the end that this was the same Islam from which he was shying. Keeping this situation in mind, if the present-day period is seen, then this situation has reached its extreme stage. The war of today is not that of theories; intact it is not of theories even but rather mostly or caption and style of expression. If today a reality is presented with the names of God and the Prophet, peoples free from it, but if the same reality is presented under the captions of civilization, society and worldly benefits. Then not only they deem it worth paying attention to but also consider it acceptable, it means, therefore, that the real enmity is with the names of God and the Prophet, not with their message, provided it is not presented with their names. What else is the upshot of all this but this that in the present-day superficial period all the religious wars are not of realities and events but only of captions. That is, superficiality has come to such a level that meanings and realities apart, the criterion of truth and falsehood has come to depend upon interpretation and interpretative ascription. For instance, it initially the inculcation of a belief comes in the name of a religious tradition or a religion and whatever number of exigencies are laid bare, it will continue to be lost to bewilderment and escape. And if the same is presented under the caption of scientific, philosophical, economic and cultural expediencies, in the form of an ism, then not only that it does not prove to be a means of bewilderment and flight but also becomes worthy of attention and cogitation. As though the world has become an appreciate of words and wearies of meaning. Hence, its reformation too is possible through percepts and verbal captions only, provided those words be of the same meanings which are meant to be instilled into their hearts. So, for treating the spiritual patients of this period rose up from the fifth academic generation of the same Waliyllahian family an individual whom on the afore-said line, presented from the very start the faith and religion. Religious beliefs and religious principles and universals, under the impulsion of the same divine inspiration, without mentioning the names of Quran and Hadith or religion and community (Miltat), in such an argumentative and logical style of expression as if he were presenting, as per the condition of the times. A strong and firm is in the external caption of which initially was neither the proclamations of religion nor the information of the Invisible, but finally it was the same religion and the belief of the Unseen. But he presented it in such a manner as if it were the inculcation of a pure philosophical ism without believing which neither the social life could be maintained in the right way nor politics and civilization nor life-after-death could be firm and successful. So he laid the foundation of a new perceptual philosophy and knowledge. We remember this individual as Qasimul Uloom Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanautavi (may Allah have mercy on him’), who was the pith of the sciences of Shah Waliyllah, Shah Abdul Aziz, Shah Mohammad lshaq and Shah Abdul Ghani and the quintessence of their religious discernment. And the same deposit that he had taken from the Waliyullahian era, he put forth before the world in a philosophical manner opposite to the condition or this period. Accordingly, in view of the mentality of the period, verses and traditions or religions technical terms are not initially mentioned anywhere on the surface in Qasimul Uloom’s writings and compilations though in reality they are nothing but verses and traditions. Rather, remarkably the interpretative part as regards form consists of argumentative forms, demonstrative proofs and perceptual evidences and illustrations, whereas the internal part, in respect of meanings and imports, consists of the realities of faith, gnostic bonds and apocalyptic and manifestative qualities. So Qasimul Uloom has reflected the splendor of verses and traditions in the mirror of the indisputable questions (Musallamat) and objects of sense of this era, but through philosophical argumentation and logical style of affirmation, in such a way as if an independent philosophy of life were being presented. In the end, however, it is disclosed that this is very much the same Islam by the name of which the world had been bewildered. Thus, it becomes manifest to them that they were quarrelling over only names and captions and they had not got even the wind of the matter, though by nature they were not far from reality. But when by this philosophical style the reality became evident to them, finally the same caption which Allah Lord of honor had coined for this reality was put on it —-i.e., Islam which Shah Waliyullah and his predecessors had presented. It was this reason Maulana Ubaydullah Sindhi used to say that the only ladder to Shah Waliyullah’s philosophy is the Qasimi’s philosophy without climbing which one cannot reach the Waliyullahian proofs adequately. So the sciences Shah Waliyullah presents in an aesthetic and apocalyptic color, Qasimul Uloom brings them out in an argumentative color. The former, in fine, does not let the familiar but skeptic persons become repudiators while the latter convinces the repudiators and pure atheists; the former, under verses and traditions, explains them philosophically. While the latter, by his philosophy, brings the backsliders to the door of verses and traditions to ease their entry into the palace of religion, provided, of course, this philosophy reaches or is conveyed to them. And even as the Waliyullahian philosophy is inspired, the Qasmi’s philosophy too is inspired and is a treasure of afflatus. And even as regards the Waliyullahian philosophy its propounder him-self has made it explicit in his writing that it is theopneustic and not the outcome of mental gymnastics. The elucidation and clarification of which has already been quoted from his writing; about the Qasmi’s philosophy too the clarifications of its propounder are present in his works. Anyway, it is one and the same afflatus (Hikmat-e-Ladunni); when it descended upon Shah Waliyullah through divine inspiration, it put on the garb of rational color in the stating of religion when it came to Shah Abdul Ghani, and it indicated the performance of percepts. And when it was experienced by Qasimul Uloom, it took the form of perceptible objects instead of intuitive things and in that too it clothed itself with a ratiocinative dress; and in tune with the changing mentality of the times. This afflatus too went on changing different attires, the common value of which is divine inspiration and intuition. The same intuition (Ilqa), through divine providence, went on forming and developing the mind of these august men; but since Maulana Nanautavi had derived benefit from and been trained by all of them, he proved to be the quintessence of the knowledge and philosophy of all these elders. Thus he became the most accomplished exponent of the tack (Maslak) of the Ahl-e-Sunnah wal Jama’ah. And from time to time, presented the sciences of this tack sometimes in the rational color, sometimes in the perceptional and sometimes in his convincing dialectical method, in his teaching and inculcation, books and lectures. Wherefore this tack came before the world in a comprehensive manner; and its comprehensiveness too became conspicuous that it combines the traditional with the rational, the rational with the perceptional, and the perceptional with the dialectical color. It is for this reason that in the Qasimul Uloom’s knowledge there is knowledge with gnosis, expediency with command, the traditional with the rational, the rational with the perceptional, benefits with the law. The spiritual path (Tariqat) with the high road (Shari’at) of religion, consciousness of divine observation (Ehsan) with faith (Iman), defense of religion with its affirmation; that is, combining the sentiments of the grandeur of religion with religion. He presented it in the form of a compounded electuary with a life giving antidotal color, which comprised realities sprung from the head-spring of pure inspiration. Allah Most High, with His unbounded bounty and favor upon him, had made his physical nature itself such that if he proves one small proposition (Mas’ala) it appears in the garb of a general principle which settles not one but hundreds of other details. It is obvious that when, in his time, Qasimul Uloom alone was the sole originator of the basic idea of the Darul Uloom Deoband, as has been evidenced by his pupils, compeers and elders. It was but ineluctable for this inspirational aspect to come to the fore in the tack of the Darul Uloom, and it did. And thereby it became clear that its tack, central thought and religious tendency were not the outcome of cogitation but were a drop from the overflowing sea of divine inspiration. So if it were said, then it can be said without the fear of the blamer’s blame that Deobandism is firstly Waliyullahism and secondly Qasimism, and that it is not merely the name of teaching and learning. And in view of the combination of the afore-said academic connections, it can be said that it is not merely a Madrasah but it is a Madrasah of though in the modern technical term, a school of thought. Thus it becomes evident that Deobandism is neither a creed (Mazhab) nor a sect, terms by which its antagonists try to incite the masses against it. But it is a comprehensive picture and a complete edition of the tack of the Ahl-e-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah in which all he offshoots of the Ahl-e-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah are seen joined with their root. What a fine succinct sentence the Poet of the East, the late Dr. Sir Shaikh Mohammad lqba!-and it be seemed him alone-had spoken about Deobandism! When someone asked him, “What thing is the Deobandi, a creed or a sect”? He replied: “It’s neither a creed nor a sect; Deobandi is the name of every rationalist religious man”. At all events, the central thought and fundamental religious orientation or tack of the Madrasah of Deoband is a comprehensive, moderate and versatile tack of the Ahl-e-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah in which, by the combination of the Sunnah and the Jama’ah (group). The principle of religion, which is the Holy Book and the Sunnah, and respect for the religious personalities-jurisprudents (Fuqaha), traditionists (Muhaddethin), school doctors (Mutakallemin), professional commentators of the Quran (Mufasserin), Sufis, fundamentalists (Usuliyeen) and divine doctors (Ulma-e-Rabbaniyeen) -both have combined. Neither departing from principle there is invention, novelty and renewal so that the door of heresies (Bid’at) and innovations may be opened, nor breaking away from the religious personalities. There is self-esteem and opinionatedness whereby the gate of pride, presumption, self-conceit and haughtiness may be set ajar, and “the greatness of the pious predecessors and the just posterity may become chimerical. So, the prevention of the first disease is done with the world ‘Al-Sunnah’ and the second disease is averted by the word ‘AI-Jama’ah’, and thus this comprehensive and moderate tack cleansed of all diseases, has reached us intact through Madrasah of Deoband and other Madaris of similar nature. Otherwise in whichever tack there is excess and deficiency, it is either due to the absence of both these words, Al-Sunnah and AI-Jama’ah, or the lack of one of them. If there be no Sunnah, it will become a tack of heresies and innovations, and if AI-Jama’ah be missing, it will become a tack of self-opinion, freethinking and presumptuousness and the result of these two shortcomings is excess and deficiency." 52,"False Allegations against Deobandi Ulama: ANSWERED",5550,637,636,"The false propaganda against and blatant fabrications about our highly acclaimed and respected Ulama of Deoband by the ignorant must be refuted at all costs. Numerous pamphlets and booklets have been written distorting the truth about and writings of our Among the most common pamphlets displayed is ""Tabliqism - one way ticket to Hell"". ""Are these Islamic Beliefs"": in one column is the 'Deobandi Tabliqi Beliefs' and next to it is the 'Islamic beliefs'. However, answers to the allegations have been given in various publications. Therefore, this publication will attempt to print all the false allegations and the correct views. The False Allegation Rashid Ahmed Gangohi, a founder of Deobandi Movement has the following beliefs: 1. The Almighty Allah can speak a lie. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 1 pg. 20) 2. Allah has already spoken a lie (Taqseedul Qadeer pg. 79). The Truth The view of Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi Saheb is that Allah is far above and pure from being attributed with falsehood. There is no blemish of falsehood in His words at all for Allah says, 'Who is more truthful than Allah in speech.' He who believes that Allah speaks a lie is an accursed outright Kaafir and opposed to the Qurãn and Sunnah. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 1 pg. 3) Clarification (I) Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 84: 'From servant Rashid Ahmed Gangohi, after Salaam Masnoon, you have inquired concerning the Masalah 'Imkaane Kizb' (possibility of falsehood). But 'Imkaane Kizb' in the sense that Allah Taãla has the power to act contrary to what He has ordered, but will not to do with His Free Will, is the belief of this servant. The Qurãn Shareef and the Sahih Ahaadith bear testimony to this belief, and this is the belief of all the Ulama of the Ummah too. For example, Firáwn is promised to be thrown into Hell, but Allah Taãla has the power to enter him into paradise, although He will never give him paradise. And this is the Masalah under discussion at the moment. This is the belief of all my friends. The enemies must have related it differently. Referring to this Power and the non-occurrence of it is termed 'Imkaane Zaati' and 'Mumtana bi Ghayr' Was salaam Rashid Ahmad Gangohi. Look, how they lay waiting with vicious, malicious attempts to defame this noble personality. If it is not slander then what is it? To distort the above mentioned Masalah and refer it to Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi Saheb is totally evil and wrong. It is a slander and slander is worse than back-biting, Clarification (II) Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 90: 'That person who believes or utters with the tongue concerning Allah Taãla that ""He spoke a lie"", is positively a Kaafir, an accursed and opposed to the Qurãn, Hadith and the unanimity of the Ummah. He is definitely not a Mu'min. Taãlallaahu ammaa yaqoolu dhaalimoona oluwwan kabeeraa. (Allah is far above from what the transgressors are saying).' The misrepresenter, besides being involved with misrepresentation, has earned the wrath of Allah. Let the Hadith of the Master of the Green Dome once again ring in his ears. 'A person does not target another with impiety or a person does not target another with Kufr, but it returns to the former if the latter is not guilty of it.' (Bukhari) Taqdeesul Qadeer is not compiled by the Ulama of Deoband. In fact there is no such Kitaab by this name. False Allegation The Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) is not the only Rahmatullil Aalameen. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 2 pg. 19) The Truth The view of Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi is that: ''One should know that the attribute of being Omnipresent is the quality of Allah Taãla alone, like All-Knowing, Creator of the Skies and Earths and so forth. Therefore to attribute this quality of being Omnipresent to someone else, though it be a 'Nabi', 'Wali', or Saint, is to ascribe Partners to Allah in His Qualities, which is termed as 'Shirk-fis-Sifaat."" Clarification The word 'Rahmatullil Aalameen' is not a characteristic only of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). In fact other Awliyaa, Ambiyaa and Ulamaa-e-Rabbaniyyeena are also a means of mercy unto the world, although Rasululla (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) is the highest of them all. Therefore, if it is used for others with 'Taaweel' (by elucidation) it is permissible.' (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 96/97) False Allegation To lecture on or discuss the Shahaadat of Hadhrat Imaam Hussayn (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) is Haraam even if the stories are true. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 3 pg. 113) Clarification The incident of the martyrdom of Hadhrat Hussayn (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) who sacrificed his life for the sake of Truth, is surely very important. But the method adopted, like beating the chest, tearing the garment, pulling the hair, slapping the face, shouting slogans of 'Yaa Hussayn, Yaa Hussayn' and taking out processions to parade in the streets, is what Hadhrat Moulana has stopped and said is Haraam.' The reason for stopping this is that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) has forbidden the slapping of faces and the tearing of garments. Therefore to lecture on or discuss the Shahaadat of Hadhrat Hussayn in the abovementioned fashion, with that type of pomp and show, is forbidden in the light of the Hadith. (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 104/105) False Allegation In the month of Muharram, providing free water and feeding people with milk or Sharbat is Haraam. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 3 pg. 113) Clarification To feed the poor and needy and to distribute water free to quench their thirst as 'Isaale Sawaab' is no sin. Neither did Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi nor anyone else say it is Haraam. The Barelvis belief is this, that on the plains of Karbala the martyrs sacrificed their life in thirst. Therefore, the water that is given here as a drink, reaches them. It is common sense, that this water does not reach them, nor are they in need of it. They are in Jannat. If the whole idea is to convey the reward (Isaale Sawaab), the whole year is available for that. No question arises then whether to make 'Isaale Sawaab' or not. The practice mentioned above similitudes the practices of the Rawaafidh; therefore it is Haraam.' (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 147/148) False Allegation Ashraf Ali Thanvi, a founder member of Deoband says: 'The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) has an education like that of children, lunatics and animals of every category.' (Hifzul Imaan pg. 7) The Truth The view of Hadhrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi is that: Hadhrat Moulana was asked, 'Did you in Hifzul Imaan or any other book write anything directly or indirectly comparing the education of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) to that of children, lunatics and animals? If not then what is your ruling regarding a person who holds such a belief?' In reply to that Moulana states, 'Let alone writing such falsehood and filth, my heart had never even perceived such falsehood and verily if anyone holds such a belief he is out of the fold of Islam.' (Faisal-e-Khusoomat pg. 21) Clarification Hadhrat Hakimul Ummah, Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (author of the famous 'Bahishti Zewar') did not write the abovementioned statement in Hifzul Imaan. Nor is it his belief. It is a slander on the said Moulana. In fact Hadhrat Moulana has stated clearly in 'Hifzul Imaan' that, 'Knowledge with regard to the Excellence of Prophethood has been bestowed totally upon Rasul (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) (Hifzul Imaan pg. 12) False Allegation Prophets are not free from sins. (Tasfiyatul Aqaaid pg. 24 - Cassim Nanotwi, a founder of Deoband) Clarification The topic under discussion in 'Tasfiyatul Aqaaid' was this: It was mentioned in the Hadith, in Shaf'at that on the plain of resurrection people will gather with great fear, perturbed and disturbed. They will go to Hadhrat Aadam (Álayhis salaam) and request him to intercede on their behalf in front of Allah Taãla. Hadhrat Aadam (Álayhis salaam) will refuse and say that it is beyond his influence, because of the incident that he ate from the tree of Jannah which was forbidden to him. Hadhrat Aadam (Álayhis salaam) will say, 'Today Allah's wrath is so great that His anger was never great before and will never be so great after' (though Allah Taãla has forgiven him). He will advise them to go to Hadhrat Nuh (Álayhis salaam). In this way people will flock to the other Ambiyaa (Álayhimus salaam). Each one will be fearful and reluctant, for some reason or the other to intercede on behalf of man. At the end when the people will come to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam), Rasul (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) will say, 'Very well, I will intercede on your behalf. I will take permission from my Sustainer and He will grant me that permission.' Hadhrat Moulana wrote that, which was mentioned in the Hadith and not that, 'Prophets (Álayhimus salaam) are not free from sins,' as mentioned in the said leaflet. False Allegation Shaytaan has more education than our Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). (Barahine Qatia pg. 51 - Khalil Ahmad Ambhetwi) The Truth We strongly believe and openly claim that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) was given more knowledge than the entire creation of Allah and it is our belief that whosoever says that anyone has more knowledge than Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) then such a person is a Kaafir. Our great Úlama have already given a Fatwa of Kufr upon a person who says Shaytaan has more knowledge than Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) then how could I ever have written such a thing. (Al Muhnad Allal Mufannad Q&A 18-19) Clarification It is totally incorrect. This sentence is not written anywhere in 'Baraahine Qaati'ah', that 'Shaytaan has more knowledge than Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam).' Moulana Khalil Ahmad (RA) was asked whether he wrote such a statement or not? He replied, 'I did not write such a statement anywhere. It is an open slander on me. On the day of Qiyaamat account will be taken with Ahmad Raza Khan.' False Allegation To read Alhamdu Fateha before eating food is Bidat (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 2 pg. 150) Clarification In order to establish anything in Islam, it is necessary that it be verified in the light of the Shariáh. Unless it is not proven by the Shariáh, it cannot be regarded as Deen. Yes, one may call it a matter of convenience. For example, the use of an electric fan, motor vehicle, etc. The moment a person wants to make it part and parcel of Deen, immediately it will need verification from the Shariáh, whether it be Meelaad, Fateha, Giyaarwi, Urs, Dua-e-Thani, Dua immediately after Janaaza prayer or any other ritual for that matter. And on failing to be verified, it will be regarded as Bidat - innovation. The wickedness of being involved in Bidat is that the Sunnats are automatically left out. As darkness spreads, light vanishes. To read Al-Hamd, Fateha before eating food is not verified and proven in the Shariáh, therefore, it is a Bidat. Regarding Bidat, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) has decreed: 1. ""He who innovates something in this matter of ours that is not of it will have it rejected."" (Bukhari) 2. ""Beware of newly-invented matters! For every invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is leading astray and every leading astray is in Hell-Fire."" (Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi) The 'Masnoon' Duas read by Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) before meals and after meals, should surely be read. Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi (RA) did not stop anyone from this. False Allegation We cannot make Nikah with any person who takes part in Urs, etc. (Fataawa Rashidiya part 2 pg. 142) The Truth Moulana Rashid Ahmed says in Fataawa Rashidiya, ""Taking part in Urs is not an act of Kufr therefore Nikah with a person who takes part in Urs is valid."" Clarification Those who go to the Urs and make Sajdah (prostrate) to the graves, pray for boon or ask for a favour from the inmates of the graves, and make Tawaaf of the graves; to solemnise marriages with them will inculcate these Shirk practices in them and others as well. Therefore, unless they don't make Tawbah and refrain from such Shirk practices, Nikah is not allowed until then. False Allegation Giyaarwi Shareef is Haraam and Kufr, even if Qur'an is read. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 1 pg. 95) Clarification Anything in the name of 'Ghayrullah' (someone other than Allah), whether it be Giyarwi Shareef' or 'Baarwi', is Haraam. This Masalah is found in Shaami, Tahtaawi, Bahrur Raaiq and in many other Kitaabs. On the other hand, Esaale Sawaab is permissible. No one prohibited Esaale Sawaab provided it is done without specifications of time, place and invitation. But look at the beliefs of these people. They have this belief that the distribution of sustenance is entrusted to Peerane Peer (RA). If the Giyaarwi is held back, he will stop the food. False Allegation It is Sawaab to eat crows (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 2 pg. 130) Clarification: Crows are of three types: The first type is that which feeds only on grain. It is exactly like a wild pigeon. It is Halaal according to all Jurists. The second type is that which only feeds on excreta, and prey on other animals. It is exactly like a vulture. It is Haraam according to all Jurists. The third type is that which feeds on grain, eats excreta and it catches and eats mice as well. It is like an uncaged fowl, which feeds on grain, worms and even on mice. Hadhrat Moulana wrote concerning this third type of crow that it is not Haraam. This Masalah of the crow is found in Hidaaya, Durre Mukhtaar, Fataawa Aalamghiri, as well as the other 'Kitaabs' of Fiqh (Jurisprudence). Therefore, should anyone not eat a crow or a fowl for the rest of his life, there is no criticism and blame on him according to the Shariáh. Yes, if he takes it to be Haraam then he will be answerable. Thus whosoever takes it to beHaraam, in order to correct his belief it is a 'Sawaab' and reward to eat it.' (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 492 Rahimia print) False Allegation Almighty Allah Taãla is not always 'all knowing'. He finds out whenever necessary. (Taqwiyatul Eemaan pg. 26). Clarification This is an open Calumny and a False Accusation. This sentence is not written at all in 'Tawiyatul Eemaan' that 'Allah Taãla is not always ""all knowing"". He finds out when necessary. False Allegation The Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) will die and become sand one day. (Taqwiyatul Imaan pg. 69) The Truth The view of Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmed Saheb is that: The meaning of the (phrase) 'to lie on sand' has two meanings. The one is to become soil, the other is the body touches the sand. The latter meaning is meant, and the Moulana (author of Taqwiyatul Imaan) also believes that the bodies of the Anbiyaa (Álayhimus salaam) do not turn to dust. Because a deceased is buried in a grave and he is surrounded with soil all over, his body together with the 'Kafn' touches the sand beneath him is called 'Mitti me milnaa' - to lie on sand. Hence, there is no point of objection. (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg.s 83/84) Clarification In Taqwiyatul Imaan, a Hadith is mentioned in which a Sahaabi (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) told Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) that the people of other places bow out of respect to their Rulers; whereas Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) is more worthy of being bowed to. At this, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, 'Look if you happen to pass by my grave, will you bow to it?' The Sahaabi (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) said 'No, I will not do so.' On this, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, 'So do not bow to me ...' (A Sajdah Taazimi is also forbidden). Commentary: 'I will also die one day and lie on sand (buried); therefore am I worthy to be prostated to?' This phrase 'Mitti me milne waalaa hoo - I will lie on sand' (meaning to be buried one day), became the bone of contention for the Barelvis. False Allegation To think of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) in Salaat is worse than thinking of cows and donkeys. (Siraate Mustaqeem pg. 150) Clarification The abovementioned statement is not found anywhere in 'Siraate Mustaqeem' that, 'To think of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) in Salaat is worse than thinking of cows and donkeys.' That which was written in 'Sarfe Himmat'. This is terminology used by the Sufis in Tasawwuf (the spiritual field). 'Sarfe Himmat' in 'Tasawwuf' means that a person's meditation over a thing becomes so overpowering and predominant that no other thoughts penetrate into the mind and soul. Like a mirror, if a person does not want any person's reflection to come into it, he covers it with a black cloth and thus no reflection will appear. To contemplate over a figure so that no other thing is contemplated is called 'Sarfe Himmat'. This has been forbidden in Salaat, that besides Allah, 'Sarfe Himmat' should not be done towards anyone. Salaat should purely and solely be for Allah alone. If 'Sarfe Himmat' is done towards Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam), then the entire Salaat and Ibaadat will be for him. On the other hand, if any thoughts of cows, donkeys, business, etc. come to mind, or a person gets drowned in these thoughts whilst in Salaat, it is regrettable. There is no fear of it being worshipped. In fact the person regrets that in the course of an esteem Ibaadat like Salaat, he should have such thoughts, Astaghfirullah. The Kitaab, 'Siraate Mustaqeem' is based on 'Tasawwuf'. The objector is not versed in Tasawwuf'. Therefore, he has translated 'Sarfe Himmat' to mean a mere thought. What comes to mind is this; that the Objector presents a picture of a Grade One child, learning to read and write ABC and wishing to interpret the writings of Shakespeare. Moreover, it is stated in the Hadith that Salaat should be performed with full attention. Therefore, when the name of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) is recited in 'Tashahhud' the thought of the Rasul (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) will come and should come. The Salaat will not be rendered incorrect and this is not unlawful at all. The respected Moulana did not stop anyone from this." 53,"Introduction to Darul-uloom Deoband",5551,637,636,"The day of Thursday, 15th Muharram, A.H. 1283 (May 30, 1866), was that blessed and auspicious day in the Islamic history of India when the foundation stone for the renaissance of Islamic sciences was laid in the land of Deoband. The day of Thursday, 15th Muharram, A.H. 1283 (May 30, 1866), was that blessed and auspicious day in the Islamic history of India when the foundation stone for the renaissance of Islamic sciences was laid in the land of Deoband. Seeing the simple and ordinary manner in which it had been started, it was difficult to visualize and decide that a Madrasah beginning so humbly, with utter lack of equipment's, was destined to become the center, within a couple of years, of the Islamic sciences in Asia.Accordingly, before long, students desirous of studying the Holy Book and the Sunnah, the Shari'ah and the Tariqah (the spiritual path), began to flock here in droves from this sub continent as well as from neighboring and distant countries like Afghanistan, Iran, Bukhara and Samarqand, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey and the far off regions of the continent of Africa, and within a short-time the radiant rays of knowledge and wisdom illumined the heart and mind of the Muslims of the continent of Asia with the light of faith (Iman) and Islamic culture. The time when the Darul Uloom Deoband, was established, the old Madaris in India had almost become extinct, and the condition of two or four that had survived the ravages of time was not better than that of a few glow-worms in a dark night. Apparently it so looked at that time as if the Islamic sciences had packed up their kit from India. Under these circumstances, some men of Allah and divine doctors, through their inner light, sensed the imminent dangers. They knew it too well that nations have attained their right status through knowledge only. So, without depending upon the government of the time, they founded the Darul Uloom, Deoband, with public contributions and co-operation. One of the principles that Hazrat Nanautavi (may his secret be sanctified) proposed for the Darul Uloom and other religious Madaris is also this that the Darul-Uloom should be run trusting in Allah and with public contributions for which the poor masses alone should be relied upon. The Darul-Uloom, Deoband, is today is a renowned religious and academic center in the Islamic world. In the sub-continent it is the largest institution for the dissemination and propagation of Islam and the biggest headspring of education in the Islamic sciences. Such accomplished scholars have come out from the Darul Uloom in every period that they, in accordance with the demands of religious needs of the time, have rendered valuable services in disseminating and spreading correct religious beliefs and religious sciences. These gentlemen, besides in this sub-continent, are busy in performing religions and academic services in various other countries also, and everywhere they have acquired a prominent status or religious guidance of the Muslims. The fact is that the Darul Uloom, Deoband, was a great religious, educational and reformative movement in the thirteenth century Hijri. It was such a crucial and crying need of the time that indifference to and connivance at it could cause Muslims to be confronted with inestimable dangers. The caravan that comprised only two souls on 15th Moharram, A-H. 1283, has today in its train individuals from many countries of Asia! For the last one century, the Darul Uloom, Deoband, has been considered an incomparable teaching institution for the religious education of the Muslims not only in the sub-continent but also throughout the Islamic world. Besides the Jam'a-e Azhar, Cairo, there is no such institution any where in the Islamic world that may have acquired so much importance in point or antiquity, resorting, centrality and strength of students as the Darul Uloom, Deoband, has. The foundation of the Darul Uloom had been laid in this obscure, sleepy village of India at the hands of such sincere and august men that within a short time its academic greatness was established in the world of Islam. And it began to be looked upon as the most popular educational institution of the Islamic world, students from the Islamic countries flocking to it for the study and research of different arts and sciences. A large number of personalities, well-versed in the religions sciences, found today in the length and breadth of this sub-continent has quenched its thirst from this very great river of knowledge, and eminent religious doctors (Ulama) have been once the alumni of this very educational institution. It is a fact that as regards the worth of academic services not only in the sub-continent but also in other Islamic countries there is no other educational institution except one or two, that may have rendered such weighty and important religious and academic services to the Muslim community. The achievements of the Ulama of the Darul Uloom in the fields of religion, education, missionary-work and book writing have been acknowledged repeatedly. And the achievements not only in India but also in other Islamic lands, and in the fields especially of guidance and instruction, teaching and preaching they seem to be ahead of all others. In the Muslim society of the sub-continent, the command a high rank and a lofty position. With the tumult of the fame of the Darul Uloom even the academic assemblies of Afghanistan, Bukhara and Samarqand reverberated. Us graduates became deans and principals of great Madaris, and it is an authentic history. And a fact to assert that this spring of grace of the Darul Uloom, Deoband, by virtue of its ethos, has been busy for more than a century. In quenching the thirst of the seekers of knowledge of different sciences and the whole of Asia is redolent with the aroma of this prophetic garden. Among the hundreds of thousands of seminaries in the world of Islam today there are only two such institutions on which the Muslims have relied most of all: the one is Jam'a-e-Azhar, Cairo, and the other is Darul Uloom, Deoband. The religious services both these institutions of learning have rendered to the Muslims are sui generis. These very religious, academic and intellectual services of the Darul Uloom have made it a cynosure in the Islamic world. And what is more astonishing is that the Darul Uloom without being dependent on the government has made all these advancements. The blessings (Barakat) of the Darul Uloom and its universal beneficence are indicating that upon this academic institution a special theophany (Tajalli) of divine and prophetic knowledge has cast its light, which regularly continues to attract hearts towards it. What and how many great achievements the Darul Uloom, Deoband, made, what and how many renowned personalities it produced and how they imprinted the stamp of their service and utility in every field of religious life. All these things you will know by going through this history of the Darul Uloom, Deoband. However much pride and joy the Muslims of the sub-continent express over the existence of the Darul Uloom Deoband, there can be no doubt about its being correct and justified. The history of the Darul Uloom in the present times is a bright chapter in the history of the Muslims effort and endeavor; this great struggle for the survival of religion and freedom of thought cannot be over looked in the history of Islam and the Muslims. Darul Uloom, Deoband, is in fact a shore less ocean from which, besides those of this sub-continent, the seekers of knowledge of the whole of Asia are benefiting. If the history of the Darul Uloom is studied minutely, a perspicacious reader will not fail to see the reality that it is not merely an old-type teaching institution; it is in fact a stupendous movement for the revival of Islam and the survival of the community. The establishment of this seminary in the land of Deoband and its stability is the result of a concerted effort and endeavor of the Muslims of the sub-continent. Service to religion, support to Islam, renaissance of Islamic arts and sciences and their dissemination, and help to the students craving religious knowledge are the special and momentous achievements of the Darul Uloom Deoband. For one hundred and fourteen years it has been rendering, as per the pious predecessors tack, the right-type of academic and gnostic training to the Muslims. Even as Cairo, after the fall of Baghdad, became the center of Islamic arts and sciences, exactly in the same way, after the decline of Delhi, academic centrality fell to the lot of Deoband. And great illustrious personalities rose up from this teaching institution, innumerable scholars were fostered in its laps, and thousands of Ulama, Shaikhs, traditionists, jurisconsults, authors and experts of other arts and sciences were produced here. And, having become an adornment in the firmament of knowledge and action rendered and are still rendering services to religion in different manners in every nook and corner of the sub-continent.The history of the Darul Uloom, Deoband, is a historical chapter on an epoch-making period in the history of Islam as a whole. The long and short of this is that this overflowing ocean of arts and sciences has so far assuaged the thirst of a very large number of the seekers of knowledge, who having become the vernal air, have spread its academic aura in the four corners of the world. Those who benefited from the Darul Uloom are like a luxuriant free the green and fresh branches and foliage of which it is not easy to compute. Darul Uloom Deoband, has been a center of both the Shariah and the Tariqa from the very day of its inception. All the moons and stars in the sky of the Shariah and the Tariqa and knowledge and action that are at the time shining in the sub-continent have been mostly illuminated by this very brilliant sun, and have come out assuaged from this very head spring of knowledge and gnosis. Every one knows that most of the great Ulama of the sub-continent has been the alumni of this very institution. And those who feasted at the dinner-cloth of Darul Uloom are now present in most of the Asian countries, where as well as in the sub-continent and certain other foreign lands. They have enkindled the lamps of the Holy Book and the Sunnah, and have imparted the grace of instruction and guidance to countless people. Darul Uloom, Deoband, has played a great part in investing the Muslims thoughts and views with freshness and sacredness, their hearts with ambition and courage, and their bodies with strength and energy. Its beneficence universal and countless men, to satisfy whose academic eagerness there were no means available, have quenched their thirst from it. At the same time, on the model of Darul.Uloom sprang up many religious and academic springs, each having its own particular many of circle of its benefit and grace. They are all the stars of this very solar system by the light of which every nook and corner of the religious and academic life of the Muslims of the sub-continent is radiant. Very little attention has been paid to this benefit of these ýreligious schools that on account of them the condition of millions of Muslim families has been ameliorated. The Muslims inferiority complex was removed and that through these schools became available to the community innumerable such individuals, who, according to the conditions and time, guided the Muslims in the different aspects of life. Besides their great services in the revival of Islam, they awakened political consciousness among the Muslims and took leading part in the struggle for freedom as a result of which the countries of the sub-continent acquired independence. Even as in the past the Darul Uloom, Deoband, has rendered invaluable services to the cause of Islam, the Muslims and the religious sciences. It is hoped that in future too it will continue to discharge the obligation of inciting the Muslims power of action, of strengthening the faiths and of preaching and propagating Islam. ." 54,"Maulana Muhammad Yusuf Banuri (RA)",5552,637,636,"Moulana Muhammad Yousuf Banuri R.A. was born on the 6th Rabiuth Thani 1326 in the village of 'Mahabatabad' near the railway station of Rashkay in the District of Mardan, West Pakistan. He received his primary education and learnt the recital of the Quraan Kareem at home (Ghari Meer Ahmed Shah, Peshawar') from his father and matenal uncle Moulana Fadhl Hamdan Banuri. He learned the basics of Sarf, Nahw and Mantiq from Moulana Abdullah Peshawari. He then went to Kabul where he studied Fiqh, Usul Fiqh, Mantiq, and Ma’aani etc. from the Qudhi ul Qudhat, Moulana Abdulqadeer, Moulana Saieli Qaleeghawi and other well-versed Asaatiza. For higher education, he went to Darul Uloom, Deoband in 1345 and completed his education there in two years. He studied Dorah Hadith in Dabhel under the great Moulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri R.A., Moulana Shabbir Ahmed Utmani R.A. and other great-learned scholars. After graduation, he stayed for quite some time in the company and service of the learned Shaykh Moulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri R.A. and was his special and close attendant. He benefited tremendously from Shah Saheb. At that time on the wish and insistence of his father, he participated in the Molvi Fadhil examinations at the Punjab University and attained first position, though he disliked this examination, in spite of having time to prepare for it. He then lived for a few years in his home town of Peshawar, and began diligently teaching in Madrasah Rafiul Islam, Baanah Maar'i (The principal of this Madrasah was his maternal uncle Moulana Fadhl Hamdan Banuri R.A.) I was at that time studying Dorah Hadith in Darul Uloom, Deoband. In 1352 (1934 A.D.) when Moulana Anwar Shah Saheb passed away, Moulana Yousuf Banuri came to pay his respects and after staying for a few days returned. Thereafter he was approached by the authorities of Dabhel to teach there, and he accepted the offer. He was appointed to teach Kitaabs on Hadith. His acceptance amongst the students can be gauged from the following incident: Once there arose the question as to who should teach the Tirmizi Shareef. At that time, there were three great Asaatiza of Hadith at the Dabhel Madrasah. Moulana Abdurrahman Amrohi. Moulana Muhammad Badre Aalam, and Moulana Yousuf Banuri. It was decided that the students also be consulted in this matter. As a result, Moulana Yousuf Banuri received 27 votes and the other two Ustaad, 7 and 3 respectively. Marhum Moulana remained the Shaykhul Hadith at Dabhel until the creation of Pakistan and thereafter, at the invitation of the elders at Darul Uloom, Tando Allah Yar, went there. After remaining there for several years he came to Karachi and laid the foundation of' the Madrasah Arabiyyah lslamiyyah, Newtown. Karachi. Before coming to Dabhel, he was Director General of the Jamiatul Ulama - Frontier Province and took an active part in politics. He took interest in politics while at Dabhel too. After the creation of Pakistan, he abstained completely from politics and spent all his time in education and the spiritual and social upliftment of the Ummah. Alhamdulilah, he had great respect and continued to keep his contacts with the elders of Deoband. During his first Hajj (after which he went to Egypt to supervise the printing of the 'Faydhul Baari' and 'Nasbur Raayah') he took the Bay'ah at the hand of Moulana Shafi'uddin Naginwi Makki (who was the Majaaz of Haji Imdadullah R.A.) Moulana Naginwi RA said that there are two great personalities in India, from whomever you wish, seek and attain benefit. The first is Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi R.A. and the other is Moulana Husayn Ahmed Madani R.A. Moulana Yousuf Saheb was more inclined towards Moulana Husayn Ahmed Madani R.A. Moulana Yousuf Banuri R.A. stayed for ten months in Cairo. During his stay there, he wrote many articles on Deoband and its elders for the Egyptian journals and periodicals. During that period, Allama Zahid Al-Kowthari was also living there. Marhum Moulana had a close association with him and benefited greatly from his knowledge. He also introduced the elders of Deoband and their educational works to him. As a result, Shaykh Kowthari requested Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi to grant him permission on his Sanad of Hadith, which Moulana Thanwi kindly did. When Marhum Moulana Yousuf Saheb returned from Egypt he went to visit Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi R.A., who became very impressed with him. Later, Moulana Thanwi R.A. included him in his Majaazeene Suhbat. It was my practice, after graduation, to go to Deoband every year in Sha'baan to participate in the Bukhari Khatam there. Moulana had just returned from Egypt when I was deciding to go to Deoband. He gave me a letter for Moulana Husayn Ahmed Madani R.A., wherein he stated his desire to make Bay'ah at his hands, and requested me to personally hand it to him and bring back the reply. I reached Deoband and delivered the letter to Moulana Madani RA. He replied: 'His matter of Bay'ah is with Moulana Thanwi, and how can.1 repeat it?' I explained the situation to him whereupon he replied: 'When you have time remind me'. (During that time, Moulana was busily occupied in teaching the Bukhari Shareef day and night) On the 29th Sha'baan at half past two at night he completed the Bukhari Shareef. Immediately thereafter, he left for Saharanpur to go to Sylhet. I accompanied him till Saharanpur and reminded him of the answer to the letter. He immediately wrote a reply on the station platform and gave it to me. I delivered the reply to Moulana Yousuf Banuri. The letter was published some months ago in the 'Bayyinaat' monthly. Marhum Moulana had a special proficiency and intellect for writing. He possessed a unique style, and wrote easily without tiring on every subject. At times after writing, he did not re-read the article. Moulana was more proficient in Arabic than Urdu. Besides the 'Basaa'ir wa Ibar' in the monthly 'Bayyinaat' and a few Urdu articles, all his literary compositions were in Arabic. (He was a member of the Majma'ul ilmi Al-Arabi of Damascus). These are some of his main works: 1. Ma'aarifus Sunan, commentary on Tirmizi in 6 volumes. 2. Awaariful Minan, introduction to Ma'aarifus Sunan (not printed). 3. Bughiyatul Areeb fi Ahkaamul Qiblah wal Mahaareeb. 4. Nafhatul Ambar fi Hayatus Shaykh Anwar. 5. Yateematul Bayaan fi Shay'im min Ulumil Qur'aan. He wrote introduction for the following Kitaabs: Faydhul Baari, Nasbur Raayah, Abaqaat, Aqeedatul Islam, Maqalaat Kowthari, etc. etc. Marhum Moulana was very courageous and spoke the Haq. He put forward his outspoken views without fear or hesitation during the reign of every government, saying that one should only fear Allah the Almighty. The 'Basaa'ir wa Ibar' of the Bayyinaat are a clear testimony to his frankness in expressing the truth. May Allah Most High shower him with His abundant blessings. Ameen. Maulana Muhammad Ayyub Jan Banuri Bayyinaat Zulhijjah 1397" 55,"Mufti Mahmoodul Hasan Gangohi",5553,637,636,"Mufti Mahmoodul Hasan Gangohi (rah) was the senior most khalifa of Hadrat Shaykh ul Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhalwi (rah). Life Sketch: Mufti Mahmoodul Hasan Gangohi (rah) was the senior most khalifa of Hadrat Shaykh ul Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhalwi (rah). In addition he was the Head Mufti at Dar ul Uloom Deoband and Mazaahir ul Uloom for many years. Along with the responsibilites of Ifta (Fatwa writing) he taught the 2nd Volume of Sahih Bukhari at Dar ul Uloom Deoband, supervised the running of numerous madaris in India and also compiled Fataawa Mahmoodiyah, a copious reference book on Hanafi Fiqh rulings. A man of extreme piety and learning, he was not only a Faqih and a Sufi but also a Zaahid (ascetic). Every month not only would he return his salary to Dar ul Uloom Deoband, but also add something from his own pocket also. Bayat with Shayh ul Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhalwi (rah): Mufti Sahib gave bayat in 1349 A.H. to Shaykh ul Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhalwi (rah) while he was at Deoband. When he used to sit in the majlis of Hadrat Raipuri (rah) and Hadarat Dehlawi (rah), he used to become very inclined toward the Hereafter. However when Mufti Sahib (rah) used to sit in the majlis of Shaykh ul Hadith (rah), Mufti Sahib (rah) would be so affected, that his own sins and flaws would become manifest to him, as a result of which Mufti Sahib (rah) came to the conclusion that his Islaah (spiritual reformation) would take place only at the hands of Shaykh ul Hadith (rah). This was the first reason of Mufti Sahib (rah) in giving preference to Shaykh ul Hadith (rah) for bayat. The second reason was that in terms of age, the youngest of the saints was Shaykh ul Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhalwi (rah). Mufti Sahib (rah) wanted to be in the khidmat and suhbat of his Shaykh for a long time. When he approached Shaykh ul Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhalwi (rah) he was told to give bayat to Shaykh Husayn Madani (rah). Mufti Sahib (rah) replied that ""Hadrat, I have heard that if one gives bayat to the Shaykh he is inclined towards it results in a better focus and reformation for the disciple"". For some months, Shaykh ul Hadith Maulana Zakariyyah Kandhalwi (rah) did not give bayat. Finally, he said if you are not inclined towards Hadrat Madani (rah) then do istikhaarah, if nothing becomes clear in istikhaarah, then travel to three places: Raipur, Nizamuddin, and Thanhbawan, sit in the majalis and dont say anything."" Mufti Sahib (db) didnt go, so Shaykh ul Hadith then gave him bayat. Khilaafat from Shaykh ul Hadith (rah): In Gangoh there was a woman who had bayat with a Shaykh, when Mufti Sahib (rah) traveled to Gangoh, she came to him and said that ""My Shaykh has passed away, please allow me to give bayat to you"". Mufti Sahib (db) was quite surprised by this. While he and Shaykh ul Hadith (rah) were going to visit Maulana Thanvi (rah), Mufti Sahib (rah) narrated the incident, but had yet to finish when Shaykh ul Hadith (rah) said: ""If she wants to give bayat to you, accept it"". Mufti Sahib (rah) replied ""Hadrat, How can I make someone my disciple?, My intention was that if there is a day when Hadrat Madani (rah) can visit here, so I can inform the woman, that he is coming and she can give bayat to him."" Hadrat Shaykh ul Hadith (rah) replied: ""Dont be shy...if you need to consult with me, just ask, this is my ijaazat (permission)"". Mufti Sahib (rah) did not take this to be an explicit ijaazat from Shaykh ul Hadith (rah) and went to Kanpur. Then Shaykh ul Hadith (rah) wrote him a letter stating: ""I have no news if anyone has made bayat to you or not, if somebody wants to give bayat then give it to him"". Mufti Sahib (rah) repied: ""Hadrat, some people wanted to give bayat to me, however I advised them to approach other scholars. When somebody insisted repeatedly, then I told them 'I dont have ijaazat (permission) to give bayat'. Hadrat Shaykh (rah) replied: ""Perhaps you dont remember that when we were going to visit Hadrat Thanvi (rah), I gave you ijaazat at that time, and any doubts you had I cleared them also"". He wrote also ""One should give advice to people to give bayat to someone else but when others insist then there is no harm in acceding to their request"". Mufti Mahmood (rah) in the view of Darul Uloom Deoband: ""Mufti Sahib received khilafat and 'permission' from Hadhrat Shaikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariya. His residence was always resonant with the 'remembrance' (zikr) of the 'remembrancers' (zakirin). He was very unassuming and hospitable; a man of vast reading, a regular 'rememberer of Allah' (Dhaakir), an 'occupied' (shaghil), large-hearted and generous august man. One is reminded of the ancient Ulema on seeing him. An important peculiarity of his is also this that whatever salary he received from Darul Uloom, he not only returned it to the Darul Uloom every month but also added something to it from his own pocket."" (Extracted from introduction to the ""Ulema of Deoband"".)" 56,"Remembering Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri",5554,637,636,"

Born in Kashmir on 27th of Shawwal 1292 A.H. (November 25, 1875)

Died in Deoband on 3rd Safar 1352 A.H. (May 27, 1933)

The Past five hundred years of Islamic history can not produce the like of Maulana Kashmiri""

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

Who could have explained the excellence of Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri better than the poet of the East, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal? Maulana Kashmiri was the teacher of the teachers and was the personification of Islamic knowledge. The universal message of Islam has always produced individuals that are totally devoted to the Islamic cause and spend their entire lives serving Allah’s mission on Earth. The renowned Muslim scholars have used different methods to convey the message of Islam and fight evil, disbelief, hypocrisy and oppression throughout history. The Ulama of Deoband can truly be credited with preserving the true teachings of Islam, as taught by the Quran and Hadith, and fighting evil and oppression by means of knowledge. Through knowledge, it was believed that the Muslim heart and mind will be reactivated with the same emotions and intentions possessed by his fore fathers, the true defenders of Islam. Amidst this process of safeguarding Islam, Darul Uloom Deoband produced such lofty scholars and elite Muslim intellectuals that had been the glory and honor of the Muslim past. One of these illustrious personalities was Hadhrat Maulana Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri. Mufti Taqi Usmani says: ""A unique kind of happiness would come over my father’s face when the name of Hadhrat Shah Sahib was heard and he would remember him with utmost respect and love"" (Akabir Deoband Kia They?, p. 41). Allama Kashmiri was a favorite of his teachers and students. His peers loved him and one and all came to him to solve those academic misunderstandings that can only be deciphered by one of the most knowledgeable scholar of the times. One remains astonished after reading the accounts of his heightened knowledge, acute memory and profound understanding of Deen. Saints like Maulana Abdul Qadir Raipuri witnessed his excellence and said: ""Indeed Hadhrat Shah Sahib is a sign from the signs of Allah"" (Akabir-e-Ulama-e-Deoband, p. 98). The greatest Islamic scholar and reformer of the Fourteenth century Hijri, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, says: ""According to me, a great proof of the truth of Islam is the presence of Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri in the Muslim Ummah. If there was any sort of crookedness or deficiency in Islam, then Maulana Anwar Shah would not have adopted it"" (Akabir-e-Ulama-e-Deoband, p. 98). When Shah Sahib is considered as a great proof of Islam by none other than the prestigious Hadhrat Thanvi, what more can one say in respect of his virtues? However, the eyes that witnessed his noble personality and countenance never forgot that embodiment of light and erudition. Those who saw him once would be full of Islamic glory and enthusiasm that they can not remain silent, some words, some sentences of their experience must be told to the world. They must inform others that we have seen a unique and divine sign of Allah, so unique that its like can not be found in the past five hundred years of Islamic history. Accordingly, we find praise of Shah Sahib on the lips of generation after generation of Muslims, who have recognized what he is and what he did. His profound personality claims that he should be remembered and his teachings, which are nothing more than the explanation of the Quran and the Hadith, should be exhibited in actions, fortified on paper and shared in public. He was a tree from the original garden of Islam, a flower from the initial bouquet of Deen. His academic peers belonged in the early days of Islam as Syed Ata’ullah Bukhari has said: ""The caravan of the Sahaba was trekking and Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiri was left behind"" (Akabir-e-Ulama-e-Deoband, p. 99) Left behind for who and to accomplish what? He was a glory from the early glories of Islam that been saved by Allah to educate the creation of Allah in Deen and defend Islam from all enemies. If anybody tries to misinterpret the Quran, his Mushkilatul Quran is there to defend the Quran. Those who misconstrue the Ahadith, his famous Arabic book Faydh al-Bari and the Urdu book Anwarul Bari, both commentaries of Saheeh Al-Bukhari, are there to shield the sayings of the Most Revered Rasul (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam). His books on Islamic jurisprudence in the light of Imam Abu Hanifa’s school of thought are the cause of his permanent place of respect and honor in the hearts of all Hanafis. He expressed his loyalty to the Seal of all Prophets (Sallalahu Alayhi Wasallam) by writing Khatimun Nabi’een. He proved to all Christians of the world that the real admirers of Jesus the Son of Mary are the Muslims and rebuffed the claims of the false Messiah of Qadian by writing Aqeedatul Islam fi Hayatul Eisa Alayhis Salam and At-Tasreeh bi ma Tawattar fi Nazool al-Maseeh. Mujaddid-e-Millat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi says: ""When Hadhrat Shah Sahib would come and sit next to me, my heart would feel the pressure of the greatness of his knowledge"" (Millat-e-Islam ki Muhsin Shakhsiaat, p. 185). Hadhrat Shah Sahib’s knowledge was of such a unique nature that it even impressed great Ulama like Hadhrat Thanvi. Maulana Habibur Rahman Azami would always refer to Allama Kashmiri as a mobile library. Mufti Taqi Usmani writes: ""My respected father often said that Allah had blessed Hadhrat Shah Saheb with proficiency in all types of knowledge and skills"" (Akabir Deoband Kia They?, p.44). Hadhrat Shah Saheb was such that no Earthly power could distract him from his favorite endeavor and lifelong engagement: reading and researching. After reading accounts of his life from those who were around him, it seems that he spend majority of his life reading books and extracting knowledge from them as if he had nothing else to do. However, he was not only a teacher of Hadith sciences at Darul Uloom Deoband, but the Head of all Teachers (Sadr al-Mudarris as called in Urdu); he has authored numerous books, he actively participated in the Khatme Nubuwwat Movement, served the Islamic cause in politics by his official position at Jamiatul Ulama-e-Hind and raised a family of which his two sons, Maulana Anzar Shah Kashmiri and Maulana Azhar Shah Kashmiri, are well-know for following the footsteps of their distinguished father. Despite all these engagements, he was always found by his students in front of a book. He would never touch a book without Wudhu (Ablution) and would always sit respectfully in front of religious books. Allama Kashmiri had high respect for knowledge and books, the sources of knowledge. If a book has notes on its sides, he would move himself to read the side notes rather than moving the book. What great respect he had for divine knowledge! As a result of this tremendous reverence for religious books, Allah favored him with a matchless knowledge and unparalleled understanding. Mufti Muhammad Shafi has said: ""One time, Hadhrat Shah Saheb was extremely sick and his illness had been prolonging. During this time, a false rumor of the demise of Hadhrat Shah Saheb spread at the time of Fajr Salah. It was as if lightning had struck us, and right after the Fajr prayer we all rushed to his house along with Allama Shabir Ahmad Usmaani. Upon arriving at his house, we found out that the news of his demise was false. However, his sickness had remained. When we all entered the room of Hadhrat, we found him sitting at his prayer place and in front of him lay a book on a pillow, which he was studying while bending down because of the lack of light. His students were perturbed at this scene, because studying in this posture could increase his illness. Hence, Allama Shabir Ahmad Usmani willingly said: ‘Hadhrat! We can not understand this. How can there still be an academic discourse that has not been studied by you? If there is some discourse that you are unaware of and should study it, what is the urgent need to know it right now and why can not this study be postponed until you feel better? If it is really urgent, then are not we here at your disposal? You could have told any of us and we would have read this material and informed you of the content. This academic endeavor and labor of yours in this poor health can not be tolerated by us’. Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri looked at Allama Shabir Ahmad Usmani for some time with virtuousness and innocence and then replied: ‘Brother, you are right but books also hold a craving, what should I do about this addiction’? Hadhrat Shah Saheb would be engaged in Islamic academic research during the day and night to such a degree as if the world had nothing to do with him. To be bothered by the affairs of the world was outside the capacity of Hadhrat Shah Saheb"" (Akabir Deoband Kia They?, p.43) Allama Kashmiri had mastered all branches of Islamic knowledge and attained a high spiritual status as well. The knowledge of Shah Saheb was not dry, his external condition was so high only because of his lofty internal conditions. After all, he was the Khalifa (successor) of Hadhrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, from whom he benefited in Hadith sciences and Tasawwuf. Maulana Abdul Qadir Raipuri says: ""Once I went in the Sunehri Masjid of Madrasa Aminia (Delhi) and saw that Hadhrat Shah Saheb was engaged in loud Zikr in a room with closed doors. For a long time, he kept on saying: Allah! Allah! Allah! Allah! When going to a market, Hadhrat Shah Saheb would cover his eyes with a piece of cloth in order to avoid the sight of any woman"" (Akabir-e-Ulama-e-Deoband, p. 101). Those who witnessed Allama Kashmiri on Fridays when he used to walk from his home to the Masjid for Juma Salah say that this scene was the practical implementation of Allah’s command: ""Fas-au ilaa Zikrillah"" (meaning ""Hasten towards the remembrance of Allah""). His students have reported that the words ""Hasbuna-Allah"" (meaning ""Allah suffices for us"") would always be on his tongue. How fortunate were people like Mufti Muhammad Shafi, Maulana Muhammad Idris Kandhlavi, Maulana Badr Alam Merathi, Maulana Syed Manazir Ahsan Gilani, Maulana Yusuf Binori, Maulana Hifzur Rahman Seuhari, Mufti Muhammad Hasan Amritsari, Maulana Ather Ali Silhati, and Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi to satisfy their natural thirst for divine wisdom from this marvelous fountain of knowledge and illumination. His students saw in his practice all those teachings that were in his speeches and lessons. The student that benefited most from the teachings of Hadhrat Shah Saheb was Allama Shabir Ahmad Usmani. Maulana Syed Ahmad Reda Saheb Bijnauri says: ""During my sixteen years in the Majlise Ilmi of Dhabeel (where Allama Kashmiri for many years), I arrived at the conclusion that it was Allama Shabir Ahmad Usmani who had benefited from the knowledge and virtues of Hadhrat Maulana Kashmiri. Maulana Shabir Ahmad Usmani would turn towards Shah Saheb in all academic difficulties and questions and would study and research day and night. He has extensively drawn from Hadhrat Shah Saheb in his commentary of the Noble Quran (Tafseer-e-Usmaani) and his celebrated work Fat’h al-Mulhim (commentary of Saheeh Muslim)"" (Anwarul Bari, v.2, p.234). Maulana Anwar Shah Saheb had the utmost respect for his teachers and elders and Darul Uloom Deoband. Allama Kashmiri says: ""We came here, to Hindustan, from Kashmir and saw Deen in Hadhrat Gangohi. After the demise of Hadhrat Gangohi, we learned Deen from Shaikhul Hind and Hadhrat Raipuri. And now, the practice of religion can be seen in the company of Hadhrat Hakeemul Ummat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi"" (Akabir-e-Ulama-e-Deoband, p. 101). Maulana Muhammad Idrees Kandhlavi would call Hadhrat Allama Kashmiri the Imam Zuhri of our times. He used to say: ""The memory of Hadhrat Shah Saheb was such that if he read or heard something one time, that would not be wasted and would be safeguarded and protected in his memory"" (Akabir-e-Ulama-e-Deoband, p. 99). Shaikhul Islam Maulana Shabir Ahmad Usmani says: ""If a native of Egypt or Syria was to ask me: ‘Have you seen Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalaani, Shaykh Taqiuddin Ibn Daqeeq Al-Eid and Shaykh Azeezuddin bin Abdus Salaam?’ I would say yes because I have seen Allama Kashmiri. The only difference is in the times, if he lived in the Sixth or Seventh Islamic centuries, accounts of his life and times, qualities and virtues would have reached us in the same manner (as the above mentioned personalities). The day Shah Saheb died, I felt as if today Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalaani, Shaykh Taqiuddin and Shaykh Azeezuddin have demised"" (Akabir-e-Ulama-e-Deoband, p. 98). Maulana Syed Ahmad Reda Saheb Bijnauri writes: ""The Dars (lesson) of Hadith by Hadhrat Shah Saheb would be similar to that of the earlier Muhaditheen (Scholars of Hadith). His lesson would begin from explanation of the time of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) to the times of Sahaba and Tabi’een to the Imams of Ijtihad to the great Muhaditheen and all would include all arguments made on the subject under discussion by scholars to the very present-day"" (Anwarul Bari, v.1, p.9). Once Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi sat in a lecture of Allama Kashmiri. After hearing this lecture, Hadhrat Thanvi said: ""Every sentence of Shah Saheb can be turned in to a book"" (Anwarul Bari, v.2, p.235). Hadhrat Thanvi also says: ""I have benefited so much from Hadhrat Shah Saheb that his respect in my heart occupies the same place the respect of my other teachers occupy, although I have not been his student"" (Anwarul Bari, v.2, p.235). This is the humility of Hadhrat Thanvi, who was called in his very lifetime Mujaddide Millat (The Great Reformer of the Muslim Nation). Hadhrat Shah Saheb certainly benefited from Hadhrat Thanvi as well, it was after reading Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi’s Urdu translation of the Quran that Shah Saheb became inspired to read the great oceans of Islamic literature in the Urdu language. After the demise of this great scholar and saint of Islam, the Ulama of Darul Uloom Deoband considered themselves as orphans. They confessed that we will answer the questions of the public, but who will answer our questions? Who will fulfill our thirst for knowledge? Allama Rasheed Reda Al-Misri called Darul Uloom Deoband the Azhar of India and regarding Hadhrat Kashmiri, he says: ""I have never seen a more distinguished scholar than Hadhrat Shah Saheb"" (Anwarul Bari, v.2, p. 237). The life of Hadhrat Maulana Muhammad Anwar Shah Saheb Kashmiri is certainly full of examples and lessons for us. May Allah give us the ability to follow the beloved of Allah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and those who colored themselves with his beautiful life. Ameen." 57,"The False Allegations Against the Ulema of Deoband",5555,637,636,"The false propaganda against and blatant fabrications about our highly acclaimed and respected Ulama of Deoband by the ignorant must be refuted at all costs. Numerous pamphlets and booklets have been written distorting the truth about and writings of our distinguished Ulama.

Among the most common pamphlets displayed is ""Tabliqism - one way ticket to Hell"". ""Are these Islamic Beliefs"": in one column is the 'Deobandi Tabliqi Beliefs' and next to it is the 'Islamic beliefs'. However, answers to the allegations have been given in various publications. Therefore, this publication will attempt to print all the false allegations and the correct views.
Numerous pamphlets and booklets have been written distorting the truth about and writings of our distinguished Ulama.

The false propaganda against and blatant fabrications about our highly acclaimed and respected Ulama of Deoband by the ignorant must be refuted at all costs. Numerous pamphlets and booklets have been written distorting the truth about and writings of our distinguished Ulama.

Among the most common pamphlets displayed is ""Tabliqism - one way ticket to Hell"". ""Are these Islamic Beliefs"": in one column is the 'Deobandi Tabliqi Beliefs' and next to it is the 'Islamic beliefs'. However, answers to the allegations have been given in various publications. Therefore, this publication will attempt to print all the false allegations and the correct views.


The False Allegation
Rashid Ahmed Gangohi, a founder of Deobandi Movement has the following beliefs:
1. The Almighty Allah can speak a lie. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 1 pg. 20)
2. Allah has already spoken a lie (Taqseedul Qadeer pg. 79).

The Truth and Clarification
The view of Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi Saheb is that Allah is far above and pure from being attributed with falsehood. There is no blemish of falsehood in His words at all for Allah says, 'Who is more truthful than Allah in speech.' He who believes that Allah speaks a lie is an accursed outright Kaafir and opposed to the Qurãn and Sunnah. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 1 pg. 3)

Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 84: 'From servant Rashid Ahmed Gangohi, after Salaam Masnoon, you have inquired concerning the Masalah 'Imkaane Kizb' (possibility of falsehood). But 'Imkaane Kizb' in the sense that Allah Taãla has the power to act contrary to what He has ordered, but will not to do with His Free Will, is the belief of this servant. The Qurãn Shareef and the Sahih Ahaadith bear testimony to this belief, and this is the belief of all the Ulama of the Ummah too. For example, Firáwn is promised to be thrown into Hell, but Allah Taãla has the power to enter him into paradise, although He will never give him paradise. And this is the Masalah under discussion at the moment. This is the belief of all my friends. The enemies must have related it differently. Referring to this Power and the non-occurrence of it is termed 'Imkaane Zaati' and 'Mumtana bi Ghayr' Was salaam Rashid Ahmad Gangohi.

Look, how they lay waiting with vicious, malicious attempts to defame this noble personality. If it is not slander then what is it?

To distort the above mentioned Masalah and refer it to Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi Saheb is totally evil and wrong. It is a slander and slander is worse than back-biting.

Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 90: 'That person who believes or utters with the tongue concerning Allah Taãla that ""He spoke a lie"", is positively a Kaafir, an accursed and opposed to the Qurãn, Hadith and the unanimity of the Ummah. He is definitely not a Mu'min. Taãlallaahu ammaa yaqoolu dhaalimoona oluwwan kabeeraa. (Allah is far above from what the transgressors are saying).'

The misrepresenter, besides being involved with misrepresentation, has earned the wrath of Allah. Let the Hadith of the Master of the Green Dome once again ring in his ears. 'A person does not target another with impiety or a person does not target another with Kufr, but it returns to the former if the latter is not guilty of it.' (Bukhari)

Taqdeesul Qadeer is not compiled by the Ulama of Deoband. In fact there is no such Kitaab by this name.



False Allegation
The Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) is not the only Rahmatullil Aalameen. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 2 pg. 19)

The Truth and Clarification
The view of Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi is that: ''One should know that the attribute of being Omnipresent is the quality of Allah Taãla alone, like All-Knowing, Creator of the Skies and Earths and so forth. Therefore to attribute this quality of being Omnipresent to someone else, though it be a 'Nabi', 'Wali', or Saint, is to ascribe Partners to Allah in His Qualities, which is termed as 'Shirk-fis-Sifaat.""

The word 'Rahmatullil Aalameen' is not a characteristic only of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). In fact other Awliyaa, Ambiyaa and Ulamaa-e-Rabbaniyyeena are also a means of mercy unto the world, although Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) is the highest of them all. Therefore, if it is used for others with 'Taaweel' (by elucidation) it is permissible.' (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 96/97)


False Allegation
To lecture on or discuss the Shahaadat of Hadhrat Imaam Hussayn (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) is Haraam even if the stories are true. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 3 pg. 113)

The Truth and Clarification
The incident of the martyrdom of Hadhrat Hussayn (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) who sacrificed his life for the sake of Truth, is surely very important. But the method adopted, like beating the chest, tearing the garment, pulling the hair, slapping the face, shouting slogans of 'Yaa Hussayn, Yaa Hussayn' and taking out processions to parade in the streets, is what Hadhrat Moulana has stopped and said is Haraam.'

The reason for stopping this is that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) has forbidden the slapping of faces and the tearing of garments.

Therefore to lecture on or discuss the Shahaadat of Hadhrat Hussayn in the abovementioned fashion, with that type of pomp and show, is forbidden in the light of the Hadith. (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 104/105)


False Allegation
In the month of Muharram, providing free water and feeding people with milk or Sharbat is Haraam. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 3 pg. 113)

The Truth and Clarification
To feed the poor and needy and to distribute water free to quench their thirst as 'Isaale Sawaab' is no sin. Neither did Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi nor anyone else say it is Haraam.

The Barelvis belief is this, that on the plains of Karbala the martyrs sacrificed their life in thirst. Therefore, the water that is given here as a drink, reaches them.

It is common sense, that this water does not reach them, nor are they in need of it. They are in Jannat. If the whole idea is to convey the reward (Isaale Sawaab), the whole year is available for that. No question arises then whether to make 'Isaale Sawaab' or not. The practice mentioned above similitudes the practices of the Rawaafidh; therefore it is Haraam.' (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 147/148)


False Allegation
Ashraf Ali Thanvi, a founder member of Deoband says: 'The Holy Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) has an education like that of children, lunatics and animals of every category.' (Hifzul Imaan pg. 7)

The Truth and Clarification
The view of Hadhrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi is that: Hadhrat Moulana was asked, 'Did you in Hifzul Imaan or any other book write anything directly or indirectly comparing the education of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) to that of children, lunatics and animals? If not then what is your ruling regarding a person who holds such a belief?' In reply to that Moulana states, 'Let alone writing such falsehood and filth, my heart had never even perceived such falsehood and verily if anyone holds such a belief he is out of the fold of Islam.' (Faisal-e-Khusoomat pg. 21)

Hadhrat Hakimul Ummah, Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (author of the famous 'Bahishti Zewar') did not write the abovementioned statement in Hifzul Imaan. Nor is it his belief. It is a slander on the said Moulana. In fact Hadhrat Moulana has stated clearly in 'Hifzul Imaan' that, 'Knowledge with regard to the Excellence of Prophethood has been bestowed totally upon Rasul (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) (Hifzul Imaan pg. 12)


False Allegation
Prophets are not free from sins. (Tasfiyatul Aqaaid pg. 24 - Cassim Nanotwi, a founder of Deoband)

The Truth and Clarification
The topic under discussion in 'Tasfiyatul Aqaaid' was this: It was mentioned in the Hadith, in Shaf'at that on the plain of resurrection people will gather with great fear, perturbed and disturbed. They will go to Hadhrat Aadam (Álayhis salaam) and request him to intercede on their behalf in front of Allah Taãla. Hadhrat Aadam (Álayhis salaam) will refuse and say that it is beyond his influence, because of the incident that he ate from the tree of Jannah which was forbidden to him. Hadhrat Aadam (Álayhis salaam) will say, 'Today Allah's wrath is so great that His anger was never great before and will never be so great after' (though Allah Taãla has forgiven him). He will advise them to go to Hadhrat Nuh (Álayhis salaam). In this way people will flock to the other Ambiyaa (Álayhimus salaam). Each one will be fearful and reluctant, for some reason or the other to intercede on behalf of man. At the end when the people will come to Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam), Rasul (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) will say, 'Very well, I will intercede on your behalf. I will take permission from my Sustainer and He will grant me that permission.'

Hadhrat Moulana wrote that, which was mentioned in the Hadith and not that, 'Prophets (Álayhimus salaam) are not free from sins,' as mentioned in the said leaflet.


False Allegation
Shaytaan has more education than our Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam). (Barahine Qatia pg. 51 - Khalil Ahmad Ambhetwi)

The Truth and Clarification
We strongly believe and openly claim that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) was given more knowledge than the entire creation of Allah and it is our belief that whosoever says that anyone has more knowledge than Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) then such a person is a Kaafir. Our great Úlama have already given a Fatwa of Kufr upon a person who says Shaytaan has more knowledge than Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) then how could I ever have written such a thing. (Al Muhnad Allal Mufannad Q&A 18-19)

It is totally incorrect. This sentence is not written anywhere in 'Baraahine Qaati'ah', that 'Shaytaan has more knowledge than Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam).'

Moulana Khalil Ahmad (RA) was asked whether he wrote such a statement or not? He replied, 'I did not write such a statement anywhere. It is an open slander on me. On the day of Qiyaamat account will be taken with Ahmad Raza Khan.'


False Allegation
To read Alhamdu Fateha before eating food is Bidat (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 2 pg. 150)

The Truth and Clarification
In order to establish anything in Islam, it is necessary that it be verified in the light of the Shariáh. Unless it is not proven by the Shariáh, it cannot be regarded as Deen. Yes, one may call it a matter of convenience. For example, the use of an electric fan, motor vehicle, etc. The moment a person wants to make it part and parcel of Deen, immediately it will need verification from the Shariáh, whether it be Meelaad, Fateha, Giyaarwi, Urs, Dua-e-Thani, Dua immediately after Janaaza prayer or any other ritual for that matter. And on failing to be verified, it will be regarded as Bidat - innovation. The wickedness of being involved in Bidat is that the Sunnats are automatically left out. As darkness spreads, light vanishes.

To read Al-Hamd, Fateha before eating food is not verified and proven in the Shariáh, therefore, it is a Bidat.

Regarding Bidat, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) has decreed: 1. ""He who innovates something in this matter of ours that is not of it will have it rejected."" (Bukhari) 2. ""Beware of newly-invented matters! For every invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is leading astray and every leading astray is in Hell-Fire."" (Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi)

The 'Masnoon' Duas read by Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) before meals and after meals, should surely be read. Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmed Gangohi (RA) did not stop anyone from this.


False Allegation
We cannot make Nikah with any person who takes part in Urs, etc. (Fataawa Rashidiya part 2 pg. 142)

The Truth and Clarification
Moulana Rashid Ahmed says in Fataawa Rashidiya, ""Taking part in Urs is not an act of Kufr therefore Nikah with a person who takes part in Urs is valid.""

Those who go to the Urs and make Sajdah (prostrate) to the graves, pray for boon or ask for a favour from the inmates of the graves, and make Tawaaf of the graves; to solemnise marriages with them will inculcate these Shirk practices in them and others as well. Therefore, unless they don't make Tawbah and refrain from such Shirk practices, Nikah is not allowed until then.


False Allegation
Giyaarwi Shareef is Haraam and Kufr, even if Qur'an is read. (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 1 pg. 95)

The Truth and Clarification
Anything in the name of 'Ghayrullah' (someone other than Allah), whether it be Giyarwi Shareef' or 'Baarwi', is Haraam. This Masalah is found in Shaami, Tahtaawi, Bahrur Raaiq and in many other Kitaabs.

On the other hand, Esaale Sawaab is permissible. No one prohibited Esaale Sawaab provided it is done without specifications of time, place and invitation. But look at the beliefs of these people. They have this belief that the distribution of sustenance is entrusted to Peerane Peer (RA). If the Giyaarwi is held back, he will stop the food.


False Allegation
It is Sawaab to eat crows (Fataawa Rashidiyya part 2 pg. 130)

The Truth and Clarification
Crows are of three types: The first type is that which feeds only on grain. It is exactly like a wild pigeon. It is Halaal according to all Jurists. The second type is that which only feeds on excreta, and prey on other animals. It is exactly like a vulture. It is Haraam according to all Jurists. The third type is that which feeds on grain, eats excreta and it catches and eats mice as well. It is like an uncaged fowl, which feeds on grain, worms and even on mice.

Hadhrat Moulana wrote concerning this third type of crow that it is not Haraam. This Masalah of the crow is found in Hidaaya, Durre Mukhtaar, Fataawa Aalamghiri, as well as the other 'Kitaabs' of Fiqh (Jurisprudence).

Therefore, should anyone not eat a crow or a fowl for the rest of his life, there is no criticism and blame on him according to the Shariáh. Yes, if he takes it to be Haraam then he will be answerable. Thus whosoever takes it to be Haraam, in order to correct his belief it is a 'Sawaab' and reward to eat it.' (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg. 492 Rahimia print)


False Allegation
Almighty Allah Taãla is not always 'all knowing'. He finds out whenever necessary. (Taqwiyatul Eemaan pg. 26).

The Truth and Clarification
This is an open Calumny and a False Accusation. This sentence is not written at all in 'Tawiyatul Eemaan' that 'Allah Taãla is not always ""all knowing"". He finds out when necessary.


False Allegation
The Prophet (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) will die and become sand one day. (Taqwiyatul Imaan pg. 69)

The Truth and Clarification
The view of Hadhrat Moulana Rashid Ahmed Saheb is that: The meaning of the (phrase) 'to lie on sand' has two meanings. The one is to become soil, the other is the body touches the sand. The latter meaning is meant, and the Moulana (author of Taqwiyatul Imaan) also believes that the bodies of the Anbiyaa (Álayhimus salaam) do not turn to dust. Because a deceased is buried in a grave and he is surrounded with soil all over, his body together with the 'Kafn' touches the sand beneath him is called 'Mitti me milnaa' - to lie on sand. Hence, there is no point of objection. (Fataawa Rashidiyya pg.s 83/84)

In Taqwiyatul Imaan, a Hadith is mentioned in which a Sahaabi (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) told Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) that the people of other places bow out of respect to their Rulers; whereas Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) is more worthy of being bowed to. At this, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, 'Look if you happen to pass by my grave, will you bow to it?' The Sahaabi (Radhiallaahu Ánhu) said 'No, I will not do so.' On this, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said, 'So do not bow to me ...' (A Sajdah Taazimi is also forbidden).

Commentary: 'I will also die one day and lie on sand (buried); therefore am I worthy to be prostated to?' This phrase 'Mitti me milne waalaa hoo - I will lie on sand' (meaning to be buried one day), became the bone of contention for the Barelvis.


False Allegation
To think of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) in Salaat is worse than thinking of cows and donkeys. (Siraate Mustaqeem pg. 150)

The Truth and Clarification
The abovementioned statement is not found anywhere in 'Siraate Mustaqeem' that, 'To think of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) in Salaat is worse than thinking of cows and donkeys.'

That which was written in 'Sarfe Himmat'. This is terminology used by the Sufis in Tasawwuf (the spiritual field). 'Sarfe Himmat' in 'Tasawwuf' means that a person's meditation over a thing becomes so overpowering and predominant that no other thoughts penetrate into the mind and soul. Like a mirror, if a person does not want any person's reflection to come into it, he covers it with a black cloth and thus no reflection will appear. To contemplate over a figure so that no other thing is contemplated is called 'Sarfe Himmat'.

This has been forbidden in Salaat, that besides Allah, 'Sarfe Himmat' should not be done towards anyone. Salaat should purely and solely be for Allah alone. If 'Sarfe Himmat' is done towards Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam), then the entire Salaat and Ibaadat will be for him.

On the other hand, if any thoughts of cows, donkeys, business, etc. come to mind, or a person gets drowned in these thoughts whilst in Salaat, it is regrettable. There is no fear of it being worshipped. In fact the person regrets that in the course of an esteem Ibaadat like Salaat, he should have such thoughts, Astaghfirullah.

The Kitaab, 'Siraate Mustaqeem' is based on 'Tasawwuf'. The objector is not versed in Tasawwuf'. Therefore, he has translated 'Sarfe Himmat' to mean a mere thought.

What comes to mind is this; that the Objector presents a picture of a Grade One child, learning to read and write ABC and wishing to interpret the writings of Shakespeare.

Moreover, it is stated in the Hadith that Salaat should be performed with full attention. Therefore, when the name of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) is recited in 'Tashahhud' the thought of the Rasul (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) will come and should come. The Salaat will not be rendered incorrect and this is not unlawful at all. The respected Moulana did not stop anyone from this.

" 58,"What is deoband?",5556,637,636,"The Darul-Uloom, Deoband, is today a renowned religious and academic center in the Islamic world. In the sub-continent it is the largest institution for the dissemination and propagation of Islam and the biggest headspring of education in the Islamic sciences. Such accomplished scholars have come out from the Darul Uloom in every period that they, in accordance with the demands of religious needs of the time, have rendered valuable services in disseminating and spreading correct religious beliefs and religious sciences. In The Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful The day of Thursday, 15th Muharram, A.H. 1283 (May 30, 1866), was that blessed and auspicious day in the Islamic history of India when the foundation stone for the renaissance of Islamic sciences was laid in the land of Deoband. Seeing the simple and ordinary manner in which it had been started, it was difficult to visualize and decide that a Madrasah beginning so humbly, with utter lack of equipment’s, was destined to become the center, within a couple of years, of the Islamic sciences in Asia.Accordingly, before long, students desirous of studying the Holy Book and the Sunnah, the Shari’ah and the Tariqah (the spiritual path), began to flock here in droves from this sub continent as well as from neighboring and distant countries like Afghanistan, Iran, Bukhara and Samarqand, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey and the far off regions of the continent of Africa, and within a short-time the radiant rays of knowledge and wisdom illumined the heart and mind of the Muslims of the continent of Asia with the light of faith (Iman) and Islamic culture. The time when the Darul Uloom Deoband, was established, the old Madaris in India had almost become extinct, and the condition of two or four that had survived the ravages of time was not better than that of a few glow-worms in a dark night. Apparently it so looked at that time as if the Islamic sciences had packed up their kit from India. Under these circumstances, some men of Allah and divine doctors, through their inner light, sensed the imminent dangers. They knew it too well that nations have attained their right status through knowledge only. So, without depending upon the government of the time, they founded the Darul Uloom, Deoband, with public contributions and co-operation. One of the principles that Hazrat Nanautavi (may his secret be sanctified) proposed for the Darul Uloom and other religious Madaris is also this that the Darul-Uloom should be run trusting in Allah and with public contributions for which the poor masses alone should be relied upon. The Darul-Uloom, Deoband, is today a renowned religious and academic center in the Islamic world. In the sub-continent it is the largest institution for the dissemination and propagation of Islam and the biggest headspring of education in the Islamic sciences. Such accomplished scholars have come out from the Darul Uloom in every period that they, in accordance with the demands of religious needs of the time, have rendered valuable services in disseminating and spreading correct religious beliefs and religious sciences. These gentlemen, besides in this sub-continent, are busy in performing religions and academic services in various other countries also, and everywhere they have acquired a prominent status or religious guidance of the Muslims. The fact is that the Darul Uloom, Deoband, was a great religious, educational and reformative movement in the thirteenth century Hijri. It was such a crucial and crying need of the time that indifference to and connivance at it could cause Muslims to be confronted with inestimable dangers. The caravan that comprised only two souls on 15th Moharram, A-H. 1283, has today in its train individuals from many countries of Asia! For the last one century, the Darul Uloom, Deoband, has been considered an incomparable teaching institution for the religious education of the Muslims not only in the sub-continent but also throughout the Islamic world. Besides the Jam’a-e Azhar, Cairo, there is no such institution any where in the Islamic world that may have acquired so much importance in point or antiquity, resorting, centrality and strength of students as the Darul Uloom, Deoband, has. The foundation of the Darul Uloom had been laid in this obscure, sleepy village of India at the hands of such sincere and august men that within a short time its academic greatness was established in the world of Islam. And it began to be looked upon as the most popular educational institution of the Islamic world, students from the Islamic countries flocking to it for the study and research of different arts and sciences. A large number of personalities, well-versed in the religions sciences, found today in the length and breadth of this sub-continent has quenched its thirst from this very great river of knowledge, and eminent religious doctors (Ulama) have been once the alumni of this very educational institution. It is a fact that as regards the worth of academic services not only in the sub-continent but also in other Islamic countries there is no other educational institution except one or two, that may have rendered such weighty and important religious and academic services to the Muslim community. The achievements of the Ulama of the Darul Uloom in the fields of religion, education, missionary-work and book writing have been acknowledged repeatedly. And the achievements not only in India but also in other Islamic lands, and in the fields especially of guidance and instruction, teaching and preaching they seem to be ahead of all others. In the Muslim society of the sub-continent, the command a high rank and a lofty position. With the tumult of the fame of the Darul Uloom even the academic assemblies of Afghanistan, Bukhara and Samarqand reverberated. Us graduates became deans and principals of great Madaris, and it is an authentic history. And a fact to assert that this spring of grace of the Darul Uloom, Deoband, by virtue of its ethos, has been busy for more than a century. In quenching the thirst of the seekers of knowledge of different sciences and the whole of Asia is redolent with the aroma of this prophetic garden. Among the hundreds of thousands of seminaries in the world of Islam today there are only two such institutions on which the Muslims have relied most of all: the one is Jam’a-e-Azhar, Cairo, and the other is Darul Uloom, Deoband. The religious services both these institutions of learning have rendered to the Muslims are sui generis. These very religious, academic and intellectual services of the Darul Uloom have made it a cynosure in the Islamic world. And what is more astonishing is that the Darul Uloom without being dependent on the government has made all these advancements. The blessings (Barakat) of the Darul Uloom and its universal beneficence are indicating that upon this academic institution a special theophany (Tajalli) of divine and prophetic knowledge has cast its light, which regularly continues to attract hearts towards it. What and how many great achievements the Darul Uloom, Deoband, made, what and how many renowned personalities it produced and how they imprinted the stamp of their service and utility in every field of religious life. All these things you will know by going through this history of the Darul Uloom, Deoband. However much pride and joy the Muslims of the sub-continent express over the existence of the Darul Uloom Deoband, there can be no doubt about its being correct and justified. The history of the Darul Uloom in the present times is a bright chapter in the history of the Muslims effort and endeavor; this great struggle for the survival of religion and freedom of thought cannot be over looked in the history of Islam and the Muslims. Darul Uloom, Deoband, is in fact a shore less ocean from which, besides those of this sub-continent, the seekers of knowledge of the whole of Asia are benefiting. If the history of the Darul Uloom is studied minutely, a perspicacious reader will not fail to see the reality that it is not merely an old-type teaching institution; it is in fact a stupendous movement for the revival of Islam and the survival of the community. The establishment of this seminary in the land of Deoband and its stability is the result of a concerted effort and endeavor of the Muslims of the sub-continent. Service to religion, support to Islam, renaissance of Islamic arts and sciences and their dissemination, and help to the students craving religious knowledge are the special and momentous achievements of the Darul Uloom Deoband. For one hundred and fourteen years it has been rendering, as per the pious predecessors tack, the right-type of academic and gnostic training to the Muslims. Even as Cairo, after the fall of Baghdad, became the center of Islamic arts and sciences, exactly in the same way, after the decline of Delhi, academic centrality fell to the lot of Deoband. And great illustrious personalities rose up from this teaching institution, innumerable scholars were fostered in its laps, and thousands of Ulama, Shaikhs, traditionists, jurisconsults, authors and experts of other arts and sciences were produced here. And, having become an adornment in the firmament of knowledge and action rendered and are still rendering services to religion in different manners in every nook and corner of the sub-continent.The history of the Darul Uloom, Deoband, is a historical chapter on an epoch-making period in the history of Islam as a whole. The long and short of this is that this overflowing ocean of arts and sciences has so far assuaged the thirst of a very large number of the seekers of knowledge, who having become the vernal air, have spread its academic aura in the four corners of the world. Those who benefited from the Darul Uloom are like a luxuriant free the green and fresh branches and foliage of which it is not easy to compute. Darul Uloom Deoband, has been a center of both the Shariah and the Tariqa from the very day of its inception. All the moons and stars in the sky of the Shariah and the Tariqa and knowledge and action that are at the time shining in the sub-continent have been mostly illuminated by this very brilliant sun, and have come out assuaged from this very head spring of knowledge and gnosis. Every one knows that most of the great Ulama of the sub-continent has been the alumni of this very institution. And those who feasted at the dinner-cloth of Darul Uloom are now present in most of the Asian countries, where as well as in the sub-continent and certain other foreign lands. They have enkindled the lamps of the Holy Book and the Sunnah, and have imparted the grace of instruction and guidance to countless people. Darul Uloom, Deoband, has played a great part in investing the Muslims thoughts and views with freshness and sacredness, their hearts with ambition and courage, and their bodies with strength and energy. Its beneficence universal and countless men, to satisfy whose academic eagerness there were no means available, have quenched their thirst from it. At the same time, on the model of Darul.Uloom sprang up many religious and academic springs, each having its own particular many of circle of its benefit and grace. They are all the stars of this very solar system by the light of which every nook and corner of the religious and academic life of the Muslims of the sub-continent is radiant. Very little attention has been paid to this benefit of these ýreligious schools that on account of them the condition of millions of Muslim families has been ameliorated. The Muslims inferiority complex was removed and that through these schools became available to the community innumerable such individuals, who, according to the conditions and time, guided the Muslims in the different aspects of life. Besides their great services in the revival of Islam, they awakened political consciousness among the Muslims and took leading part in the struggle for freedom as a result of which the countries of the sub-continent acquired independence. Even as in the past the Darul Uloom, Deoband, has rendered invaluable services to the cause of Islam, the Muslims and the religious sciences. It is hoped that in future too it will continue to discharge the obligation of inciting the Muslims power of action, of strengthening the faiths and of preaching and propagating Islam. ." 59,"Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (RadhiALLAHu Anhum)",5557,637,636,"""No one has been a better companion to me than Abu Bakr,"" said the holy Prophet in his last sermon. ""No one has been a better companion to me than Abu Bakr,"" said the holy Prophet in his last sermon.
A great reward indeed! Abu Bakr had earned it. All his life he stood by the side of the Prophet. He did not care for his life. He did not care for his riches. He did not care for what others said about him. His only ambition was to serve the Prophet more than anyone else. The cost did not matter. The ambition was fulfilled. And Abu Bakr got his reward in full. The Messenger of Allah was well pleased with him. He gave him the first place among the Companions. Abu Bakr was to be the first man to fill the place of the Prophet. He was also to lie in eternal rest by the prophet's side.

Abu Bakr was two years younger than the Prophet. His parents named him Abdul Kaaba, which means the servant of the Kaaba. When he became a Muslim, the Prophet changed his pagan name to Abdullah. Howevr, in early youth he had adopted the surname of Abu Bakr. He had come to be known by this name among people. Even to this day, the world generally knows him as Abu Bakr.

The name of Abu Bakr's father was Uthman, but he was known as Abu Qahafa. Salma was Abu Bakr's mother. She was also known as Umm-ul-Khair. Abu Bakr belonged to a branch of the Quraish.

From early years, Abu Bakr was known for good and upright nature. He was honest and truthful. He came of a noble family. These things won him respect among the people. His goodness also won him the friendship of young Muhammad (Peace be Upon him). The two became fast friends in early boyhood. The friendship was to prove lifelong and history-making.

When he grew up, Abu Bakr became a rich merchang. But he used to be very kind-hearted. When he saw someone in trouble, his heart melted. He did his best to help him. If his money could remove suffering, he did not care home much he had to spend. Once he gave away thirty-five dirhams out of his total fortune of forty thousand. He was so honest in his dealings that people kept their money with him. Above all, Abu Bakr had a sincere heart and a firm will. Nothing could stop him from doing what he thought was the right thing to do.

These great qualities were soon to serve the noblest cause known to the world. Abu Bakr was to become the strongest supporter of the Redeemer of mankind. He was to become the first among the Companions. He was to make Arabia and thereby the world safe for Islam after the Prophet has passed away.


Service to the Prophet


First among Men

Abu Bakr was always very close to the holy Prophet. He knew him better than any other man. He knew how honest and upright his friend had always been. So he was the first among men to believe in the Prophet's mission. He was the first adult male to accept Islam. After the first revalation, the holy Prophet told him what had happened at Mount Hira. He told him that Allah had made him His Messenger. Abu Bakr did not stop to think. He at once became a Muslim. Once the holy Prphet himself remarked, ""I called people to Islam. Everybody thought over it, at least for a while. But this was not the case with Abu Bakr. The moment I put Islam before him, he accepted it without any hesitation.""

Abu Bakr did more than that. As soon as he became a Muslim, he began to preach Islam to others. He had many friends. The friends knew that Abu Bakr was sincere and truthful. They knew he would never support a wrong cause. He called them to Islam and they became Muslims. Among them were men like Uthman, Zubair, Talha, Abdur Rahman bin Auf and Saad bin Waqqas. These men later became the pillars of Islam.

The holy Prophet called at Abu Bakr's house every day. The two sad down and thought out ways of spreading Islam. Together they went to people and places and delivered the message of Allah. Wherever the holy Prophet went, Abu Bakr went with him.

Risks His Life

The messge of Islam made the people of Mecca very angry. The idols were their gods. The holy Prophet openly mocked at these gods. He declared they could do neither any good nore harm. Among the chiefs of Mecca was one Abu Jahl. He became the greatest enemy of the holy Prophet. He was always on the lookout to hurt him or even kill him, if he could. Abu Bakr kept an eye on this man, lest he should do a grave harm to Islam.

One day the holy Prophet was saying his prayers in the Kaaba. He was totally lost in the thoughts of Allah. Abu Jahl and some other chiefs of Mecca were sitting in the courtyard of the Kaaba. ""I must finish with Muhammad today,"" said Abu Jahl. So saying, he took a long piece of cloth. He put it around the holy Prophet's neck. Then he twisted it hard. He was going to strangle the Messenger of Allah to death. The other chiefs looked on and laughed.

Abu Bakr happened to see this from a distance. He at once ran to the help of the Prophet. He pushed Abu Jahl aside and took off the cloth from around the holy Prophet's neck. Thereupon Abu Jahl and other enemies of Islam came down upon Abu Bakr. They beat him very much. Indeed, the beating was so severe that Abu Bakr fell down senseless. He was carried home. He could not regain his senses till after several hours. And when he did come to himself, the first question he asked was, ""Is the Prophet un-hurt?"" Abu Bakr did not care for his own suffering. He was glad that he was able to save the Prophet's life. Abu Bakr knew full well that if any harm came to the Prophet, the only hope of mankind would be gone. This made him risk everything he held dear, for the safety of the Prophet and for the spread of his message.


Liberation of Slaves


As years went by, the people of Mecca became more and more hard upon the Muslims. They made life difficult for them. Muslim slaves who had non-Muslim masters were the worst sufferers. They could not run away from their cruel masters, nor would they give up their faith. The heartless masters tried all kinds of torture to make them give up Islam. They made them lie, all naked, on burning sand. Then they put big stones on their chests. The poor slaves silently bore this all. They had no way of escape. Some of them found escape only in death.

Abu Bakr's wealth came to the rescue of many helpless Muslim slaves. He bought them from their inhuman masters and set them free. Bilal, the negro, was one of such slaves. He was the slave of Omayya bin Khalaf. Omayya was a heartless man. He would strip Bilal of all clothes, make him lie on the burning sand at mid-day and then lash him mercilessly. Despite this torture Bilal would go on saying, ""Allah is one! Allah is one!"" One day Abu Bakf happened to pass by. He was greatly moved by the sight. ""Why are you so cruel to this helpless man?"" he asked Omayya. ""If you feel for him, why don't you buy him?"" retored Omayya. So Abu Bakr at once bought Bilal at a heavy price and set him free. Bilal afterwards became the well-known ""Muazzin"" [ one who gives the call for prayer ] at the Prophet's Mosque.


Migration to Abyssinia


When Muslims found life difficult at Mecca, they thought of going to some other land. With the permission of the holy Prophet, a part of them went to Abyssinia. here they lived in peace. So many more Muslims followed them.

Being the first man to go over to Islam, Abu Bakr had brought upon himself the special anger and hatred of the Meccan chiefs. Soon he felt hard pressed and asked permission of the Holy Prophet to go to Abyssinia. The permission was granted and Abu Bakr set off on his journey.

On the way he met the chief of Qara, Ibn-ud-Daghna. ""What place are you bound for, Abu Bakr?"" he asked.

""The people of Mecca have cast me out,"" replied Abu Bakr. ""I am going to Abyssinia. There I will be able to worship the Lord the way I want to.""

""A man like you should not be cast out,"" said Ibn-ud-Daghna. ""You help the poor. You are kind to those in trouble. You are so nice to your guests. I will take you back to Mecca on my own responsibility.""

So Abu Bakr ws back at Mecca. Ibn-ud-Daghna declared to the people that Abu Bakr was under his protection, so no one was to harm him. The Meccans said that they would let Abu Bakr alone, only if he did not preach his faith publicly.

Abu Bakr could not act on this condition very long. Soon he was preaching Islam as openly as ever. The Meccans complained to Ibn-ud-Daghna. He requested Abu Bakr not to make his position difficult. To this Abu Bakr replied, ""I do not need your protection. Allah is enough for me.""


The Title of ""Siddiq""


I n the tenth yer of his mission, the holy Prophet had the Miraj of Ascension. One night the angel Gabriel came with the word that Allah the Almighty wanted the holy Prophet to come all the way up to the highest heaven. The holy Prophet undertook the journey.

In the morning, after the ascension had taken place, the holy Prophet talked to people about the Miraj. This drew the jeers of his enemies.

""Look!"" the howled out, ""what nonsense he talks! Surely, now his followers too will laugh at him. Who is going to believe in such a midsummer night dream?""

The talk was going on when Abu Bakr came up. ""Do you know, Abu Bakr, what news your friend has for you in the morning?"" said one of the mean. ""He says he was on the highest heaven last night, having a talk with Allah, the Almighty. Would you believe it?""

""I would believe anything that the Messenger of Allah says,"" replied Abu Bakr

When the holy Prophet learnt of this, he at once said, ""Abu Bakr is the `Siddiq'."" `Siddiq' is a person so sincere of heart that doubts never mar his love. Abu Bakr earned this title because of his faith was too strong to be shaken by anything.


Migration to Medina


W hen the Meccans were intent on putting out, once and for all, the light of Islam, Allah commanded the holy Prophet to move to Medina. In the burning heat of the midday sun, there was a knock at Abu Bakr's door. He ran to the door and found the Messenger of Allah standing outside. ""I must leave for Medina tonight,"" said he.

""Will I also have the honor of going with you?"" asked Abu Bakr eagerly.

""Of course,"" came the reply. ""Set about getting things ready.""

Abu Bakr was beside himself with joy. ""I have been looking forward to this day for months,"" he exlaimed. ""I have specifically kept two camels to carry us to Medina.""

It was Abu Bakr who made all the arrangements for the historic journey. for three days he and the Prophet lay hidden in the Thaur cave. Abu Bakr's slave tended the flocks of goats near the cave all day and supplied them fresh milk for food. His son, Abdullah, brought news about what the Meccans were doing.

The Meccans were searching for the holy Prophet like mad hounds. Once they came right to the mouth of the cave. Abu Bakr grew pale with fright. He feared, not for himself, but for the Prophet. However, the holy Prophet remained perfectly calm. ""Do not fear,"" he said to Abu Bakr, ""certainly Allah is with us.""

Of all the companions, Abu Bakr had the honor of being with the Prophet during the most critical days of his life. Abu Bakr knew full well what this honor meant. And he did full justice to the trust put in him.


Participation in Battles


A bu Bakr took part in all the battles that the holy Prohpet had to fight. All his life, he fought bravely under the banner of the Prophet. At Ohud and Hunain, some of the men showed weakness. They forgot to do their duty. But Abu Bakr's faith never wavered. He always stood like a rock by the side of the Prophet.

At Badr, one of Abu Bakr's sons, who had not yet embraced Islam, was fighting on the side of the Meccan. Afterwards, when he became a Muslim, he one day said, ""Father! at Badr you were twice under my sword. But my love for you held back my hand.""

""Son!"" remarked Abu Bakr, ""if I had got that chance only once, you must have been no more.""

When peace talks at Hudaibiya were going on, Abu Bakr sat by the side of the Prophet. During conversation, the spokesman of the Quraish ever now and then gave a jerk to the beard of the Prophet, after the Arab fashion. This was too much for Abu Bakr. He took out his sword and looked angrily at the man. ""If that hand touches the beard of the Prophet again,"" he warned, ""it will not be allowed to go back.""

This amazed the Meccan agents. ""What a change in Abu Bakr!"" they whispered to one another. ""He was known for soft-heartedness. How strong and firm he is now become! He is no longer the self-same Abu Bakr.""

Tabuk was the last expedition of the holy Prophet. He was keen to make it a great success. He asked people to help the expedition with whatever they could. This time Abu Bakr beat all past records. He took all his money and household articles and heaped them at the Prophet's feet.

""Have you left back anything for your wife and children?"" asked the holy Prophet.

""Allah and His Apostle are enough for them,"" replied Abu Bakr calmly. Those standing around were stunned. It was impossible to outdo Abu Bakr in the field of service to Islam.

The holy Prophet felt much pleased at this answer. He made Abu Bakr the standard-bearer of the expedition.

Abu Bakr's closeness to the Prophet and his boundless devotion to Islam won him universal respect. Not only was he the first man to accept Islam, he was also the foremost among Muslims to uphold the cause of Islam.


Agent to the Prophet


Mecca fell in the eight year of Hijra. Kaaba was, for the first time, in the hands of Muslims. It had to be cleaned of the traces of idol-worship and the silly practices of pagan days. Hitherto pagan Arabs had done absurd things at the time of Hajj. They went around the House of Allah naked. They did many other foolish and unclean things. All this had to be stopped.

The first Hajj under Islam fell in the ninth year of Hijra. The holy Prophet was too busy at Medina to lead the Hajj himself. So he sent Abu Bakr as his agent. He was to lead the Hajj in place of the Prophet. Ali was also sent with Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr read the Khutba (Sermon) of Hajj. Then Ali stood up and read out to the people the commandments of Allah concerning the idolworshippers. From that year on, they were forbidden to enter the Kaaba.

Ever since he came to Medina, the holy Prophet himself led prayers in the Prophet's Mosque. It was an unusually high office which the Messenger of Allah himself filled. During his last illness, the holy Prophet could no longer lead prayers. He grew too weak to go to the mosque. He had to appoint someone to act in his place. This honor also fell to the lot of Abu Bakr. Aisha, who was Abu Bakr's daughter and a wife of the holy Prophet, thought that the burden was too much for her tender-hearted father. She pleaded with the holy Prophet to excuse here father from this duty. But the holy Prophet did not change his mind.

Thus in the lifetime of the holy Prophet Abu Bakr came to fill the highest office under Islam. One day Abu Bakr was away on some business and Omar led the prayer in his absence. ""This is not Abu Bakr's voice,"" remarked the ailing Messenger of Allah. ""No one but he should lead prayers. He is the fittest person for this high office.""

On the last day of his life, the condition of the holy Prophet became suddenly better for a while. It was early morning. Abu Bakr was leading the prayer in the mosque. The holy Prophet lifted the curtain of his door and fixed his gaze on the worshippers. They were busy in prayer under Abu Bakr's leadership. A smile lite up on the pale face of the holy Prophet. He let go of the curtain, as his weak hand could no longer hold it. But he was happy at the thought that he had chosen the best man to fill his place.


Abu Bakr Elected Caliph


A Critical Moment

The holy Prophet occupied a unique place among his people. He was everything to them. From warring ignorant pagans, he had made them a nation of peaceful, God-fearing people. They were ""dead"" as the Quran puts it and the holy Prophet had ""raised them to life."" So they rightly came to look upon him as the giver of life. Life without him seemed to be an empty thing.

The news of the Prophet's death came as a stunning shock to everyone. How could it be? He had been ill for some days, they all knew. But death was unbelievable. That simply could not be. A huge crows gathered in the mosque. No one knew what to do. There was utter confusion. Omar was so overcome with emotion that he drew his sword and declared, ""If anyone says that the Messenger of Allah is dead. I will cut off his head!""

Things were in this state when Abu Bakr entered the mosque. Finding the holy Prophet better that morning, he had gone a few miles outside of Medina, earlier in the day, but had come back on hearing the sad news. He took his stand in a corner of the courtyard and called out to the people. All eyes were turned towards him. Then he began his famous address:

""O people! If anyone among you worshipped Muhammad, let him know that Muhammad is dead. But those who worship Allah, let him know that He lives and will never die. Let all of us recall the words of the Qur'an. It says, `Muhammad is only a Messenger of Allah There have been Messengers before him. What then, will you turn back from Islam, if he dies or is killed?""

These words of Abu Bakr worked magic. In no time the confusion was gone. The words of the Qur'an swept of all doubts from people's minds. They got ready to face facts.

Election of Abu Bakr

The first problem before the people was the election of a new leader. There had to be a head of the State of things could not work. The need was too urgent to allow delay. Delay might have meant disorder and the undoing of all that the Messenger of Allah had done. The prophet of Allah had died but the head of the state had to live on.

The two big groups among Muslims were the Muhajirin (refugees from Mecca ) and the Ansar (helpers or the people of Medina). The Ansar gathered together at Thaqifa Bani Saida, their meeting place, near the house of Saad bin Abada. The talk naturally centered around the election of a Caliph. Saad, the Ansar leader, stood up and said that the Caliph must be from among them. Many voices seconded him. One man, however, stood up and said, ""But how about the Muhajirin? They have perhaps a better claim."" ""Then let there be two caliphs,"" suggested someone, ""one from among the Ansar and the other from among the Muhajirin.""

Someone told Abu Bakr what was going on at this gathering. He saw the need to act quickly or confusion might set in again. So taking with him a part of Muhajirin he went to Thaqif Bani Saida. He addressed the gathering and said, ""Both the Muhajirin and the Ansar have done great services to Islam. But the former were the first to accept Islam. They were always very close to the Messenger of Allah. So, O Ansar, let the Caliph be from among them.""

To this a man from the Khazraj tribe replied, ""If you don't want a Caliph from among us, let there be two Caliphs, one an Ansari and the other a Muhajif.""

""That won't work,"" said Abu Obaida bin Jarrah. ""O Ansar, you are the people who made Islam strong now, don't do anything that may undo your work.""

Hearing this, another man said, ""O Ansar, if we did anything for Islam, we did it to please Allah and His Apostle. We did not thereby oblige anybody. This should not be made a plea to win office. Listen, the holy Prophet belonged to the Quraish tribe. The Quraish have a greater right to fill his place. By Allah, I do not think it right to quarrel with them over this matter. Fear Allah, and do not oppose them.""

This speach of a man from among them silenced the Ansar. They agreed to have a Muhajif as the Caliph. So Abu Bakr said, ""Friends, I think either Omar or AbuObaida should be the Caliph. Chose one of these two gentleman.""

Hearing this both Omar and Abu Obaida jumped to their feet, and exlaimed, ""O Siddiq, how can that be? How can anyone else fill this office as long as you are among us? You are the top man among the Muhajirin. You were the companion of the holy Prophet in the Thaur Cave. You led prayers in his place, during his last illness. Prayer is the foremost thing in Islam. With all these qualifications, you are the fittest person to be the successor of the holy Prophet. Hold out your hand that we many pledge loyatly to you.""

But Abu Bakr did not stretch out his hand. Omar saw that delay might lead to the reopening of the whole question. That could easily create difficulties. So he himself took Abu Bakr's hand and pledged loyalty to him. Others followed his example. Men from all sides rushed to pledge loyalty to the successor of the Prophet. Abu Bakr became Caliph by the general consent of the people.


The First Address


On the following day, Abu Bakr went to the Prophet's mosque Here people took the general oath of loyalty. When this was over, Abu Bakr mounted the pulpit as the Caliph of Islam. Then he spoke to the gathering as follows:

""O people, I have been elected your leader, although I am not better than anyone from among you. If I do any good, give me your support. If I go wrong, set me right. Listen, truth is honesty and untruth is dishonesty. The weak among you are powerful in my eyes, as long as I do not get them their due, Allah willing. The powerful among you are weak in my eyes, as long as I do not take away from them what is due to others, Allah willing.""

""Listen, if people give up striving for the cause of Allah, Allah sends down disgrace on them. If a people become evil doers, Allah sends down calamities on them.""

""Listen, you must obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Messenger. If I disobey Allah and His Messenger, you are free to disobey me.""

Such was the Magna Carta granted by the first Caliph of Islam to his people, on the first day of his rule, without their asking. Abu Bakr showed by his example that in Islam government means government of the people, by the people and for the people.


Ali's Delay


F or six months Ali and some of his relatives did not pledge loyalty to Abu Bakr. That was because of a difference of opinion with the Caliph. The holy Prophet had some land at Medina and Khaibar. His daughter, Fatima, and his uncle, Abbas, laid claim to this land. But Abu Bakr set aside the claim, in the light of what the holy Prophet himself had said. ""We Prophets cannot be inherited,"" was his saying; ""whatever we leave behind is public property.""

Fatima new nothing of this saying of her father. She thought she was perfectly right in her claim. This created a little bitterness in her mind, and the mind of her husband, Ali. The hypocrites were quick to add to the misunderstanding.

But Abu Bakr and Ali were equally unselfish. During Fatima's illness, Abu Bakr himself went to see her and cleared away the misunderstanding. After her death, Ali went to Abu Bakr and said, ""O Siddiq, we admit your superiority. We do not envy the position Allah has given you. But as relatives of the holy Prophet, we thought Caliphate to be our right. You had taken away this right of ours.""

These words brought tears in Abu Bakr's eyes and he said, ""By Allah, the relatives of the Prophet are dearer to me than my own relatives.""

The assurance satisfied Ali. He went to the mosque and publicly took the pledge of loyalty.


Usama's Expedition


Some weeks before his death, the holy Prophet has nominated Usama to lead an expedition against Syria. He was to avenge the death of his father, Zaid, the freed slave of the holy Prophet. Zaid was killed by the Syrians in the battle of Muta. The preparations of the expedition were under way when the holy Prophet fell seriously ill and passed away. That help up Usama's expedition for some weeks. As soon as Abu Bakr became Caliph, the first thing he thought of was the sending out of the expedition.

The death of the holy Prophet led some people to think that Islam was going to end with him. Many tribes had entered the fold of Islam only a short time before. They were by no means firm in the new faith. Many of them, now, showed signs of bolting out of the fold of Islam. Abu Bakr was facing a difficult situation.

But Abu Bakr had to carry out the commands of the Prophet at all costs. He was determined to send out the expedition planned by the Messenger of Allah. Some of the companions said that he had better drop the idea for the time being. Trouble was brewing all around, they said. It was unwise to send troups out when they were urgently needed at home. But Abu Bakr would not listen to them. ""How can I fold up the flag,"" he asked, ""which the holy Prohet himself unfurled? It is simply unthinkable.""

Then someone suggested that Usama was too raw - he was below twenty - to lead the expedition. It was wiser to put a more experienced man in command. The suggestion made Abu Bakr angry. ""What right have I,"" he demanded, ""to dismiss a man appointed by the Messenger of Allah?""

So the expedition left under Usama, about three weeks after the passing away of the holy Prophet. Abu Bakr accompanied Usama some distance out of Medina. The youthful commander was riding a horse, while the Caliph walked by his side. Usama said, ""O successor of the holy Prophet, you also get on a horse and allow men to get down.""

""By Allah,"" replied Abu Bakr, ""I will agree to neither of the two things. What harm is there is there if a little dust falls on my feet, while I go some steps in the way of Allah? For every step one takes in Allah's way, one gets the reward of seven hundred good deeds.""

Omar was also one of the men under Usama's command. But Abu Bakr needed him, at Medina, for purposed of advice. So he made a request to Usama, to allow Omar to remain in Medina. The request was granted.

Before the Caliph bade farewell to Usama, he gave him much useful advice. Some of it was:

""Look! Be not dishonest. Do not deceive anyone. Do not hide the booty you get. Do not mutilate anyone. Do not kill the aged, the children and the women. Do not set fire to date-palms. Do not cut down fruit trees. Do not slaughter a goat, or a cow, or a camel, except for purposes of food. You will come across people who have give up the world and are sitting in monasteries. Leave them alone.""

Usama's expedition proved very successful. He raided the frontier districts of Syria and was back in Medina after forty days.

The expedition had another good result. It proved an eye-opener to those who thought Islam was dying out. They had a clear proof that Islam was still able to challenge one of the greatest powers of the world. This overawed the wavering tribes. Some of the tribes which had left Islam actually, rentered its fold.


The Imposters


A bu Bakr soon found the country in the grip of a civil war. The outlying provinces, like Nejd, were the first to create trouble. They had accepted Islam when it seemed to be the only safest way to follow. They knew nothing of the true spirit of Islam. For centuries they had known no outside authority. They were wont to be as free as the winds that sweep across the desert. Islam put them under discipline. They had to live by the moral laws of Islam. The drinking and gambling of the ""days of ignorance"" were no more. The wild spirit of the desert rebelled against this moral control. It saw its oppurtunity in the death of the holy Prophet. Now was the time to throw off the yoke of Islam.

The one thing which was especially irk-some to the chiefs of these tribes was the poor-rate. The government at Medina took away from them, each year, two and a half per cent of their total wealth. True, this money was spent on the poor of their own tribe. But all the same, it was a burden on their pockets. If only Medina would stop collecting the poor-rate, they could continue to be Muslims. Many chiefs made this decision known to the Caliph.

A more serious trouble also raised its head at the same time. People who had spent no time with the holy Prophet, nor studied him closely, thought of him as a mere ruler. The more clever among such people began to dream of a similar career. ""All we have to do,"" they thought to themselves, ""is to claim to be prophets and get a following."" Thus they hoped to rise to power and fame. Many a cunning man fell prey to this ambition. Presently, a host of imposters appeared in different parts of Arabia. They all claimed to be apostles of Allah.


Firm Action


The situation was serious. Utmost care was needed to handle it. Abu Bakr called a meeting of the Advisory Counsel and sought its advice. Many of the members were for slow action. ""It is not wise,"" they said, ""to start fighting on all fronts at one and the same time. Ignore those, for the time being, who refuse to pay the poor-rate. We can settle with them when imposters have been dealt with.""

Abu Bakr would not listen to such counsel. ""By Allah,"" he declared, ""even if a single kid is due from a man, he must give it. If he refuses. I will wage war against him. If others do not support me, I will fight alone. No one has the power to change a commandment of Allah.""

However, the situation was extremely difficult. Among the non-payers of the poor-rate were the neighbouring tribes of Abs and Zabyan, Asad and Toy. They thought of squeezing a concession from the Caliph before Usma's army was back in Medina. They sent a deputation to the Caliph, offering to stay withing the fold of Islam if they were exempted from paying the poor-rate.

True to his mettle, Abu Bakr firmly turned down the proposal. At the same time, he set about strengthening the defences of Medina, for he expected a treacherous attack from the rebel tribes.

On the third night the treacherous blow came. But Abu Bakr was ready for it. He hit back so hard that the enemy fled back headlong.

In a few days Usama was back in Medina. The Caliph decided to march in person against the treacherous tribes. People begged him not to risk his life but Abu Bakr would not listen. Leaving Usama in Medina as his deputy, the Caliph led an army against Abs and Zabyan and utterly defeated these tribes. Their pastures were taken over for army use.

This firm action on the part of the Caliph convinced many a waverer that it was impossible to accept part of Islam and reject part of it. That saved the integrity of Islam as a way of life. Abu Bakr's invincible faith helped Islam keep its foundation in tact.


War on Imposters


It was now time to strike at the imposters. Usama's army had rested and was ready to go into action again. Abu Bakr marched the army about twelve miles along the road to Nejd. Here he divided it into eleven battalions. Each battalion was put under the command of an experienced commander. The commanders were then told to march against different imposters.

Before these armies left, a general warning was given to the imposters and their followers. They were assured of pardon if they came back to Islam. The Caliph gave the following instructions to his commanders:

""I request the soldiers of Islam to fear Allah, under all conditions. They should do their best to obey the commandments of Allah. They should fight against those who have left Islam and have fallen in the trap of the devil. But before taking out swords, they must declare the message of Islam. If the apostates accept it, they must at once hold back their hands. But if the message is rejected, they must attack and fight till these people give up disbelief. When the apostates re-enter the fold of Islam, the commander of the Muslim army must explain to them their rights and duties under Islam. They should be given their rights and should be made to do their duties. The commander should keep his men from hasty action and mischief. He should avoid a headlong plunge into enemy settlements. He should rather enter them after making sure of all precautions, lest Muslims suffer a loss. Whether he is on the march of in the camp, the commander should be kind and considerate towards his men. He should look to their comfort and should be gentle in speech.""

The Caliph explained these instructions to the commanders. Then they led their battalions against the several imposters.

Abu Bakr then came back to Medina. He had already forced the waverers among Muslims to pay Zakat (the poor-rate). Now he launched an all-out attack on imposters and their followers.


Talaiha


Taliaha was one of the imposters. He belonged to the tribe of Banu Asad. On return from the last pilgramage, he laid claim to prophethood. All his tribesman became his followers. The tribes of Tay and Ghatfan were the allies of Banu Asad. They also joined the imposter. With his huge following, Talaiha was encamping at the Bazakha spring in Nejd. Khalid bin Walid defeated the imposter who fled to Syria. Afterwards, he again became a Muslim. He served in the Muslim army during the Iraqi campaign and tried to make amends for his past sins.


Malik bin Nawirah


Khalid next marched against Malik bin Nawirah. He was the chief of the trib of Banu Tamim. He had stopped the payment of the poor-rate and had made war on the Muslims of his tribe. Hearing of Khalid's approach, he disbanded his men. Khalid put him and his men under arrest. The night happened to be unusually cold and the prisoners started shivering. The matter was reported to Khalid who ordered that they be warmed up. But the Arabic phrase for ""warming up"" also means ""salying"". Misunderstanding the order, the guards put Malik and his men to the sword.

In the morning when Khalid came to know of Maliks's fate, he felt very sorry. But there was nothing he could do about it. ""When Allah has ordained a thing,"" he said, ""it does come to pass."" Complaints reached the Caliph that Khalid had not acted on his instructions in this particular case. There was a demand that Khalid be punished for the hasty act. Abu Bakr himself paid bloodmoney for Malik bin Nawirah. ""Khalid is the sword of Allah,"" he said. ""This sword has flashed against the disbelievers. Who am I to make it disappear?""


Musailma the Liar


Musailma was the most cunning of all imposters. He belonged to Yamama. When he learnt of the serious illness of the holy Prophet, he wrote him a letter, saying, ""Allah has made me your partner in prophethood. Let us divide the earth between ourselves."" To this the holy Prophet replied, ""To Musailma the Liar! Surely the earth belongs to Allah. He grants possession of it to those of His servants whom He likes.""

The death of the holy Prophet gave Musailma the oppurtunity. He collected a large army. This army had first to deal with an impostress - Sajah by name. She ws a Christian. After the death of the holy Prophet, she laid claim to prophethood, ""why should all prophets be men?"" she said. ""In me Allah has now sent a woman prophet."" She raised a big army and was marching towards Medina. On the way she came across Musailma's forces. The shrewd imposter at once saw that Sajah was a serious rival. He also felt that he could not defeat her on the battlefield. So he started a love affair, Sajah easily fell into the trap. The two were married. Now Musailma had a huge army, 4,000 strong, under his command.

The battalion under Ikrama bin Abu Jahl was to attack Musailma. The battalion under Shurjil was to reinforce it. Ikrama had orders to wait for the reinforcement. But, hoping to get the whole credit for himself, Ikrama did not wait for Shurjil. He attacked Musailma and was badly beaten. The news made Abu Bakr sad. He at once wrote to Khalid bin Walid to deal with Musailma. The combined battalions of Khalid and Shurjil now fell upon the imposter. Musailma fought desperatley. Once his men reached the very tent of Khalid. But Khalid kept his nerve. He rallied his men and himself led a final attack. Confounded by the suddenness of the attack, Musailma's men took to flight. The imposter and a few of his companions hid themselves in a fortified garden but the Muslim warriors threw open the gates. The infamous imposter and his friends were all put to the sword. Among those who killed Musailma was Wahshi, the negro slave who had killed Hamza, the uncle of the holy Prophet at Ohud. He had done this to win his freedom. Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan, had promised to buy him his freedom if he slew Hamza. After the fall of Mecca, Wahshi became a Muslim. The Holy Prophet forgave him but said, ""Please Wahshi, keep out of my sight. You remind me of my dear uncle.""

Wahshi had always felt sorry for his sin. He wanted to wash it out. The battle against Musailma gave him his chance. His javelin was in search of the imposter. With great skill he sank the poisoned end of his javelin into the imposter. The wretch gave a yell and fell to the ground. The next moment his head was cut off. ""Thank Allah!"" exclaimed Wahshi, ""I have been able to make some amends for my sin.""

Musailma belonged to the tribe of Banu Hanifa. Orders were received from the Caliph that all mean of the tribe who had taken up arms against Islam should be put to death. But Khalid had already promised to spare their lives. So his wod was honored and the whol tribe re-imbraced Islam.


Bahrain


The people of Bahrain embraced Islam in the lifetime of the holy Prophet. After his death a powerful tribe, Banu Bakr, threw off the yoke of Islam and started fighting against Muslims. Abu Bakr sent a battalino under Ala bin Hadrami, to deal with the rebel tribe. The Banu Bakr were defeated. Their leader, Hatim, was killed. Bahrain was once again secure under Muslim rule.

Some tribes of Omman also gave up Islam. The generals of Abu Bakr brought them all back into the fold of Islam.

Thus in a few months Abu Bakr was able to put down the country-wide rising caused by imposters. Khalid bin Walid did more than any other man to make this possible.


The Era of Conquest Begins


The kings of Iran had done all they could to crush Islam. In fact, the infamous Khusro Parvez had ordered the arrest of the holy Prophet. But a few days after, he was killed by his own son, Sharuya. Since that day, Iran had known no peace. Abu Bakr had to take account of the ever-present danger on the eastern frontiers.

In the first month of the year 12 A.H., Khalid bin Walid was sent with an army to challenge the might of Iran. Another army under Qaqaa bin Amr was to reinforce him. Khalid was to attack Kamla, the southern outpost of the Iranian empire.

A second army, under Ayaz bin Ghanam, was to strike at the norther boundary of Iraq.

According to the Islamic practice, Khalid addressed the following letter to Hurmuz, the Iranian Commander: ""Accept Islam and you will be safe. If not, agree to pay the jizya or you will have to repent. I am bringing against you a people who love death as you love life.""

The proud Iranian Commander paid no heed to the warning. He was slain in the battle that followed. The Iranian army was utterly routed. After this a number of well-known Iranian generals came to fight Khalid. Bahman and Jahan were two of them. But they all met defeat. The Iranian losses were heavy.

Hira, on the Iranian border, ws the stronghold of the Christian Arabs. They had so far fought on the Iranian side. Khalid conquered Hira. Soon after, the other frontier chiefs also submitted to Khalid.

After Hira, Khalid conquered Anbar and Ain-ut-Tamr, two important outposts of the Iranian empire. He now received a letter from Ayaz, calling him to his help in North Iraq. Ayaz was hard pressed at Dumat-ul-Jundal. Khalid rushed to his help and sent the following message to Ayaz:

""Wait for a while. Camels carrying fierce lions are shortly reaching. Wave after wave of troops are on their way.""

One of the enemy generals, Akidar, knew from his own experience how impossible it was to halt Khalid's attack. He advised the other generals to stop fighting against the Muslims. When the advice went unheeded, he quietly left. His friends saw the truth of his remarks when they met humiliating engagement took place at Faraz. A huge force made of Iranians and Arabs crosed the Euphrates. On the 15th of Dhul-Qaad, 12 A.H., Khalid routed this host at Faraz. From here he went back to Hira.


Khalid's Exploits


Abu Bakr had no more than ten thousand troops when he took over as Caliph. With this small force, he had to put down a country-wide revolt. To all appearance the task was hopeless. But Abu Bakr met with amazing success. Much of this success was due to his unshakable faith in Allah. ""Islam is the path of truth revealed by Allah,"" he said, ""so Allah must defend it against enemies."" It was not so much on troops as on Allah's help that Abu Bakr depended. Results proved that he was right in his faith.

There was, however, another important factor which helped Abu Bakr. This was Khalid bin Walid, the greatest general of Islam. His tact and courage made the small forces of Islam look ten times stronger. The results were simply astonishing. With a handful of troops Khalid was able not only to overcome all internal enemies but also to make Arabia safe for Islam. He was then able to jump on Iraq and win it for Islam. From Iraq he marched against the Byzantine forces and put them to rout. All this took place in the space of two years. Throughout the campaign not even once did Khalid meet with a reverse. By forced marches, he often gave a surprise to the enemy and did not rest till he overpowered them. This made Khalid the dread of the enemy. The truth is that Khalid's exploits put to shame the victories of an Alexander or a Napolean.


Allah's Sword


Khalid bin Walid was born a general. At Ohud, he fought on the side of the Quraish. It was he who turned the tide of that battle. Muslim victory was clearly in sight. Quraish leaders were on the run. Suddenly Khalid saw the pass at the back of the Muslim army undefended. At the head of a strong party, he dashed through the pass and took the army of Islam by surprise.

After the peace of Hudaibiya Khalid embraced Islam. His military talent soon began to outshine others. The Holy Prophet at once saw his worth and gave him the title of ""Saif Allah"" or ""Allah's Sword."" But it was not till Islam overleaped the boundaries of Arabia that the world saw Khalid's unequalled military talent.

Abu Bakr was quick to see Khalid's ability. So he put him in charge of the Iraqi campaign. Khalid's exploits in this campaign have few equals in history. In about eleven months, he over-ran the whole of Iraq and brought it under the banner of Islam. He had no more than ten thousand men. With this small force he defeated hosts twenty times as big. These hosts had superior arms and equipment. But Khalid knew how to win with smaller numbers and inferior arms.

In Iraq Khalid fought fifteen battles in all. He won complete victory in all of them. He never allowed the standard of Islam to leave the battlefield until the enemy was completely beaten. Towards the later part of the campaign, Khalid became the dread of the enemy. The mere fact that Khalid commanded an army made the enemy tremble.


A Good Administrator


Khalid was not only a great conqueror but also a first-rate administrator. He saw to it that things were managed well in the cities and territories he conquered. He never marched on until this had been done. He left behind a deputy to look after things. He also appointed a judge to settle people's disputes.

Khalid was extremely kind hearded and just to the people. His army had strict orders not to do any harm to farmers and other civilians. ""They are the real strength of society,"" he said. ""They should always be treated with kindness and respect."" This was something new for the conquered people. The Iranian and Byzantine officers had been very hard on them. Khalid's treatment won their hearts. So much so that they came to hate their old masters.


Hard on the Enemy


Khalid was very hard on people who took up arms against Islam. He believed that such people should have only two choices. They should either give in or fight to death. If they fled from the battlefield, he would not let them go. He followed them wherever they went, until they either begged for mercy or were killed.

This policy of Khalid proved very sound. He dealt with the beaten enemy once and for all. He did not allow them to take up arms a second time. Muslim forces were too small to deal with repeated risings.

There is hardly another general in history who combines as many qualities as Khalid. Khalid is unquestionable the greates general produces by Islam.


War with Byzantian


The need for military operations against Byzantium began to be felt in the life-time of the Holy Prophet. So Abu Bakr was bound to do something about this danger. In the year 13 A.H., he prepared a big army and divided it into four battalions. Each battalion was put under a separate commander. Each of them was to strike at a different point on the Syrian border. Abu Obaida bin Jarrah was to march on Hims, Amr bin al-Aas on Palestine, Yazid bin Abi Sufyan on Damascus and Shurjil bin Hasna on Jordan.

These battalions were to strike at the enemy at once and the same time. The aim was to keep the enemy from hitting with full force on anyone of the battalions.

Before these armies left, Abu Bakr gave the following instructions to their commanders:

  1. Always fear Allah. He knows what is in men's hearts.
  2. Be kind to the men under you and treat them well.
  3. Directions given should be brief. If too long, they are likely to be forgotten.
  4. Improve your conduct first; others will improve when they see your example>
  5. Honor the representatives of the enemy.
  6. Keep your own arrangement a secret.
  7. Be always truthful so you can get good advice.
  8. At night when you are free, sit among your men. This will keep you in touch with them.
  9. Make good arrangements for the watch and ward of the army.
  10. Keep away from untruthful men. Be intimate with truthful and faithful companions.
  11. Be sincere to all whom you have dealings.
  12. Beward of cowardice and dishonesty.
  13. You will come across people who have given up the world and are spending their days in place of worship. Leave such people alone.

The news of the Muslim invasion upset Emperor Heracleus. He was in Jerusalem at that time. He sought the advice of his nobles. He himself was in favor of coming to terms with the Muslims. ""It is better to give up half of Syria,"" he said, ""than lose the whole of it."" To this the nobles did not agree.

So four huge armies were sent by the emperor to fight the Muslims. His own brother was leading one of the armies. Each army was several times more numerous than the Muslim army it had to fight. This made the Muslim commanders give thought to the matter. They met together for mutual counsel. One of them pinpointed the folly of fighting separately. ""We will be crushed under the sheer weight of numbers,"" he said, ""if we fight separately."" The other generals saw the point. They agreed upon a plan to merge the four battalions into a single army. Thus, they thought, the Muslim army would stop looking too small in its own eyes. They informed the Caliph of their decision. He approved of it and sent the following written message:

""Muslims can never be defeated because of small numbers. But if their own sins overwhelm them, they will meet defeat. So let you all keep away from sins of all kinds.""


The Battle of Yarmuk


Heraclius learnt that the four Muslim armies had merged into one. He also ordered a smiliar move. The four Byzantine armies combined to fomr a gigantic mass of men. They dug up trenches in the valley of Yarmuk. By the Caliph's orders the Muslim forces, too, took up position on the opposite side. For weeks the two armies lay facing each other. Neither of the two sides dared to touch on the fighting.

The Byzantine forces had every advantage on their side. In addition to numbers, they had the river in front and the mountains at their back. So the Muslim commanders requested the Caliph for reinforcements. HE at once wrote to Khalid to rush to Syria.

Khalid handed over the charge of affairs in Iraq to Muthanna bin Haritha. He then hastened to Syria at the head of ten thousand men. Despite all his haste, Khalid conquered many forts and cities on the way. At last he reached Yarmuk. Almost at the same time, the Byzantine army received a reinforcement. The brought their total strength to two hundred and forty thousand. The Muslim army numbered just thirty-six thousand.

Khalid Reorganizes the Army


Khalid at once saw that he must properly organize the army, in order to win. It meant a single command, in place of the four commands. So he called the other commanders and said, ""We are fighting for the sake of the faith. We must all forget ourselves. We cannot afford to be split under many commanders. That would be a help to the enemy. Let there be just one commander, by turns if you please. If you agree to that let me be the commander for the first day of the battle.""

All liked the plan. Khalid took the chief command. He divided the army into several sections. Each section was put under a commander. It was further subdivided into many troops, each with a leader. Abu Sufyan was appointed the fiery herald. He went about the army, speaking words of courage to men.

As the two armies stood facing each other, a Muslim soldier remarked. ""How numerous the enemy is!"" Khalid overheard the remark. ""It is not the numbers that matter,"" he exlaimed, ""it is rather the final outcome of the battle.""

At long last the battle began. Khalid took some troops with him. He made a wild charge and was soon in the heart of enemy forces. He succeeded in driving a wedge between the enemy cavalry and infantry. The two were cut off from each other.

Fighting unto Death


Ikrama bin Abu Jahl was fighting at Yarmuk. Soon after the battle began, the Muslim troops began to real under the weight of numbers. Ikrama saw this. ""Heretofore I fought all battles against the Apostle of Allah,"" he shouted out. ""This is the first time I am fighting for the cause of Allah. In no casse will I turn my back on the battlefield. Now who are going to fight unto death with me?""

Saying this, Ikrama held out his hand to receive the pledge of others. His son, Amr, was the first go give the pledge. He was followed by four hundred more. Like wild cats, these men pounced upon the enemy hordes. They dealt such telling blows that the sea of man cleared before them. Their desperate attack caused confusion among enemy ranks.

Rout of the Enemy


Soon the enemy cavalry found itself walled between Khalid's troops and the main Muslim army. Confusion spread and they fled. The Muslim army made was for them to flee.

Now Khalid fell on the enemy infrantry. THe shield of the cavalry being no more, the infantry was take by surprise. In utter confusion it fell back. But the mountain blocked the way. In despair men ran back to the river. Here a watery death awaited them. Most of the men had tied themselves with iron chains to rule out the possibility of flight. The chains proved traps of death. When a few of the men fell into the river, they also dragged their companions into the watery grave. According to one estimate, one hundred and twenty thousand of them were drowned in the river. The Byzantine rout was complete. The Muslims loss was three thousand killed.


Women's Courage


Muslim women played a notable role in this battle. They formed a battalion which stood at the back of the army. They supplied water to the men. They also dressed their wounds. They shouted words of courage when the army showed signs of weakness. These words put a new heart into retreating men. They dashed forth like lightning and sowed death among enemy lines.

The Byzantine army at first forced the Muslims to fall back. Muslim women stood on a bridge. Khalid came to them and said, ""O daughters of Islam, if anyone turns his back on the battlefield, kill him at once.""

The women did what Khalid bade them to do. They stood at their post of duty. They had stones at their post of duty. They had stones in their hands and their eyes were fixed on the battlefield. If anyone fled for life, he was met by a shower of stones. Back he ran into the thick of battle and fought to the last.

Many Muslim soldiers had brought their families with them. The women stayed in tents at the back of the troops. Their words of courage for the brave and their taunts for the weak of heart, made a real difference in the tempo of fighting and in the outcome of the battle. Victory of Yarmuk was in no small measure due to the courage of Muslim women.


Two Great Martyrs


On the following morning Khalid took stock of his losses. Ikrama and his son, Amr, were brought to him. They were seriously wounded. Their condition was grave. Khalid put their heads on his lap. In a few minutes, the souls of both of them winged their way to heaven.

Ikrama was the son of Abu Jahl, the archenemy of Islam. When Mecca fell, Ikrama fled away for fear of life. But hearing that the Prophet had forgiven all enemies, he came back to Mecca. To his surprise, the Prophet ran out to greet him. From that day on, Ikrama was a true son of Islam. He laid down his life fighting for the glory of Islam.


Unparalleled Selflessness of Khalid


The battle of Yarmuk was on when a letter arrived from Medina. It was delivered to Khalid. It said that Abu Bakr had passed away and Omar has succeded him as Caliph. IT also said that the new Caliph had dismissed Khalid from his command and replaced him by Abu Obaida bin Jarrah. Khalid read the letter. He then informed Obaida that the command had passed to him. But the news was not made public, lest the army should lose heart. The letter had no effect whatever on Khalid. He went on fighting as desperatley as ever.

After the battle was over, Khalid's dismissale became known. Someone said to him, ""How is it that the news did not damp your spirit at all?"" ""I was not fighting for Omar,"" replied Khalid, ""I was fighting for the cause of Allah.""


Abu Bakr's Last Illness


On the 7th of Jamadi-ul-Akhir, 13 A.H., Abu Bakr was taken ill. He had sever fever. Everything was done to bring down the fever, but all in vain. It became clear to the aged Caliph that his end was come.

Even in these last days, the thought that troubled Abu Bakr was the future of Islam. He wanted to make sure that nothing would go wrong with the affairs of Muslims, after he was no more. He had to spend every ounce of his energy to put down the violent storms of unrest that broke loose after the Prophet's death. He did not want this to happen after his own death.


Omar's Nomination


Welfare of Muslims had always been the first care of Abu Bakr. He would allow nothing that made Islam weak. The thing he feared most was division among Muslims. He remembered what had happened after the death of the Holy Prophet. He wanted to make sure that no differences should divide Muslims after he was no more. Unity was the secret strength. Unity must be had at any price.

As his sickness grew, Abu Bakr gave more and more thought to the matter. Who should be the Caliph after him? Should he himself name the best man? Or should he leave the matter to the people? In the latter case, quarrels might arise. These would certainly shake the very foundations of Islam. IT was too great a risk. Abu Bakr was not willing to take that risk.

After careful thought, he chose to nominate Omar. He put his proposal before the leading Companions. Most of them liked the proposal. But someone said, ""Omar is no doubt the best man, but he is rather too strict.""

To this Abu Bakr replied, ""As soon as the burden of Caliphate falls on his shoulders, he will become more mild.""

When all Companions agreed, Abu Bakr called Othman. He dictated to him Omar's nomination. It was read out to the people. It said:

""This is the will of Abu Bakr, the Caliph of the Holy Prophet. He is making the will when he is about to leave for the next world. This is the time when even a non-believer begins to believe and even a sinner begins to trust in Allah. I appoint Omar bin Khattab as your ruler. In appointing him, I have kept your welfare fully in mind. I hope he will be truthful and just. But if he leaves his path and becomes unjust, I know nothing about the unseen, I have only the well-being of Muslims at heart. Everybody is responsible for what he does.""

The will was read out to the people. After this Abu Bakr went to the top of his house, supported by two men. Addressing the people he said:

""My brethren in-faith, I have not appointed any of my own brothers and relatives as your Caliph. I have appointed a man who is the fittest person among you. Do you approve of him?""

""Of course we do,"" went up a shout from hundreds of men.

Next he called Omar to his bedside and spoke to him thus:

""Omar! I have nominated you my successor. My parting advice is that you fear Allah and work for the well-being of the Muslims. Remember, Omar, the duties you own to Allah are to be discharged at the proper time. Some of these are to be discharged at night and some during the day time. First things must come first. On the Day of Judgment only those will come out successful whose good deeds are weighty. Those whose evil deeds out-weigh the good deeds, will have a terrible time. For success and salvation, you have to make the Qur'an and the truth your guides. You know, Omar, that the verses of the Qur'an speak of good reward and punishment side by side. This is to put the fear of Allah in the believer's heart and to make him pray for forgiveness. Omar, when you read in the Qur'an about the inmate of fire, pray to Allah not to make you one of them. But when you read about the dwellers of Paradise, pray for being one of them Omar, if you follow the path I have chalked out fo ryou, you will find me by your side.""

When OMar had left the dying Caliph raised his hands in prayer and said:

""Lord! I have taken this step in the best interest of the Muslims. I feared disunion among them, so I took this step, the consequences of which are best known to You. After careful thought I have appointed a man who is the sinceristy and the most energetic worker for the well-being of the people. I am at death's door now, so help the Muslims, Lord after I am no more. THye are Your servants. Their future is in Your hands. Lord, keep their rules on the right path. Make Omar one of the noblest Caliphs and help the Muslims help him.""


Abu Bakr Passes Away


After an illness of two weeks, Abu Bakr passed away. He was sixty-three at the time. He was buried by the side of the Holy Prophet.

Before his death he said, ""Do not use new cloth to cover my dead body. The sheet of cloth I have on will do for me. Wash it clean.""

""But this is too old and worn, father,"" said his daughter Aisha.

""This old and worn sheet will do for me,"" he replied.

This parting wish was acted upon. The second wish of the dying Caliphs was, ""Sell my land and pay back in the public treasury all the money I got as my salary."" This was also done. Before he became the Caliph, Abu Bakr was a well-to-day merchant. The affairs of the Caliphate left him no time to look after his own business. The matter was put before the Companions. They allowed the Caliph a salary of six thousand dirhams a year. All this money was paid back to the Bait-ul-Mal (the Public Treasury) after the Caliph's death.

Thus Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, left behind a noble example of selfless service. He lived and worked for Islam to the last breath. And for his tireless labors, he sought no worldly reward.


Two Years of Abu Bakr's Calpihate


Abu Bakr was Caliph for only two years, three months and ten days. This was a relatively short period of time in the life of people. But during this short period, Abu Bakr was able to do great things for Islam. These achievements have made his name immortal. They have placed him among the greatest men of all time.

When Abu Bakr too over, Islam was confined to Arabia alone. And here, too its hold was rather shaky. In many parts of the country, Islam was but a name. It was not a way of life with most people. Scores of tribes had thought of the Holy Prophet has a mere king. They tried to throw off his yoke as soon as he was no more. Abu Bakr taught these people a lasting lesson. He taught them that Islam was a way of life.

Abu Bakr was able to do this because of his unshakable faith. No difficulties could take him off the path of the Prophet. Usama might be youthful and inexperienced, but Abu Bakr would not hear a word against him. He was appointed by the Prophet. There might be rising in the country, but Abu Bakr would not put off the expedition to Tabuk. The Prophet had ordered it. Abu Bakr stood unequalled in his love for Allah and His Apostle. This was the secret of his unbending strength. It was this inner strength that carried him through the darkest hours of his Caliphate.

Abu Bakr was as sincere as he was firm in faith. He lived up to every word of what he said at the beginning of his Caliphate. He was never anything but the faithful agent of Allah and His Apostle, and the humblest servant of his people. It was this fact which won him the deepest love and respect for all classes of his people. The result was that Islam took an unshakable hold on the coutrny of its birth. Soon it gathered enough strength to overlap its boundaries. It struck at the two most feared powers of the time. And lo! it was successful. Abu Bakr had put Islam on the road to worldwide expansion.

Islam means total submission to the will of Allah. It means that utter absence of all selfishness. The Holy Prophet showed by his example hwo that goal could be reached. He showed how the power of the State should not be used for private ends but for the public good. Abu Bakr was the first among his followers to live up to the Prophet's example. He go tno personal gain out of the Caliphate. He spent every minuted of the last two years of life in the service of his people, but got not a penny as wages.

Abu Bakr had several sons and many near relatives. For public offices, he did not choose anyone of them. He rather chose other people who were more fit for public service. He had to nominate his own successor to prevent quarrels. But his choice fell on none of his own relatives. His choice was rather the man whom he honestly believed to be the best among the Companions. All the same, he did not force his choice on people. He put his proposal before the Companions. When they had agreed to it, he put it before the people.

In short, Abu Bakr showed the world what government of the people, for the people, and by the people really meant. Neither the East nor the West had ever known such a form of government before. The mighty empires of Iran and Byzantium were based upon naked force.

In short Abu Bakr kept going the great work of the Prophet. For that he had to fight hard. He fought with a will and with a faith that amazed everyone. Islam is for ever grateful to him for the great services he rendered to it

" 60,"The Mawdudi Calamity",5562,637,636,"Mr. Mawdudi should have first consulted with the Ulama before publishing such articles, thus, indoctrinating an anti-Sahaaba ideology in the Muslim masses. Should Mr. Mawdudi have discussed the matter only with the Ulama, then it could be a purely scholarly matter between him and the Ulama and not for general publication and consumption. However, Mr. Mawdudi himself sidestepped scholarly ethics and published his articles before consulting/confirming with the Ulama and made his views known to the public for mass consumption. It is very appropriate and incumbent for the Ulama (like Moulana Ludhianwi (RA) has done) to respond then and now publicly (given that Mawdudi's views are still disseminated), to correct the inaccuracies in Mawdudi's ideas. They (straight and upright people) will remove from knowledge, the distortion of the extremists, incorrect attribution of the false people, and incorrect interpretation of the ignorant ones.' (Mishkaat pg.36; Qadeemi) In view of the above mentioned Hadith, it is the responsibility of the Ulama to preserve the pristine purity of Islam. The Arabic word used to describe that responsibility is 'yanfoon', which is derived from the Arabic root word of 'nafyun' which means to remove. The practice of pointing out and removing faults is called criticism. (Oxford School Dictionary; JM Hawkins) The writer of the article, well-recognised by the non-Arab as well as Arab Ulama and a well recognised expert in Firqa-e-Baatila (deviated sects), Moulana Muhammad Yusuf Ludhianwi (RA), has maintained his intellectual honesty by fulfilling his scholarly responsibility of pointing out (criticizing) Mr. Mawdudi. The writer is concerned that Mr. Mawdudi has attacked the very fiber and backbone of Islam by criticizing the illustrious Prophets and building a wall between the Ummah and the Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum). In his constitution, Mr. Mawdudi says, 'No human should be made a measure of truth besides Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam).'. but Allah Ta'ala clearly declares the Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum) as a measure of truth in the innumerable verses of the Qur'aan NS in particular, Chapter 2 verse 13 and chapter 48 (Fath), Verse 29. Mr. Mawdudi should have first consulted with the Ulama before publishing such articles, thus, indoctrinating an anti-Sahaaba ideology in the Muslim masses. Should Mr. Mawdudi have discussed the matter only with the Ulama, then it could be a purely scholarly matter between him and the Ulama and not for general publication and consumption. However, Mr. Mawdudi himself sidestepped scholarly ethics and published his articles before consulting/confirming with the Ulama and made his views known to the public for mass consumption. It is very appropriate and incumbent for the Ulama (like Moulana Ludhianwi (RA) has done) to respond then and now publicly (given that Mawdudi's views are still disseminated), to correct the inaccuracies in Mawdudi's ideas. The writer, well-recognised by the non-Arab as well as Arab Ulama and a well recognised expert in Firqa e-Baatila (deviated sects), Moulana Ludhianwi is acting within (and not against) the commands of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). For example, Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, 'When you see anybody speaking ill about any Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhu), say to them, 'May Allah's curse be upon your evil.' (Mishkaat pg.552; Qadeemi). The learned scholar, Moulana Yusuf Ludhianwi has spent his entire life in defending the position of the Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum) in the Ummah and was physically (not only his character) assassinated recently by the enemies of the Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum). The learned scholar's criticism against Mawdudi is similar to the criticism against others (such as Khomeini) whose ideas and writing go against the fixed, settled, permanent and sacrosanct principles of Islam. For example Khomeini once made a statement which was published in the Tehran times (Kitaab be Noujawanaan - P8) that if he conquers Madina Munawwarah, he will remove the two idols (Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Hadhrat Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhuma) besides Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). I am certain that no believer will accept such a statement against the great luminaries of Islam. Brother Amin, are we then to condemn only Khomeini and condone Mawdudi knowing well that Mawdudi was a close friend of Khomeini and was sympathetic to his course. In a book titled, 'Two brothers - Maududi and Khomeini' page 129, the following statement of Dr Ahmad Farouk Maududi (son of Abul-A'ala Maududi) was published in Roz Naame, Lahore - 29 September 1979, ""Allama Khomeini had a very old and close relationship with Abba Jaan (father). Aayaatullah Khomeini translated his (fathers) books in Farsi and included it as a subject in Qum. Allama Khomeini met my father in 1963 during Hajj and my father's wish was to create a revolutionary in Pakistan similar to Iran. He was concerned about the success of the Iranian revolution till his last breath.' You mention in your statement, 'those who attack him after he passed away are not following Islamic ethics.' The writer subjects Mawdudi's views to criticism because condoning Mawdudi will be showing complacency to the crime of distancing the Ummah from the Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum). The writer is concerned that such distancing will eventually lead to distancing ourselves from Islam. After all, the Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum) are the main link between us and Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). You intimate in your email that the writer was not acting in terms of Islamic ethics by attacking Mawdudi after he passed away. Brother Amin, the criticism of Moulana Ludhianwi is consistent with the rules and principles of criticism called for in Islam. For example, Hafiz ibn Hajar (RA) in his famous work, 'Nukhbatul Fikr Fee Mustalahi ahlil Asr' under the chapter of Jarah (criticism), outlines the rules and principles of criticism, which are extensively applied in determining the authority of a Hadith. The Muhadditheen have criticized many narrators with the sole purpose of determining the authenticity of the Ahaadith. Criticizing them is certainly ethical in Islam and only conducive to preserving the pristine purity of Islam. What if the Muhadditheen did not make Jarah of every narrator and criticize many who did not fulfill the criteria of being Aadil? What if every person goes against the directives of the Qur'aan and Hadith and criticize the Sahaaba (Radhiallaahu Anhum)? What will be left of Islam? Should Mawdudi have the right to criticize the Prophets and Sahaaba and we don't have the right to criticize him simply because he says, ''It is Allah's faith that I did not commit any deed or say any word under the influence of my passions, nor did I commit it. Every word that I uttered in my lectures, I measured each one of them before saying them, remembering that I would have to account for it before Allah and the creation. Therefore, I am assured in my position that I did not utter a word against Haq'. Maududi Mazhab, page 29. Should someone become emotional when Mawdudi is criticized because he is my friends icon? Moulana Ludhianwi is reminding us ot be rational and to follow the guidance of Abdullah ibn Mas'ood who said: ''If you wish to follow anyone, then follow the path of those who have passed away, because one is not safe from the fitnah of a living person. I mean those who are among the Sahaabah of Muhammed Sallallahu alaihi waSallam. They were the best among this Ummah; they possessed the clearest of hearts; they attained the deepest of knowledge; and had the least formalities. Allah Ta'aala had chosen them as companions of His Nabi and to up- keep His Deen. Therefore, recognize their virtues, and follow their footsteps. As far as possible hold fast unto their characters and qualities, because they are on the straight path'. (Mishkaat, Chapter of I'etisaam bil kaab Wassunnah; Qadeemi) It would be ironic for someone to say today do not criticize Mawdudi, given that Mawdudi criticized so many of the illustrious sahabah. Such a stance will also be against the entrenched precept of Article 1 of the By-Laws of ICM (copy obtained by me in 1999 during your blessed rein of leadership): 'You are the bestof people evolved for mankind - Enjoining what is right, Forbidding what is Wrong and Believing in God.' (Surah Aali Imraan).' Brother, I have limited my response primarily to your concern about whether the criticism of Moulana Ludhianwi is within the ethical prescriptions of Islam. If you feel that Moulana Ludhianwi misrepresented or fabricated the record of Mawdudi please let me know which aspect or aspects concern you. I will be glad to comment on that as well. A LETTER TO A PIOUS FRIEND; CRITICISM AND THE RIGHT OF CRITICISM: A literal translation of a letter entitled: ""Tanqeed aur Haqqe Tanqeed"" which appeared in the Dhul-Hijjah of the Bayanaat - Karachi by Maulana Muhammad Yoosuf Ludhianwi Dearest, Assalamualaykum, You have a high regard for Maulana Sayyid Abdul Aa'la Maududi. This question may be surprising and shocking to you that why the respected elders of the Ummah are up in arms against Janab Maulana Sayyid Abdul Aa'la Maududi and his 'Islamic Movement'. I ask you that why did the Ulama oppose Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan's 'Islaah Islam' move- ment, Abdullah Chackralwi's 'Qur'aanic Movement', Ghulam Ahmed Parvez's 'Tulu Islam' movement, Dr. Fazkyrragnab's renewal of Islam movement and the progressive Islam movement of the socialists? In answer you will say that each of these, according to their understanding, created a blueprint in their minds and made this their basic standard and foundation. Thereafter, whatever suited and met their standards from the Islam of Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam was incorporated into it, and whatever was unsuitable or against their mode of thinking was either abused, ridiculed, jeered, made a joke of and explained away or far-fetched meanings and interpretations were given so that the original meaning was erased. Obviously their thoughts, senses, feelings, and hearts were not subordinate to Islam, but rather the acceptance or rejection of the tenets of 'Islam' was at the mercy of their set-standards. It was incumbent upon the Ulama to tear apart this 'Is- lamic Talisman' and bring forward the original Islam of Muhammad SallalLahu alaihi wa Sallam, which has been preserved for the last fourteen hundred years in people against this new calamity of 'Islamic Thinkers'. You know that the Ulama of this Ummah have carried out their duties whilst disregarding all obstacles. They have been sworn at; they have been painted with all types of labels; they have been ridiculed; they have been pierced with the arrows of accusations; but they (the Ulama) had to carry out their duty, and have verily tried to do so. As long as they have life and the power of speech in them, it must not be expected that they will refrain from committing the ""offence"" of calling a spade a spade, or day a day, and night a night. Now listen! In the same manner Janab Maududi Saheb conceived and created a blueprint, which he presented as the 'Islamic Movement', and on which foundation the 'Jamaat Islami' came into existence. Today his 'Jamaat Islami' has an imprint on the big and small. Allah forbid, my intention is not to convey this, that the law that applies to the previously mentioned individuals also applies to Janab Maududi, as there is a difference in rank and grade The reason for giving the examples of 'layer upon layer of darkness' is only to stress that these people fail to under- stand the True Islam. They are unanimous in creating a new path and a new map for Islam. It is a different question that the path of some are totally different from the teachings of Muhammad Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam and some have a few differences. What doubt is there in this that all of them have, through the medium of their understanding and thinking, put forward 'their Islam' to the masses. They have proclaimed it to be the truth and have invited the people towards it. There is a proverb in Arabic: 'For everything that falls, there is one who will find it'. Everyone surely finds someone with whom one shares common ideas and thoughts. This is a brief answer to pour Question. But 1 feel this will not satisfy you, hence I will have to elaborate on it. In today's discussion 1 invite you to think and ponder on one point only. You must have read in the constitution of the Jamaat Islami this sentence from the pen of Janab Maududi Saheb: ""No human should be made a 'Measure of Truth' besides Rasulullah Sallallehu alaihi we Sallam, no one should be regarded as free from 'criticism', no one should be engrossed in the 'mental slavery' of anyone. As Allah has shown, everyone should with a complete standard examine and inspect every person, and according to that measure, whatever grade befits a person, that person should be regarded as such"". In this constitutional belief, Janab Maududi Saheb has induced every member of the 'Jamaat' - whatever position one holds - not to think that any human Is above criticism besides Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, nor should one fall under the sway of another's 'mental slavery', and with the examining powers that Allah Ta'aala has given Maududi Saheb and his 'Jamaat', everyone should be pecked at and examined. After attaining the results, whatever grade one attains should be con- ferred on that person. Now let us read from the 'Maududi Mazhab' and see that while criticizing, how Maududi Saheb has peeled and skinned the Salaf (pious predecessors). Listen, Maududi Saheb says that: 1. The example of Moosa Alaihis salaam is of that hasty victorious commander, who marches forward without strengthening and estabil- ishing his authority, and behind him mutiny spreads in the conquered lands like wild fire in a jungle. Maududi Mazhab, page 23. 2. The danger of the highway robbery of a mischievous soul also con- fronts the Ambiyaa. An illustrious Prophet like Dawood Alaihis salaam. was werned on an occasion that.""............and follow not desire that beguile thee from the way of Allah'. Surah Saad: 27 Ibid page 21 3. Dawood Alaihis salaam became influenced with the customs of the Israeli society of his time and requested Orya to give a divorce. Ibid page 24 4. Dawood Alaihis salam had a speck of carnal desire in his deeds. Ibid Page 25 5. Human weaknesses overcame Nuh Alaihis salaam snd he became a prey to the passion of Jahiliyyah. Ibid page 26. 6. Actually Ismat (chastity) is not a requisite with the soul of the Ambiyaa. This is a Lateef (delicate) point. Allah Ta'aala had intentionally lifted His protection at some time or the other from every Nabi, so that one or two trangressions are committed, hence the people may not regard the Ambiyaa as Gods, and will know that these are human too. Ibid page 30. 7. The Ambiyaa trangress too, they are even punished. Ibid page 31. 8. Younus Alaihis salaem committed a few deficiencies in the fulfilling of the Faraa'id of Risalat, and probably became Impatient and left his position before time. Ibid page 35. 9. The Sahaabah were at times overcome with human shortcomings; they reviled one another (read the balance of this paragraph on page 56. I am ashamed of copying it further). 10. The Sahaabah Kiraam many a time erred in understanding the original spirit of Jihaad fi Sabilillah. Ibid page 59. 11. Once a humble person like (Abubakr) Siddique Akbar who was immersed in Lillahiyyat (the way of Allah) erred (blundered) in fulfilling a delicate demand of islam. 12. Personal greatness overcame and made Umar Radhiallahu Anhu helpless for a few moments at the time of the demise of Rasulullah Sal- lallahu alaihi wa Sallam. Ibid page 60. 13, Hazrat Uthman, on whom the burden of this great duty (of Khilafat) was placed, did not possess the qualifications that were granted to his noble predecessors. Therefore, Jahiliyyah found an inlet to creep into the social code of Islam. Ibid page 65. 14. The verdicts of the Khulafaa Raashideen, which they issued as Qadis, did not become law in Islam. Ibid page 66. 15. Hadhrat Uthman, one after the other, appointed tiis relatives to high posts, and gave them other such concessions, which generally became a source of criticism among the people. Ibid page 71. 16. For example he bequeathed on Marwan one fifth (5 lakh Dinars) from the booty of Africa. Ibid page 71. 17. History reveals, and it truly shows, that Marwan and Yazeed are despised personalities among the Muslim Ummah. These are the softest words that could be said regarding Marwan and Yazeed. Faraan monthly September 1976, page 42. 18. These policies of Uthman Radhiallahu Anhu are without doubt, erroneous. A wrong will remain a wrong, irrespective of who commits it. To try and prove it correct by oratory or fabrications is not the demand of logic and justice, nor is it the requirement of the Deen, that an error of a Sahaabi should not be called an error. Maududi Mazhab, page 73. 19. One very despicable Bid'ah began during the reign of Hadhrat Mu'aawiyah, that he himself, and by his orders, all his governors, while delivering Khutbas on the minbars reviled Hadhrat Ali Radhiallahu Anhu. To revile and swear a person after his demise, forget the Shari'ah, it was against human etiquette to do so, and especially to soil the Jum'ah Khutbah with such filth is a very debased act according to the Deen and etiquette. Ibid page 75. 20. The effort of joining together (Istilhaaq) Ziyaad bin Simayyah are also among those acts of Hadhrat Mu'aawiyah Radhiallahu Anhu, wherein because of political reasons he contravened an accepted law of the Shari'ah. Ibid page 76. 21. Hadhrat Mu'aawiyah Radhiallahu Anhu in trying to make him (Ziyaad) his supporter and helper took evidence on the adultery of his father (Abu Sufyaan). And after concluding proof therof, made Ziyaad his (Abu Sufyaan's) illegitimate son, and on that source made him his brother and a member of the family, This and in whatever manner it may be despised morally, is evident. But according to law --- this is an illicit thing, because in the Shari'ah paternity is not proven from adultery. ibid page 77. 22. Amr bin Al'aas committed two such acts, that there is no way out but to call if wrong. Ibid page 84. 23. Hadhrat Ali appointed Malik bin Haarith and Muhammad bin Abu- bakr as governors, whereas, these two people had a hand in the murder of Unman. This is known to everybody. During the entire reign of Ali Radhiallahu Anhu this is the only deed that it seems, cannot be called anything else but wrong. Ibid page 85. 24. Hadhrat Aysha Radhiallahu Anha and Hafsah Radhiallahu Anha became bold, and began to 'stretch their tongues' in the presence of Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam. Ibid page 88. 25. After studying History it is found that until now, no thorough Mujaddid was Dorn. It was near that Umar bin Abdulaziz attained that position, but he was not successful. Ibid page 91. 26. In the reviews of Immam Ghazali, there are a few llmi and Fikri flaws, and that may be distributed into three portions, One type is those flaws, that resulted in his works due to the poor knowledge of Hadith, The second type from among those flaws is due to the Aqliyyah overpowering his mind. And the third type from among these flaws is his leening towards Tasawwuf more than that which was necessary. Ibid page 92. 27. The first thing that rattles in me regarding the revival mission from the time of Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Thaani to the time of Shah (Waliyullah) Saheb and his disciples, in this, thar, in Tasawwuf they did not estimate the illness of the Muslims. They prescribed for them the same food from which they should have been completely kept away. Ibid page 92. 28. Neither Hadhrat Mujaddid Seheb nor Shah (Waliyullah) Saheb was unaware of this 'Illness'. Criticism regarding this is found in the writings of both. It is possible that they did not truly estimate the serious- ness of this 'disease'. For this reason these two venerable personalities gave these sick people the same food, which had proven to be fatal. The outcome of this was that gradually, both circles became influenced by the same disease. Ibid page 94. 29. Although Maulana Ismail Shaheed R. Alayhi understood this reality well and adopted the same course as that of Ibn Taymiyyah, but, as this was present in the literature of Shah Waliyullah Saber, the effects of which remained in the writings of Shah (smail Shaheed R. Alayhi, tlute chain of Peer/ Mureedi continued in the movement of Sayyid Saheb Therefore, this movement could not be free from the germs of the 'dis- ease of sufiyyat.' Ibid page 95. 30. And we note this 'Jahalah' - with the exception of a very small Jamaat - among the general Muslims from East to West, be they from il- literate pvblic; or graduate Ulama; or mendicant Mashaa'ikh; or grad- uates of colleges or universities. The thoughts, ways and manners of all these are different, but they are unanimous in not knowing the truth and soul of Islam. Ibid page 19. I have presented a few drops from the enraged ocean of Janab Maududi Saheb's criticism. All this, according to his own assertion, is written after examining by the 'standards' shown by Allah. I do not wish to discuss or debate each point. Think for yourself that after all these criticism what picture is formed of Islam in the mind. Nevertheless, I feel that for your convenience a few basic points should be presented The instruction of Janab Maududi Saheb that besides Rasulullah Sallallahu alihi wa Sallam no human is above Tanqeed (criticism). Before thinking of its outcome, first ponder that what is Tanqeed (criticism)? (The Oxford dictionary says it is judging of merit; critical observation). Tanqeed is an Arabic word which means to gauge, assay, examine, inspect, test and to ascertain the truth from untruth. In the Urdu asuage it means to be catious, seize on trifling faults, reveal shortcomings: i.e. Tanqeed will mean that after examining a thing, an error is ascertained, then its weak precints are proclaimed. When we say that a certain per- son criticised someone, then nothing else will be understood besides that the weak points of the person criticised are brought to light. That person was examined and all faults and shortcomings were revealed. Whatever thing or person that is the centre of criticism, the first pic- ture that comes to mind regarding that thing or person is that it or that person is not reliable, hence it or that person needs examining. Only after an examination could it be ascertained whether this thing or per- son is reliable, because that which is hundred percent reliable does not necessitate an examination. I am sure you have not yet seen a wise person in this world, who goes around examining reliable things. It is an accepted fact that, there is no necessity to test or inspect reliable things or personalities. Those things that are wothy of criticism, are not reliable. For example, regarding weights and meausres that are stamped by the government and used in commerce, one will not find people while purchasing articles going around, asking merchants: ""Mister, are these measures and weights used by you correct or not?"". After being stamped by the government these weights and measures are above criticism, and do not need any further examination. After all this, if one is found to do so, what shall be said of him? Now, when Maududi Saheb tells us that no human besides Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam is above criticism, then, nothing else is meant, but, that save Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam, no human is reliable before us. Janab Maududi Saheb labels this reliability as 'mental slavery', and that none should be influenced by the 'mental slavery' or any human besides that of Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sall am. For this reason, according to his own picture of Islam, he has not granted the verdicts of the Khulafaa Raashideen as legally lawful, whereas, Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam has in strong terms ad- vised his Ummah to strongly hold onto the Sunnahs of the Khulafaa Raashideen. You must have read this Hadith in the Mishkaat Shareef: 'Irbaad bin Saariyah Radhillahu Anhu reports: ""Rasulullah Sallalla- hu alihi wa Sallam after leading the salaah, turned his face towards us, and delivered a very dynamic lecture, (as a result of which) tears flowed from the eyes, and hearts were moved. (Thereafter) a person said: ""0 Messenger of Allah, this was like a farewell lec- ture, please advise us."" He said: ""I advise you to fear Allah, and obey and accept (your leaders), even if he be a Habshi slave, be- cause the one among you who will live after me, shall witness many discords. It is incumbent on you (to hold fast) onto my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Guided Khulafaa Raashideen. Hold fast unto it, and keep it tight with the teeth. Beware and stay away from new (modern) ideas and acts. For every new act (that is thought to be a part of religion) is Bid'ah, and every Bid'ah (leads) astray"". Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Tirmizi; Ibn Majah, Mishkaat page 29. Do you know that when one criticises another, what is meant by this? Listen, if the knowledge of a person is criticised (even if it is regarding one Mas'alah or an affair), it will mean that in this Mas'alah the opposite person's view is incorrect, or the knowledge of the criticiser is superior. If the understanding of one is attacked, it will mean the criticiser's un- derstanding is superior. If the deeds of a person are attacked, it will mean that the deed-s of the criticiser is of a higher standard. In short, for whatever reason the next person is criticised, it will mean that the knowledge, deeds, intelligence and understanding of the criticiser is superior. At times the criticiser is truly better than the opposite, but the criticiser in self vain imagination and aggrandisement regards himself to be su- perior. In Islam this is called 'Kibr' or 'Takabbur'. This is the same 'Kibr' which overtook Iblis, and through this wrang self aggrandisement, in- stead of being a 'Muallim Malakut', he was cursed till the day of Qiyaamah. Now put these Usul (principles) before you, and ponder over the criticism, and the Usul of Maududi Saheb's criticism. He gives every Tom, Dick and Harry the right to criticise everybody from among the Salf Saaliheen except Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam. You tell me what would this be called? According to Maududi Saheb, does every member of his Jamaat have better knowledge and understanding than the Salaf Saaliheen? If not, then what else can his motive be besides self conceited imaginations and notions? When Maududi Saheb says that Younus Alaihis salaam committed a few errors in fulfill- ing the Risalat, at that time his claim would tantamount to this, that he understood the responsibilities of the Risalat more than Younus Alaihis salaam, and possibly (Na Uzubillah) more than Allah, because the least, that is expected from Maududi Saheb is that he will not confer an im- portant post In his Jamaat to someone that he knows will not diligently carry out the duties. But according to Maududi Saheb Allah Ta'aala conferred the Risalat on Younus Alaihis salaam and did not take this precaution. In like manner when he says that the passion of Jahiliyyah overcame Younus Alaihis salaam, then it is, as if he is claiming that his foresight on the passions of Jahiliyyah is greater than that of Younus Alaihis salaam, and that he has the strength to withstand the passions of Jahiliyyah. He says regarding himself: 'It is Allah's faith that I did not commit any deed or say any word under the influence of my passions, nor did I commit it. Every word that I uttered in my lectures, I measured each one of them before saying them, remembering that I would have to account for it before Allah and the creation. Therefore, I am assured in my position that I did not utter a word against Haq'. Maududi Mazhab, page 29. When he says that Dawood Alaihis salaam was influenced by the customs of the Israeli society and committed certain acts, he forgets that Lhe one that is captivated by the 'mental slavery' of one's society can never be a Nabi. With all this, it gives one the impression that if Hazrat Maulana Abdul Aa'la Maududi was in the place of Dawood Alaihis sa- laam, he would never had asked 0rya to divorce his wife. When he says that in certain matters Hadhrat Mu'aawiyah Radhiallahu Anhu did not even take into consiaeration human morals, at that time he thinks of himself as a greater Aalim in human morality than Mu'aawiyah Radhiallahu Anhu. When he says that Mu'aawiyah Radhiallahu Anhu openly disobeyed a certain fundamental of the Shari'ah, at that time he presents himself as a greater Aalim of Shari'ah than Hadhrat Mu'aawiyah Radhiallahu Anhu. When he says that from the time of Umar bin Abdulaziz Rahmatullahi alaih till the time of Sayyid Ahmed Shahid Rahmatullahim aiayht, there was a shortcoming in the Tajdeedi missions of all the Mujaddids, at that time he tries to make believe that he understands Tajdeed and revival of the Deen more than all those pious elders. And when he very proudly claims this: 'Instead of understanding the Deen from the present or previous personalities, I have always tried to understand it from the Qur'aan and Sunnah) Therefore, always when trying to know what the Deen of Allah wants from me and every Mu'min, I never try to see what certain Buz- rugs have said, but rather, I try to see what the Qur'aan says and what Rasul says'.* Maududi Mazhab, page 98. * [Who taught you the Quraan and Sunnah? People of the present or the past! The Angels of the Mala Aalaa?, or like Ghulam Ahmed Qadiani, he came with it from the stomach of his mother? It is the height of ungratefullness. Those through the Barakah of whom a few correa or incorrect words were learnt, are being rejected and discarded.2 Fundamentally, these are the same viewpoints of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed Qadiani and Ghulam Ahmed Parwez] He is actually trying to show to the people that in the long History of the Ummah there was not born anyone besides himself who understood the Deen. Well, this is a different subject, on which Insha'Allah, when time permits, I will say something. Briefly, I would say this, that the mo- tive of criticism is always that one feels 'Ana khayrum minhu' (I am bet- ter than him). It one is really superior to another in knowledge, under- standing, deeds and morals, then verily one has the right to criticise an- other who has a lower standard. If one on his own accord feels supe- rior, and if this is his motive, then every Mu'min should beseech Allah for His protection. Now in reality if Janaab Maududi Saheb is superior in knowledge, understanding, deeds, Taqwa etc than these whom he has criticised, then, without doubt he has the right to cirticise them, But if in comparison to these gentlemen, he really is lower, and has the urge to criticise, then what can his motive be besides high mindedness, arrogance, self- conceit and Takabbur? According to the viewpoint of Janab Maududi Saheb, when no individual of the 1400 year old Ummah is above criticism, nor can anyone be rehed upon, and according to the standards shown by Allah, it is incumbent to examine every person, then this question arises, that the Deen that has reached the Ummah of today through the Naql Riwaayah, knowledge and deeds of the Salaf Saaliheen, could it be relied upon? Do you know that the proofs and arguments of our Deen are taken from four sources: (a) The Kitaab of Allah (b) The sunnah of Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam (c) The Ijmaa of the Ummah (d) and the Qiyaas of the Mujtahideen. The Fiqhi Masaa'il of the A'immah Mujtahideen have been abrogated in such a manner, that Mashaa'Allah, Maududi himself is a Mujtahid Mut- laq. He is not in need of benefitting from any present or past tutor to understand the Deen. When the whole Ummah is in need of a critical examination and are thought to be unreliable, then it is clear that Ijmaa will be of no value The dependance of the Kitaab and Sunriah are on Riwaayat and Diraayat, especially when according to the research of Janab Maududi Saheb the Sahaabah Kiraam Radhiallahu Anhum at- tacked one another and (Na Uzubillah) called one another liars If in re- ality, Na Uzubillah, the Sahaabah Kiraam Radhiallahu Anhum were as pictured by the crrticism of Maududi Saheb, then it is evident that the Ummah that will come after this will be even worse The result will be that beginning from the Qur'aan and Hadith till the Ijmaa and Qiyaas, everything will be doubtful and will be regarded as unreliaLilv, until Mau- dudi Saheb will show us through the standards shown to I;am by Allah, that liow reliable a certain thing is and how unreliable others are In all fairness, please tell us, what else besides this did Mirza Gtiwlam Ahmed Qadiani and Mr. Ghulam Ahmed Parvez say? Where did Maududi Saheb attain this 'Allah's Standard', in the light of which every indwidual from the Salaf Saaliheen have been examined and graded' What! will Wahi again be revealed to him, or will he leap back fourteen hundred years and personally hear the Ov,r'aan and Sunnah from Rasulullah Sal- lallahu alaihi wa Sallam? When he does not accept the connections of any personality of the past or present, nor is he prepared to shoulder the 'mental slavery' of anyone, then from which cave will he recerve the 'Standards of Allah'? You may also know that Allah Ta'aala has taken upon Himself to safeguard this last Deen of ours till the Day of Qiyaamah. The Deen can only be safeguarded when the words of the Nusus of the Deen are preserved without any changes. Its meanings are also preserved. Then the manner in which Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam had practised and demonstrated it himself, and how the Sahaabah Kiraam Radhialiahu Anhum practised these in his presence, should also be preserved Then through these deeds the proficiency in Islamic thought arC pleasure; the path of Ihsaan; and the understanding of the Deen that is created, should also remain preserved. Briefly, four things are mentioned here: words, meanings, deeds and Islamic thought. We who are engrossed in 'mental slavery' do not think, but it is our belief that Allah Ta'aala has without any break or interruption preserved these four things, and we are indebted to those through whom these were preserved. They are our guides and leaders. We have complete reliance on them. We are their 'mental slaves', and we are thankful for their kindness and benevolence. If hypothetically these great personalities are removed from in between, and ."". is thought that in a certain period of words, meanings, deeds and Islamic thought could not have been preserved, or it could not be relied upon, then, be- cause of this, the entire structure of the Deen is being put into a nega- tive light. But, according to the viewpoint of Maududi Saheb, not one of the four things mentioned remains credible, because the disgrace of being 'mentally enslaved' to the personalities of the past or present periods is totally unacceptable in his lofty court, nor will he accept in any way. Even if we give him the benefit of the doubt, that the words of the Qur'aan and Sunnah are preserved, then too the stages of interpre- ting the words and giving them their proper meanings, and through practising them, for one to reach the stage"" of Islamic thought, will yet have to be covered. Since Maududi Saheb does not accept the 'mental slavery' of any human, therefore he will have to traverse this whole path on his own, and in the same manner he will also have to cover the path through his own intellect and understanding The result that will ensue and the picture that one will form of the Deen needs no comments. It is a fact that a person that wants to remain in the Deen of Muhammed Sallallahu alaihi wa Salam, will have to become a 'mental slave' of those Salaf Saaliheen who had upheld the Deen. The person that cannot withstand this 'disgrace' or does not want to follow it, cannot attain true Islam (The Islam brought by Muhammed Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam), even if one reaches the highest of positions. After refuting the reliability of the sayings and conditions of the Salaf Saaliheen and not becoming engrossed in their 'mental slavery', if Janab Maududi Saheb has in- vented some scientific way, we will be looking forward to know about it, on condition that it is a bit different from the styles and modes of Mr. Parvez and Mirza Qadiani. I accept that Janab Maududi Saheb is a good author and has a fiow- ing pen, but I feel that he in his lofty thoughts, sometimes uses such words that according to the situation are utterly out of context. For example, take the words ' above criticism' and 'mental slavery'. These, according to their coherence are meaningless. Ponder, that if 'mental slavery' is not a shortcoming in the Islamic religion, but is a thing to be proud of a thousand times, then should one not be proud of following the path of the Salaf Saaliheen and those who have shouldered the burden of Islam? What shall be the meaning of this saying of Rasulullah Sallallahy alaihi wa Sallam.: 'That my Ummah will never unite on falsehood'. Picture a child of the grades who went to Madrasah or school for the first time. The Ustaaz began teaching him the alphabets, and taught him that this is 'Alif' and that is ""Ba'. In reply to this the pupil says: 'Sir, I am a thinker of the fourteen century (or nineteen century AD.), why should I accept your 'mental slavery'? It is apparent what type at edu- cation this 'thinker' will attain. We do not even hold this position in rela- tion to the Sahaabah and Salaf Saaliheen, as the relation of the modern 'thinker' had with his Ustaaz. We learned the rudiments of Deen from these noble personalities. The result of the revolt against conforming to their 'mental slavery' is not different from that pupil who claimed to be a 'thinker'. may Allah forgive me. I am of the opinion that those who severe their links from the Salaf Saaliheen, and throw off the yoke of their 'mental slavery', and are trying to map out a new path of Islam, in essence they do not acknowledge Islam, but repeatedly use the words of the Qur'aan and Sunnah, because there is no other way to spread their Kufr and disbelief among the Muslim public. I do not regard Janab Maududi Saheb among. them, but it is regretted that he has, by reject- ing the 'mental salvery' of every personality among the Salaf Saaliheen, given preference to the 'mental slavery' of the orientalist western dis- believers, and he has adopted the 'mentality of the free thinkers' after whom the modernists of today are running. Janab Maududi Saheb has satirized and ridiculed the following of the path of the Salaf Saaliheen as 'mental slavery' which the Qur'aan pro- daims as 'Sabilul Mu'mineen' (a way for the believers) and has warned those who disregard it of a severe punishment in Jahannam. This is the same 'mental slavery' that the Qur'aan describes as ""As Siraatal Mus- taqeem' (The straight path), and instructs one to supplicate for its guid- ance. Also, this is the same 'mental slavery' for which the Muslims rub their noses five times a day and make du'aa. What a bad and distateful interpretaiton this is, that the path on which countless caravans of pious people have trodden, the following of whom is today labelled as 'mental slavery'. If you have studied the emergence of all the false sects dunng the Is- lamic period, then this truth will dawn upon you that the Foundation of all these sects are on ""Ana wala ghayri"" (Me and no one besides me) All these heve felt ashamed of the 'mental slavery' of the Salaf Saali- heen, and have floated their lofty thoughts in the jungles of their own in- telligence and understanding. Thereafter, whichever way their heads rose their thoughts began to float in that way. The first fitnah in Islam was introduced by Abdullah bin Saba, a Jew, whose basic thinking was founded on that no one is above criticism besides the noble personality of Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam Then from the stomach of this Saba'iyyah the fitnafi of the Khawaarij was born, who exclaimed aloud that Ali Radhiallahu Anhu and the other Sahaabah did not understand Islam ""We understand more than them"". Then on the same basis the sects of Mu'tazilah, Murjiyyah, Qadriyyah, etc took root. Each one of them potrayed! the following of the Salaf as 'men1al slavery/'. They went astray and led others astray. In our mod- ern times the new sects that emerged, although their basis and view- points differ, you will find that they are more or less unanimous on the above point. It is fashionable today to satirize the Saiaf Saaliheen; to extract worms from their deeds; injure their personalities; shoot arrows of criticism at them; and label their following as, revisionism, out moded, obsolete, orthodoxy, mental slavery, etc. etc It is sad that Janab Maududi Saheb has also based his 'Islamic Movement' on these lines. When we read the history of the Khawaarij, we were surprised at their boldness. They claimed to understand the Deen more than such a personality who had seen with his own eyes the Sun of Islam rise, and who had been an associate and confidant of Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam during his 23 year period of Nubuwwat, who had eye- wit- nessed every incident of the Nazule Wahi; who had spent his whole life from childhood till old age in the service of Islam. We fail to understand what has happened to their senses? They vehemently criticise his relig- ious understanding. History repeats itself. Today the criticisms of Janaab Maududi Saheb (his attack on Uthman Radhiallahu Anhu and other Sahaabah) has removed our astonishment and surprise regarding the Khaarijis. Maududi Saheb tries to make us understand that Uthman Radhiallahu anhu was not able to upkeep the 'Islamic system', nor did anyone after him have!he guidance and power to do so. Now Janab Maududi Saheb's 'Islamic movement will spear the Islamic System. 'In hiya illa Khaarijiyyatun Jadidatun' (Verily it is a new Khaariji order) The angels of Allah are modest in presence of Uthman Radhiallahu Anhu. Rasulullah Salallahu alaihi wa Sallam says: 'Should I not feel modest before that person, in the presence of whom the Malaa'ikah feel modest' Muslim, Mishkat page 56). Maududi Saheb does not feel a jerk by this, but showers licentious criti- cism on him. Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam in recognising the great sacrifices of Uthman Radhiallahu Anhu says: 'Whatever Uthman Radhiallahu Anhu does after this, there shall be no accusation upon him' Tirmizi, Mishkat. But Maududi Saheb feels it an honour to heap accusations on him Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam advises the Ummah: 'Fear Allah regarding my Sahaabah (companions), fear Allah re- garding my Sahaabah. Do not make them a source of criticism after me. That person who has loved them, has loved them be- cause they love me, and those who hate them, have hated them because they hate me'. Tirmizi. But Maududi Saheb deems it important to criticise them by sifting them all through a sieve. It grants every Tom, Dick and Harry the right to criticise. By criticising them it instructs the Ummah to despise and hate them, so that people may keep away from becoming their 'mental slaves'. This is the same Khaarijiyyah in a new colour, which surfaced during the time of Sahaabah It is stated in the Hadith that the 'Later one's among this Urnmah will curse its forebearers'. I end this letter, by mentioning the command of the Faqihul Ummah, Abdullah bin Mas'ud Radhhllahu Anhu. You may compare the 'standard of truth' between that of this great Sahaabi and that of Maududi Saheb. He says: 'If you wish to follow anyone, then follow the path of those who have passed away, because one is not safe from the fitnah of a living person. I mean those who are among the Sahaabah of Muhammed Sallallahu alaihi wa Sallam. They were the best among this Ummah; they possessed the clearest of hearts; they attained the deepest of knowledge; and had the least formalities. Allah Ta'aala had chosen them as companions of His Nabi and to up- keep His Deen. Therefore, recognise their virtues, and follow their footsteps. As far as possible hold fast unto their characters and qualities, because they are on the straight path'. Razeen." 61,"Ambiyaa (Alaihis-Salaam) and Sahabah [Radhaillahu-anhu] in Maududis sight",5563,637,636,"(Tafheemaat, Past 2 P.42 2nd Edition Urdu). (3) ""There was some interference of sensual desires in the act of Dawood (Alaihis-Salaam). It had also some relation with the improper use of authoritative power and it was such an act which did not suit any sovereign wishing to rule with justice"". by Maulana Yusuf Ludhianwi Do you appreciate how significant the position of Risalaat (prophethood and apostleship) is?. Are you enlightened how exquisite the status and stature of Nabuwwat (prophethood) is? by Maulana Yusuf Ludhianwi ""Any such interpretation which is not deserving of the venerated status of any Nabi (prophet) is not permissible"". The very own splendid example of Rasullulah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is our guide in this matter.Through the entire treasures of ahadith not a single word will be found which is in any way derogatory to the status of any Nabi. But Maududi Sahib's pen, even after entering the sacred sanctuary of Risalaat (prophethood), remains unacquainted to respect the Ambiyaa (Alaihis-Salaam).Very informally and casually he says, (1) ""The example of Moosa (Alaihis-Salaam) is like that of a hasty conqueror who, without stabilising his authority, surges ahead, while revolt spreads like fire behind in the conquered territories"". (Tarjumaanul Qur'an Vol. 29 No. 4 P.5 Urdu). (2) Hadhrat Dawood (Alaihis-Salaam) became influenced by the common customs of the Israelites (Jewish Society) of his time and requested Auriya for a divorce."" (Tafheemaat, Past 2 P.42 2nd Edition Urdu). (3) ""There was some interference of sensual desires in the act of Dawood (Alaihis-Salaam). It had also some relation with the improper use of authoritative power and it was such an act which did not suit any sovereign wishing to rule with justice"". (Tafheemaat Qur'an - Vol. 4 Surah Saad P. 327 - Urdu). (4) While mentioning Nooh (Alaihis-Salaam) he writes, ""Many a time, a dignified personality like a prophet also, becomes, in some delicate phycological matter,overcome by human weaknesses for some time ....... But when Almighty Allaah warns him that to regard the son who rejected the truth and supported falsehood is yours, merely because he is your descendant, is an un-Islamic sentiment of ignorant people, then he becomes of his sentiments and retreats to the mode of thought which Islaam demands"". (Tafheemal Qur'an - Vol. 2 P. 344 3rd Edition). (5) Regard the sayings of Sayyidina Yusuf (Alaihis-Salaam): ""Make me a custodian of the (Egyptian) exchequer"" Maududi Sahib says, ""This was not a demand to be the Minister of Finance only, as some people understand, this was not a demand of the ministerial office of finance only, but a demand for dictatorship. As a result this position which Sayyidina Yusuf (Alaihis-Salaam) got is almost the same which Mussolini enjoyed in Italy those days"". (Tafheemaat - Part 2 P 122 5th Edition). (6) ""Sayyidina Yunus (Alaihis-Salaam) fell short in executing the duties of Prophethood. He had most probably become impatient also and abandoned his abode a foretime"". Possibly, according to Maududi Sahib and his eulogists, in words such as, a. Hasty conqueror; b. Due to sensual desires; c. Improper use of power of authority; d. Overpowered by human weaknesses; e. Prey on ignorant sentiments; f. Deficiencies in the execution of the duties of prophethood; g. But a demand for dictatorship? There lies no importance or denegration,and therefore,considers the usage of such words regarding the Ambiyaa (Alaihis-Salaam) as proper-Let us consider,firstly,if similar words are used for Maududi's own person then won't they be offensive to him or any of his eulogists? For example, if it be said that Maududi is a dictator, he is enslaved to his carnal desires, he is subdued by barbaric sentiments, he misuses his power of authority, and he has failed in discharging his duties, and so on.Then I think that none of Maududi's devotees will be prepared to tolerate ""these accusations"". If these words are not worthy of Maududi's personal dignity, but a diminution of Maududi and are words of disrespect, then justly say, are such words befitting and apt for the pious, pure, infallible Ambiyaa (Alaihis-Salaam). Listen to one more passage of the same style concerning Hadhrat Adam (Alaihis-Salaam), ""Here that human weakness should be understood which Adam (Alaihis-Salaam) made manifest. In short, an instant urge, which arose under the effect of Satanic inducement had cast a shadow of forgetfulness over him, no sooner had the grasp of self restraint weakened, that he landed from the lofty plain of obedience onto the humiliating grounds of transgression"". (Tafheemal Qur'an - Vol 3 p.133.) If the distinguished name of Sayyidina Adam (Alaihis-Salaam) be omitted from this passage and Maududi's name be written in it's place, then my estimation is that there will be lamentations in his circle and a disturbance in Pakistan in his circle. From this it is proven that this sentence is not suitable at all but in fact it is transparent impudence and disrespect. Another example of it (Maududi's vile pen) is a passage regarding ""The Mothers of the Believers"". ""They had become to a greater degree intrepid against Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) and started to be impudent"". (Haft Rauzah - Asia Lahore) Maududi has mentioned the above sentence concerning the wives of Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) but I consider it more audacious against the reverence of Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) himself than his wives. This much is manifest that neither is the wife of Maududi more cultured than the Mothers of the faithful (Radhaillahu-anhu) nor is Maududi himself more sanctified than Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam). Now if any of Maududi's devotees happens to say that Maududi's wife is impudent to Maududi, then surely Maududi will sense degradation and vilification in these words. Why are these words then not considered disrespectectful for the wives of Nabi (SAW) ?. In brief, do the literary masterpieces which have flown from the pen of Maududi regarding the Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) fall in the category of impudence or not? One measure of judgement then is that if these same wordings are considered disrespectful to Maududi and they can cause his devotees aggravation, then he should accept that they are equal to Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) and a cause of heartbreak to his followers. A second standard is, that if these sentences are used in Urdu then what did the people whose mother tongue is Urdu comprehend from it?. After being scrutinised on these two standards, the decision reached that these sentences are more unquestionably insubordinate, then Maududi should not persist on their usage, but repent from them, because the slightest impoliteness regarding the Ambiyaa (Alaihis-Salaam), is a sign of the divestment of Imman. After the Ambiyaa (Alaihis-Salaam) the most blessed group of humanity is that of the Noble Sahabahah (companions) (Radhaillahu-anhu), especially the four rightly guided Kulafa.Their status is a purgatory one between the Ambiyaa (Alaihis-Salaam) and their followers. Therefore, whatever has flown from the pen of Maududi in ""Tajdeed wa ahaya wa deen"", ""Khilaafaat wa Moolukiyiat"" and ""Tafhimul - Qur'an"" concerning the oppressed Khalifs, Sayyidina Uthman (Radhaillahu-anhu) Hadhrat Ali (Radhaillahu-anhu), Hadhrat Talha (Radhaillahu-anhu), Hadhrat Zubair (Radhaillahu-anhu), Hadhrat Ayesha (Radhaillahu-anhu), Hadhrat Muawiya (Radhaillahu-anhu), Hadhrat Abu-Moosa Ashary (Radhaillahu-anhu), Hadhrat Amr ibn - al'aas (Radhaillahu-anhu), Hadhrat Utbah (Radhaillahu-anhu) and other companions (Radhaillahu-anhu) - and Maududi is adamant on it being correct - I consider it pure schism and confirmation of his SHITE beliefs. I have reached this conclusion, after reading these writings of Maududi, that the way he is unacquainted with the position of Nabuwat, similarly is his knowledge of the exalted position of the Sahabaha very scanty. If Maududi only remembered one sentence of Sheikh Ahmed Sirdindi (Radhaillahu-anhu) Revivalist of the Second Millennium: - no Saint can reach the rank and status of a companion (Sahabahi) because Uwais Qarni despite his exulted status, did not enjoy the company of Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam), he cannot obtain the position of the lowest Sahabahi (companion). A person inquired from Abdullah bin Mubarak (Radhaillahu-anhu) as to which of the two, Hadhrat Muawiya (Radhaillahu-anhu) or Hadhrat Umar bin Abdul Azziz (Radhaillahu-anhu) is more excellent. He replied thus: ""The dust which entered the nostril of Hadhrat Muawiya (Radhaillahu-anhu) nose while in the company of Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) is also greater than Umar Abdul Azziz by several degrees"". A highly refined point I consider necessary to mention here is that the honour which the Noble Companions have acquired due to their association with, and their companionship of, Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) cannot be contested by the entire Ummahs good deeds put together.Just ponder, can the entire Ummah's prayers put together be equal to only 2 rakaats of Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) prayer in which the Noble Companions had the good fortune of participated. If in response to the call of Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) any companion had given one kilo barley in the path of Allaah Ta'ala which is granted acceptance, can subsequent followers gain this honour even if they are to spend gold equivalent to a mountain in weight? ESTIMATE ACCORDINGLY OTHER VIRTUOUS DEEDS ON THIS SCALE. An honour greater than that of companionship. which the companions enjoyed was that they had the privilege of being the students of the school of Nabawwat, whose guide and tutor was Hadhrat Muhammad (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) himself, whose curriculum was prepared there, where the inmates of Jannat (Heaven), the angels, dwell, whose education was being supervised directly by divine revelation and whose examinations the Knower of the unknown took. After their tuition, had been tried from all angles, Almighty Allaah granted to them the degree of ""Allaah is pleased with them and they ( the Sahaba companions) are pleased with Him"", and entrusted to them the responsibility of the guidance and instructions of the entire humanity and adorned the throne of :""you all are the best of the ummats (nation) evolved for mankind"" for them. If you would reflect, it would be known to you that besides the pious Ambiyaa (Alaihis-Salaam), only the Sahaba are such whose education took place under the direct supervision of divine revelation and Almighty Allaah awarded personally to them the Testimonial of Excellence. MAUDUDI SAHIB AND THE PRETENCE OF HISTORY The disciples of Maududi cajole their hearts by saying that whatever Maududi has written, he wrote with reference from history, and it is a masterpiece of his pen that he has connected scattered historical facts and compiled a consistent history. With due respect I will submit in their presence that this assumption of theirs is erroneous for numerous reasons: Firstly, neither is Maududi's crafty masterpiece historical evidence, nor is it a proper, correct, portrayal of the Noble Companions, but rather a fable tainted by Maududi's mental fantasies and delusions. Fiction writing, novel writing has become a literary test of the day. In fact, it has become a present day tendency. Maududi's of disposition has composed a fabrication named ""Khilaafaat wa Maolukiat"" on the Noble Sahaba (Radhaillahu-anhu) which has no real existence in the factual world. If any Sahabahi (Radhaillahu-anhu) would have been alive today, he would have surely complained of Maududi's pen in the language of Sheikh Saadi: ""He laughed and said, this is not my picture put the pen is in the enemy's hand"". If Maududi held the Sahaba (Radhaillahu-anhu) in some admiration he would not have made their venerated personalities characters of his fiction story after the explicit pronouncements of the Qur'an:- ""He (Allaah Ta'ala) is pleased with them and they (the Sahabahi) are pleased with Him."" Secondly: In Europe the task of mutilating genuine personalities of Islaam and disfiguring their biographies and conduct is being carried out most cunningly and many Zionist orientilist are engaged in this task. They,too, in the very same way gather scattered historical data according to their self presumption to form an imaginary photo and make the world believe that they are forwarding historical facts without adulteration of the slightest prejudice. But contrary to this verbal claim of theirs they camouflage historical facts which are acknowledged universally. They misinterpret, simple straight forward matters, they exaggerate unduly and turn mustard seeds into mountains, and present them, fully colouring it with additions with good or ill sense, but their bigotry and enmity for Islaam cannot be hidden. We cannot even envisage that any such person who believes in Allaah Ta'ala and His Rasul (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) will exactly follow in the footsteps of the orientilist.But unfortunately, Maududi's book, ""Khilaafat wa Muulekiyat"" is styled in this identical technique.The reader thinks that Maududi is gathering historical facts, but he is not aware what Maududi is selecting from history and what he is discarding or what he is eliminating and adding from his side. In summary,despite the way the orientilist remain incompetent of hiding their malady of animosity towards Islaam,the like of it becomes obvious in Maududi's oriental masterpiece,which notwithstanding a thousand formalities, cannot conceal hatred for Sahaba (Radhaillahu-anhu). Now if the ""research"" of Maududi and his disciples are correct then the ""research"" of the orientilist is more worthy of being called correct, and if the zionist orientilist course of action is incorrect, then, in accordance,Maududi's conduct is also wrong. It is said by Maududi that the Noble Companions (Radhaillahu-anhu) were after all human beings, they were not angels, they were not sinless, let alone them committing mistakes and slip-ups, they even committed major sins. What type of religion and faith is that which does not call faults as faults ?. Firstly, I will mention that to select the faults of the Noble Companions (Radhaillahu-anhu) Maududi felt the need to use the support of Waaqidi and Kalbi, whereas Allaah Ta'ala, Knower of the unseen was fully aware of every in and out of the companions.He was aware of every single state of their hearts and every thought of their minds.He also knew that they are human and not sinless.He also had the knowledge of the past and what is to happen in the future. In spite of knowing all this Allaah Ta'ala awarded them the honour of the verse: ""He (Allaah) is pleased with them and they (the companions) are pleased with Him"", then their faults become the meaning of the couplet, ""This wrong is better than a hundred rights"". After this declaration what right does Maududi have to find faults in these great Sahaba (Radhaillahu-anhuma).Is it not this an open confrontation with the All Mighty Allaah.Where HE, in spite of all their mistakes, announces eternal pleasure and satisfaction for the Sahaba-e-Kiram (Radhaillahu-anhuma). But Maududi is not prepared to make a compromise with these nobles ? A second request I wish to make is that even supposing the Noble Companions (Radhaillahu-anhu) committed errors,is what purpose do you wish to fulfil after fourteen hundred years other than adding to the ignominy of your deed chart, by compiling a document of offences of thee Noble Companions (Radhaillahu-anhuma). If these noble personalities were alive today, you could have given them notice of their faults, but for people who passed away some fourteen hundred years ago, to selectively compile their faults and defects from wrong reference and to dump this heap of filth before the nation,- what else can the purpose of it be other than to effect the respect and good opinion which rests in the minds of Muslims, concerning the Sahaba (Radhaillahu-anhu) and impressions of malice and aversion be induced in its place? I wish to ask: is this the demand of intelligence and faith? The delicate issue which Maududi has touched upon in his book, ""Khilafat wa Mulukiyat"", is mentioned in our books of belief under the title ""Controversy of Sahaba (Radhaillahu-anhu)"" and it is such a narrow bridge of Imman which is sharper then a sword and thinner than a hair.Therefore,our pious predecessors have advised us to take always into consideration their respect at this juncture and to put a bridle to the tongue and pen ,to control the tongue and pen. Not only subsequent generations but also superficially enlightened people of even the times of the Sahaba torn to pieces the garment of gait in this thorny valley. Our pious predecessors were ever engaged in removing thorns spread by these irreligious ones, but Maududi invites them as the defence council and rejects their works adjudging them as positive fabrications and unintelligible paraphrases.And collecting all those thorns in which the dissenters and externals get entangled and spoil their faith and further more dumps them before the new generations.Justly speaking should it be called service to Islaam or should it be named an effort to blow the spirit of Shis'ism. And what have Maududi and his followers hope that after this `great work', their be resurrection will be among the Ahle-Sannat-wal Jamaat and not among the dissenters. As much as I think,I cannot get to solve this quandary: did Maududi write this book for the guidance of the new generation or to cause them to revolt from the straight path ? The most troublesome matter is that for the investigation of incidents which occurred fourteen hundred years back, Maududi establishes a religious tribunal of which he becomes a self appointed judge and where the great Companions are brought in this court as convicts. Evidence is lead by Wakidi and Kalbi; Maududi is himself the judge and plaintiff . Moreover, if the Pious Predecessors plead in defence of the Noble Sahaba (Radhaillahu-anhuma), then it is rejected as definite fabrication and unreasonable elucidation. After a one sided proceeding in this manner, Maududi compiles his investigatory report and presents it to the national audience in the name of ""Khilaafat wa Moolukiyiat"". Nonetheless,in these investigations were trustworthiness and honesty considered? Setting this aside,to what degree was caution exerted in the cross examination of testimonials and, besides, to what magnitude did the talented judge demonstrate soundness of thought in giving his own mental fancies the colour of facts. I wish to state this with due respect: does Maududi's self made tribunal have the right of hearing the case ? Is he of that rank that he sits down to solve the cases of Hadhrat Muhammad Mustafa's (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) students in other words,. the elevated Sahabaha (Radhaillahu-anhuma). I do not know what is the opinion of Maududi's eulogists regarding this, but wish to state in no uncertain terms that only a court higher than the Companions can hear their case, and that is either Muhammad (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) or Allaah who is the Judge of Judges. Besides these too not Maududi, nor even a single follower is authorised to interfere in the matter of this blessed group. If the supreme most person of today is to open the affairs of the Sahaba (Radhaillahu-anhuma), its example is nothing more than this, that a stranger sits and establishes a court in the bazaar and makes the people listen to his impartial judgement regarding some government ministers,Of such occasions it is said:- ""Ayaaz, realise your own worth!"" This fact should be thoroughly understood that Almighty Allaah has granted the Noble Companions the post of patrons, mentors, leadership and favourites of the followers. Stress has been laid in the Qur'an and Ahadith on following in their footsteps and having love for them, and their condemnation and malignant criticism has been classified unlawful and a cause of curse. Maududi himself acknowledges that according to he,himself,the one who abuses the Noble Companions is not only a transgressor, rather in fact his faith is doubtful. ""Whoever harbours ill feelings for them, he does so because of malice for me"". Tarjumanul Qur'an - August 1961). Those who have read Maududi's book ""Khilafat wa Moolukiyat"", will testify, that in it the Nobel Companions have been openly abused and the authors detestation and animosity for the Noble Companions is absolutely evident.For example (1) under the heading 'Declining of the Law'; Maududi writes that another extremely abhorrent innovation had started during the times of Hadhrat Muawiya (Radhaillahu-anhu) when he, himself, and ordered by him, his governors bombarded Hadhrat Ali (Radhaillahu-anhu) with abusive language in their Friday sermons, to this extent that in the Masjid-e-Nabawi on the pulpit (mimbar) of Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam),in the very presence of the Mausoleum (Rodhi-e-Aqdas) of Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam) his most beloved was being abused, and Hadhrat Ali's (Radhaillahu-anhu) children and closest relatives used to listen to these abuses with their own ears. Secondly: To abuse someone after his death is contary not on,religious grounds but, it is also contrary to human ethics; especially pollute the Friday sermon. This order was extremely nauseating from religious and ethical points of view. In the distribution of booties Maududi's claim was that Hadhrat Mawiyah (Radhaillahu-anhu) had violated explicit injunction of the Qur'an and Sunah of Nabi (SallAllaahu alayhi wasallam)... according to the Qur'an and Hadith one fifth (1/5) of the spoils of war should be deposited in the public treasury and the remaining four fifths (4/5 should be distributed amongst the army which took part in the battle. But Hadhrat Mawiyah (Radhaillahu-anhu) gave orders that gold and silver should first be kept aside for him, thereafter should the remaining goods be distributed according to religious law. Thirdly: Maududi states that the demand for Zayad-ibn-Somiyya's annexation is also considered to be amongst those acts of Hadhrat Muawiya (Radhaillahu-anhu) in which once again violated a command of Sharia.This was obviously an unlawful act. Fourthly: Maududi says that Hadhrat Muawiya (Radhaillahu-anhu) had placed his governors above jurisdiction and he openly refused to hold proceedings according to the religious law. Whatever has been written in these passages by Maududi to vilify Sayyidina Muawiya (Radhaillahu-anhu) is totally and entirely contrary to the facts, and the Ulamma have already clarified and presented the truth. All I wish to mention here is: will all those people who accept Maududi's words and regard his adorned fabrication as fact have love for Hadhrat Muawiya (Radhaillahu-anhu) and all other great Companions,or will they bear hatred? Will they be proud of their leadership or will they curse them? Does Maududi in his own words condemn Hadhrat Muawiya (Radhaillahu-anhu) or exult him ? If one submits this to Maududi, then according to his very own narration, ""He is not only a transgressor, but his belief is doubtful"". Then what, worth this ill-timed audacity be , I do not expect from Maududi that he will ever be regretful, but I consider making this submission necessary that ""Its end is extremely dangerous"".It is written in books that an erudite Shite researcher of Tus had in the closing pages of his book ""Tajreedul Aqaid"" spoke against the Sahaba (Radhaillahu-anhu), while on his dead bed,had waste coming out his mouth like Gulam Ahmad Qadanani. Indicating towards,someone assed in Persian, ""What is this ?"" Someone present, who did not hold this dying one in high esteem, replied, ""This is the very same filth you have consumed towards the end of "" Tajreed"". May Allaah, The Exalted, protect us from being disrespectful to the elders. If the most blessed group of Islaam, the Noble Companions (May Allaah be pleased with them) are not approved by Maududi's pen what can be the worth of subsequent Pious Predecessors, Noble followers, Jurists and scholars of Hadith, Theologians and Sufis in his (Maududi's) court?" 62,"The Virtues of Charity",5564,637,636,"1. It is mentioned in a Hadith that generosity is a great attribute of Allah Ta'ala. In other words, Allah Ta'ala is extremely generous. 2. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the servant of Allah gives a small piece of bread as charity. In the sight of Allah Ta'ala that small piece increases to such an extent that it equals the size of Mt. Uhud. In other words, Allah Ta'ala increases the reward that one would have received for the small piece of bread to such an extent that he receives the reward equal to Mt. Uhud. We should therefore not concern ourselves with how much we give. Instead, we should give in charity whatever we are capable of giving. 3. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should save yourself from hell even if it means giving a few dry dates in charity. That is, even if you have very little, give it in charity. Do not be under the misconception that how will such a meagre amount be of any benefit. This meagre amount will also be a means of deliverance from hell. 4. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should seek sustenance from Allah Ta'ala by spending in His path. In other words, by your giving charity, Allah Ta'ala will grant you barakah in your sustenance. 5. It is mentioned in a Hadith that charitable deeds save one from calamities, discreet and undisclosed charity cools the anger of Allah Ta'ala, and having good relations with one's relatives and family members increases one's lifespan. If a person feels that by doing good deeds openly and publicly, others will also be prompted to do the same, then in such a case it will be preferable for him to do such deeds publicly. But if this is not the case, then it will be preferable for him to do them secretly. In both cases, the pre-condition is that there must be no other reason for carrying them out publicly or privately. 6. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the beggar has a right over the person whom he asks even if he comes begging on a horse. In other words, if a beggar comes begging on a horse, even then he should be given something because it is apparent that he is most probably in some dire need for him to come begging. In such circumstances one should not think that how can this beggar be really in need if he can afford to come on a horse. However, if it has been established through some means that this person is not in need and that he has made begging his occupation, then it will be haraam to give anything to such a person. It is also haraam for such a person to go around begging. Understand this well. 7. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Allah Ta'ala is noble and He loves nobility. He loves good character and good manners, and dislikes evil character and evil mannerisms. In other words, He loves the person who shows lofty character in doing good deeds (such as spending in charity, saving himself from degradation, enduring difficulties on account of others, etc.) and He dislikes despicable ethics and habits (such as lack of vigour and courage in matters of the Deen.) 8. It is mentioned in a Hadith that charity cools the heat of the grave and that the person who gives in charity will be granted shade on the day of judgement. In other words, through the barakah of charity, the heat of the grave will become cool and the person will be granted some shade on the day of judgement. 9. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Allah Ta'ala has chosen special servants of His in order to fulfil the needs of other people. People are dependent on such special servants for the fulfilment of their needs. In other words, these people are in such dire need, that they are forced to go to these special servants and Allah Ta'ala has chosen them for this purpose. These special servants who fulfil the needs of poor people will be saved from the punishment of Allah Ta'ala. 10. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam addressed Hadrat Bilaal radiallahu anhu saying : ""Spend O Bilal, and don't ever have any fear of any decrease from the Master (Owner) of the arsh."" That is, spend freely on appropriate occasions and do not fear poverty from Allah Ta'ala. In the above Hadith, the arsh is attributed to the ownership of Allah despite His being the sole owner of everything else as well. The arsh has been specifically mentioned because it is one of the great creations of Allah Ta'ala and to illustrate to us that if such a great creation is under His control, we should not fear poverty and difficulty from Him. Can anyone ever imagine that such a powerful king as He will deny us even two pieces of bread? Such type of thinking is preposterous. The above Hadith in no way means that a person should spend so lavishly that he is left bankrupt and in financial problems. The focus of this Hadith is that those who are strong-hearted and have the strength to exercise patience should spend as much as they wish in noble deeds. Such people are not troubled by difficulties. They understand very well that they will receive whatever has been written down for them. By their spending in charity they will not experience any decrease, instead they will experience barakah in their sustenance. Persons who are endowed with such fervour and zeal are permitted to spend as much as they wish in charity and other noble deeds on condition that they do not usurp the rights of anyone in doing so. However, those who are weak-hearted and do not have the strength to exercise patience and fear problems in the future and feel that their intention will be corrupted, such people should only spend on necessary occasions such as zakaat, sadaqatul fitr, and on humanitarian grounds. Once Hadrat Abu Bakr radiallahu anhu presented his entire wealth to Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam so that it could be utilised in the path of Allah. Upon seeing all this wealth Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam asked him if he left anything behind at home or not. Hadrat Abu Bakr radiallahu anhu replied that he left behind Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and nothing else. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam accepted all this wealth because he knew that Hadrat Abu Bakr radiallahu anhu was strong-hearted, full of fervour, and extremely desirous of spending in the path of Allah Ta'ala. He did not fear any evil consequences. On the other hand, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam refused to accept a small amount of gold that was brought by another Sahabi radiallahu anhu because he knew that the latter was not as strong-hearted as Hadrat Abu Bakr radiallahu anhu. 11. It is mentioned in a Hadith that a beggar came begging to a woman. At that moment the woman only had a morsel of food which was already in her mouth. She took that morsel out of her mouth and gave it to the beggar. After some time, a child was born to this woman. When the child grew a little older, a wolf came and snatched the child away. The woman came out of her house running behind the wolf and at the same time shouting for help. Allah Ta'ala sent an angel and ordered him to free the child from the wolf's mouth. Allah Ta'ala added : ""Also convey My salaams to that woman and inform her that I did this in return for the morsel of food which she had given to that beggar."" This is the barakah of charity that the child's life was saved and the woman was also rewarded. We should give charity abundantly so that we may live in this world and in the hereafter in peace and comfort. 12. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the person who directs someone towards a good deed will also receive the same reward as the person who carries out that good deed. In other words, if a person cannot be of assistance himself, but directs the needy person towards someone who could be of some help to him, then this person will also receive the same reward as those who helped that poor person. 13. It is mentioned in a Hadith that there were three persons. One of them had 10 dinars out of which he gave one dinar in charity. The second person had 10 awqiyahs out of which he gave one awqiyah in charity. The third person had 100 awqiyahs out of which he gave 10 awqiyahs in charity. All three will receive the same reward because each one of them gave 10% of whatever he possessed. In other words, although some of them apparently gave more than the others, Allah Ta'ala will reward them according to their intentions. Since each one of them gave 10% of his wealth, they will all be rewarded equally. 14. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the reward for giving one dirham has exceeded the reward for giving 100 000 dirhams. An explanation of this is that a person had two dirhams out of which he gave one dirham in charity. On the other hand, there was another person who had a lot of wealth. From all this wealth of his, he gave 100 000 dirhams. The difference in reward between these two persons is that despite the first person possessing only two dirhams, he gave half of all his wealth in charity, i.e. one dirham. As for the second person, despite his giving 100 000 dirhams in charity, he received a lesser reward because this 100 000 dirhams which he gave were less than half his entire wealth. How merciful Allah Ta'ala is! We should value this mercy of His at all times. Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam never ever refused a beggar. When he had anything to give, he would give it without hesitation. If he did not have anything, he promised the person that he will give him when he receives something. He and his family never ate bread made of wheat for two days consecutively. How merciless we are that despite having the means we do not help our fellow Muslim brothers. Instead, we are prepared to horde for ourselves. 15. It is mentioned in a Hadith that a beggar at the door of a Mumin (believer) is actually a gift from Allah Ta'ala. It is obvious that a gift has to be gladly accepted especially if that gift is from Allah Ta'ala. Therefore, we should help the beggar as much as we can. 16. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should give in charity and cure your sick through charity because charity repels sicknesses and diseases and it increases your life and your good deeds. 17. It is mentioned in a Hadith that no wali (close friend) of Allah Ta'ala was born except through generosity and good habits. In other words, generosity and good habits are most definitely found in the auliyaa', i.e. the close friends of Allah Ta'ala." 63,"The Inner Dimensions of Zakat",5565,637,636,"Certain inward attitudes and duties are incumbent on those who seek, through the payment of Zakat, that which leads to good in the Hereafter: 1. Knowing Zakat's purpose and significance To understand the necessity of paying Zakat, how it represents a test of character, and why it has been made one of the fundamentals of Islam, even though it is a financial transaction and not a physical act of worship. Three points deserve consideration here: (a) Testing the degree of love for Allah To pronounce the two sentences of the Confession of Faith (Shahada) (""There is no God but Allah-Mohammad is God's Messenger"") is obligatory as affirmation of the Divine Unity and testimony to the singleness of the One to Whom all worship is due. Complete fulfillment of this obligation requires that he who affirms the Divine Unity should direct his love to none but the One, the Unique. There is little value in mere verbal affirmation. The degree of love is tested only by separating the lover from other things he loves. Worldly goods are an object of love in everybody's eyes, being the means by which they enjoy the benefits of this world. Because of them, we become attached to life and shy away from death, even though death leads us to meet the Beloved (Allah). The truth of our claim to love God is therefore put to the test, and we are asked to give up the wealth which is the apple our eye. That is why Allah said: ""God has bought from the believers their persons and their goods, Paradise being theirs for the price "" (part of Quran: 9:111). Allah also says that true piety means giving away one's wealth, in spite of love for it, to close relatives, orphans, the wayfarer and beggars, and for the emancipation of slaves (see Quran 2: 177) . (b) The elimination of miserliness The Divine decree by which Allah bids His servants to spend their wealth, is also significant in purging the habit of miserliness, which is a deadly sin. ""And whosoever is saved from his own covetousness, such are they who will be the successful"" (Quran 59:9). The habit of miserliness is only eliminated by making oneself accustomed to spending money, for to break an attachment one must force oneself away till a new habit is found. The purity he acquires is in proportion to his expenditure, to his delight in giving away and to his joy in spending for the sake of Allah. (c) Expression of gratitude The third factor is gratitude for benefits received, for the servant is indebted to Allah for personal and material bounties 2. Payment of Zakat at the proper time The second duty with regards to Zakat concerns the time of payment . A good practice is to anticipate the moment when payment is due. This demonstrates a willingness to comply by bringing joy to the hearts of poor, forestalling the obstacles time might place in the way of charitable action, being aware that there are dangers in delaying payment, as the servant runs the risk of disobedience should he or she postpone beyond the appointed moment. Whenever the impulse to good arises from within, the opportunity must be grasped at once as the believers heart lies between the two fingers of the All-Merciful. Yet how fickle is the heart! The devil threatens poverty and bids us to commit atrocious and abominable deeds. Demonic suggestion follows hard on the heels of angelic inspiration. One should therefore seize the opportunity and fix a definite month for giving Zakat (if one is used to paying it all at once.) One should endeavor to choose one of the most opportune times to pay Zakat, resulting in more closeness to Allah and compounding the value of the Zakat. One such favorable time would be month of Muharram, since it is the first month of the Islamic year and one of the sacred months. Another is Ramadan. 3. Give In Secret The third duty is secrecy, for this is farthest removed from hypocritical display and reputation-seeking. Allah says, ""If you disclose your Sadaqat (alms giving), it is well, but if you conceal it, and give it to the poor, that is better for you. (Allah) will forgive you some of your sins. And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do"" (Quran 2:271). According to one Hadith, the Prophet said, ""Seven people will be shaded under Allah's Throne on the Day on which there will be no other shade: (1) a just ruler, (2) a young person who worships Almighty Allah, (3) a person whose heart is attached to Masajid, (4) two people who love one another for the sake of Allah, and who come together and part for His sake, (5) a man who is called by a beautiful woman of good family, but refuses her, saying ‘I fear Allah', (6) a person who gives his money in charity so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand gives, and (7) someone who remembers Allah privately, so that his eyes brim with tears."" (Bukhari, Muslim). According to one of the scholars, ""Three things are accounted among the treasures of righteousness, one of them being to give Alms in secret."" Whenever fame is the donor's objective, his work will be in vain, since the purpose of alms giving is to eliminate miserliness and to weaken the love of wealth. But the love of status has a stronger hold over the soul than the love of wealth, and both of them have deadly consequences in the Hereafter. 4. Give openly The fourth duty, when one knows that such conduct will tend to encourage others to follow suit, is to let one's giving be seen. In doing so, however, one must be inwardly on guard against hypocritical motives. Apart from the expectation of gratitude and the risk of hypocrisy, there is another danger in visible alms giving, namely that of offending a poor man's dignity. It may be hurtful to him to be seen to be needy. But someone who begs in public is bringing the disgrace upon himself; there is therefore no sense in being wary. 5. Avoid Taunting and Hurting The fifth duty is not to invalidate one's alms giving through taunting and hurting. As Allah said, ""Do not make your Alms giving void by taunting and hurting."" (part of Quran 2: 264). Taunting is reminding a person of a favor, while hurt lies in making it known. According to others taunting is to exploit a person in return of a gift, while hurt lies in making him feel ashamed of his poverty. Still others say that taunting means making one's gift an excuse for arrogant behavior. One should therefore realize that giving alms is actually paying Allah, Great and Glorious is He, what is due, while the poor person is actually receiving his sustenance from Allah. Anyone who grasps the significance of the three points mentioned above while discussing the purpose and importance of the Zakat, or even one of them, realizes that he is a benefactor only to himself , through spending his wealth either to demonstrate his love of Allah or to purge himself or herself of the voice miserliness, or to give thanks for the blessing of wealth in the hope of receiving more. 6. Adopt humility The sixth duty to think little of one's donation, for to regard it highly is to invite that pride which is one of the deadly sins, making good deeds worthless. It must be recognized that ten of two and-a-half percent is a tiny fraction, and that to pay only this is to content oneself with the least generous level of expense as we have explained above. This is something to be ashamed of rather to boast about. Even if one rose to the highest level, disbursing all or most of one's wealth, one should still reflect on where it came from in the first place, and for what purpose it is being spent. For all wealth belongs to Allah. It is to Him that one should be grateful for for being given it and being enabled to spend it, so why pride ourselves on spending for the sake of Allah when it is actually His property? And, if one's situation is such that one must look to the Hereafter, spending for the sake of spiritual reward, why boast of giving what one expects to receive many many times over? As for action, one's giving should be done with a sense of shame at one's meanness in holding back the rest of one's wealth from God, Great and Glorious is He. One's demeanor should be humble and abashed, like that of someone who is asked to hand back a deposit but returns only part of it and holds on the rest. For all wealth belongs to Allah and He would prefer to see us give all we possess. If He has not commanded His servant to do so, it is only because that would be too hard on them by reason of their greed. As Allah says: ""If He were to ask you of it, and press you, you would covetously withhold, and he will bring out all your (secret) ill wills'"" (Quran 47:37). 7. Give the best and the dearest The seventh duty is to select from one's wealth what is best and dearest to one: the finest and most excellent part, for God, exalted is He. Allah is good and accepts only what is good. If the offering has been acquired by dubious means, it may not strictly belong to the donor and will then be disqualified. ""O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein. And know that Allah is Rich, and worthy of all praise."" (Quran 2:267). 8. Seek the Worthy and Deserving The eighth duty is to seek out the truly worthy recipient for one's offering (Sadaqa), rather than be content with just anybody who happens to fall within the eight categories of legally qualified beneficiaries. For among those generally eligible there are some with special qualities. Attention should be paid to these five qualities: First, one should seek out those pious people who have renounced the world and devoted themselves exclusively to the business of the Hereafter. Second, the recipient should be chosen from among the people of learning, to support him in his quest for knowledge. Learning is the noblest form of worship, so long as it is based on right intention. Third, the recipient should be a person who kept his need to himself, not being given to fuss and complaint. Fourth, the recipient should be someone with a large family or disabled by illness or some other cause. Fifth, the recipient should be a close relative, whether paternal or maternal. Each of these points should therefore be taken into consideration, for they represent the desired qualities. Within each quality there are further gradations, so one ought to seek the highest. If anyone can be found in whom all these qualities are combined, that is the greatest treasure and the supreme prize. If one does one's best and succeeds, one gets a double reward, but even if one fails, there is still a single reward for the effort." 64,"How You May Pay Your Zakat",5566,637,636,"BY Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani Praise be to Allah. We praise Him and seek His help and ask Him for His forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah from the evil of our souls and from our sinful deeds. He whom Allah guides, no one can mislead and He whom He leaves astray none can guide. And we bear witness that there is no god except Allah who is alone and who has no partner and we bear witness that Sayyidina Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family and companions and may He favour him and give him peace a complete peace abundantly. I seek refuge in Allah from the accursed Satan. In the Name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful. ""And those who hoard up gold and silver and expend it not in the way of Allah, so give them the glad tidings of a painful chastisement, on the day when it shall (all) be heated in the Fire of Hell, and there with their foreheads and their sides and their backs shall be branded, (saying), This is what you hoarded up for yourselves, so taste you now what you used to hoard up.” (At-Tawbah, 9:34-35) I have believed in Allah. Allah, our Great Protector, has spoken the Truth and His Messenger, the noble Prophet, has spoken the Truth and we are witnesses over that and grateful. Praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds. Introduction The gathering today has before it the subject of Zakah- There are a few days to the month of Ramadan and Muslims generally pay Zakah in this holy month. So, the time is opportune to discuss the importance of Zakah, its virtues and the necessary procedure and rules. This will enable us to pay Zakah properly. Admonition for not paying Zakah It is for this reason that I have quoted two verses of the Holy Quran. These verses speak of the serious warning that Allah has given to those people who do not pay Zakah on their assets as prescribed. Very strong words are used to warn them of the punishment. So, the Qur'an says, ""Those who hoard up gold and silver and expend not in the way of Allah so (O Prophet) give them tidings, of a severe punishment."" These are the people who continue to hoard their wealth, gold and silver and do not spend in the cause of Allah and do not fulfill the duties imposed on them by Allah so let them have the glad tidings of a painful punishment. Then, the next verse describes the kind of the painful punishment. This punishment will be awarded on the day when the gold and silver will be heated in the fir of Hell and with it the man's forehead, and his sides and back will be branded. And it will be said to him: This is what you hoarded up for yourself so taste now what you used to hoard up. May Allah preserve all Muslims from this Punishment. Aameen The fate of the people is described who store up wealth but fail to discharge their duties correctly. The warning is given not merely in these verses but it is given in other verses of the Qur'an too. For instance, we are told in surah al Humazah. Wo to every slanderer, defamer, who amasses wealth and counts it. He thinks that his wealth will make him live forever! Certainly not! He shall be thrown into the Hutamah. And what the Hutamah is? It is the fire kindled by Allah, which roars over the hearts, (al Humazah, 104:1-7) He will be punished because of his wealth against which he did not pay the dues. The Hutamah is a fire kindled by Allah not by any man whose kindled fire can be extinguished by water or sand. The fire kindled by Allah will burn man's heart and liver (that is it will reach upto his heart and liver). This is a very grave warning. May Allah protect every Muslim from it. Aameen! From where is the wealth coming Why is such a strong warning given for not paying zakah? It is to be considered first where one gets one's wealth from? Whether he is engaged in business, employment, agriculture or in other occupation, does he think that he amassed the wealth by his own effort? In fact, it is a system drawn up by Allah through which He provides livelihood to different people. Who sends the customers? A shopkeeper supposes that he has opened his shop and sells his merchandise and so earns wealth but he does not consider who sends customers to his shop. Suppose if no customer had visited him, would he have earned money? It is Allah who sends his customers and who has formed a system whereby each fulfils the need of the other. He prompts one to set up a shop and another to visit his shop. An eye-opening event I had an elder brother, Muhammad Zaki Kayfi, may Allah elevate his rank. He had a bookshop in Lahore, Idara Islamiyat. That shop is still in business. He told me once that very unique acts of Allah are witnessed in business. He cited an example of a morning when he woke up to see it rain heavily. Water had flooded the streets. He thought that it was better to stay home rather than open the shop because no one would buy a book especially a religious book. People generally put a religious book last on their list till everything else is bought and there is spare money. This is because books do not satiate the hungry nor do they quench the thirst. When one's needs are fulfilled and he has some money on hand he will prefer to buy a fiction or a novel. However, my brother had lived with the religious-minded and had been with Mawlana Thanavi (rah) so he said to himself, ""It is okay if no customer visits my shop but Allah made it a source of my livelihood so it is my duty to open it and wait. To get a customer to visit my shop is not my task; it is on someone else to send him to me. I must not lag behind in my duty whether it rains or there is flood."" So, he took his umbrella and waded through water to his shop. He opened it and waited for his customers. Not expecting one, he opened the Qur'an and began reciting it. Hardly had he begun the recital when he saw some men in raincoats and holding umbrellas enter his shop to buy books and he wondered what had made them brave in the rain and floods to visit a bookshop. This happened all day and his sale that day was the same as his sale on a normal day. He then realised that the customers did not come on their own but were sent by someone because He has appointed his livelihood through his shop. Distribution of labour is by Allah It is a system organised by Allah that He sends customers to different people. No one else has distributed different tasks and business to different people. It is Allah who has put in the hearts of men that they should do different tasks and take up different occupations and businesses. Someone sells cloth, someone shoes, someone rice, someone utensils and so on. In this way everyone sees to the needs of the other. There has never been an intentional worldwide distribution of labour whereby everyone was asked to do something or the other. It has been an automatic, unplanned distribution of tasks. The result is that everything that is necessary is available in the market and there is a buyer for everything sold. In other words, a means of livelihood is available to different people. This system is orginised by Allah and it provides livelihood to different people. Who grows food from the land Whether one is engaged in a business, in farming or in an employment, He is Allah who really provides sustenance. Let us take agriculture for example. The farmer tends to the land and sows the seeds. He then irrigates the land but He is Allah alone who causes the seed to sprout. A seed which really is lifeless and weightless but it pierces the tough earth to make itself known. Its roots are very delicate, so much that even a child may undo them with his fingers but they are strong enough to tolerate the severity of the varying seasons and the winds. Passing different stages, the seed finally grows the fruit that is consumed by the people the world over. Allah alone brings these things to happen. Man is not capable of producing anything Therefore, whatever the means of income, man is on the earth to do a limited task and he does that but he is not able to cause anything to grow. He is Allah alone who produces what is necessary and grants it to mankind whatever man has is a blessing from Allah To Allah belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. (Ai-Baqarah. 2:284) The real master is Allah After giving things to man, Allah also said to him, ""You are the owner."" Thus, He has said in Surah Yasin. ""Have they not seen that we have created for them - among the things which our hands have fashioned-cattle that they own."" (Surah Yasin. 36:71) ""I was the Real Owner but I made you the owners. So in the things that have come to your possession true right belongs to Me. Then spend in the way, I have commanded you."" If a man spends in accordance with the commands of Allah then the rest of his possessions are lawful for him and blessings of Allah are on those possessions. If he does not give from his wealth what Allah has asked him to give then all of it is fire for him and he will experience the fire on the Day of Resurrection when he will be branded with it and told, ""This is the wealth that you had amassed."" Only 2 1/2% is to be paid If Allah had said, ""Keep to yourself the 2 1/2% and spend in His way the rest 97 1/2% then that would have been just because all really belongs to Him and is granted by Him. But He is Merciful to His slaves and asked them to retain the bulk share of 97 1/2% and spend in His way only 2 1/2% because man is inclined towards possession. The 97 1/2% will then become lawful and pure; it may be spent on his lawful personal needs. Emphasis on Zakah The 2 1/2% is zakah. The Quran has said about it. And establish the Salah, and pay the Zakah. (al-Baqarah, 2:43) At the same time as prayer is mentioned, Zakah is also mentioned. This is the importance attached to Zakah. lf that is the case and the wealth also is a grant from Allah then a Muslim must, at least, make the 2 1/2% payment in accordance with the Command of Allah. He will not suffer anything if he pays this small amount. Zakah must be calculated and paid Many people just neglect payment of Zakah. They simply do not pay it. There are some others who pay Zakah but do not bother to calculate the correct procedure is to assess the wealth and possessions and pay the 2 1 / 2% on it. They shy away from counting their stocks and possessions and estimate the Zakah payable on that. This could lead to an error and a lesser amount could have been estimated and even if an insignificant amount as low as one rupee is underpaid then it is enough to ruin the rest of the wealth. If an over payment is made then, InshaAllah, there will be no questioning on that. When Property causes Ruin We are told in a Hadith that the Messenger of Allah (saws) said, ""When zakah becomes part of a wealth - that is, when full zakah is not paid but something of it remains unpaid - then that wealth becomes a means of ruin for the owner."" Therefore, we must be careful in evaluating our wealth and pay the full zakah due on it otherwise the obligation remains unobserved. By the Grace of Allah, a majority of Muslims pay zakah but they are not careful in making a proper calculation before paying it with the result that something of zakah remains included in their wealth. That becomes a cause of destruction and ruin. Benefits of Zakah in this life Zakah must be paid with the intention that the command of Allah is being observed, it is the demand of His pleasure and a form of worship is being fulfilled. Whether benefit from that payment or not, our aim should be to obtain the pleasure of Allah. This is the true aim of zakah. It is the mercy of Allah on us that when anyone pays zakah, Allah lets him have its benefits too. His possessions and wealth are blessed as we are told in the Quran an Allah blots out usury and augments charity (al-Baqarah, 2:276) A Haidth quotes the Holy Prophet (saws) as saying, ""When a slave of Allah pays zakah, the Angels of Allah pray for him in these words : ""O Allah! Grant abundance to him who spends (in Your cause) and destroy him who does not spend and restricts to himself his wealth."" (Bukhari Book of Zakah) That is why, he said : Charity does not diminish wealth So, it happens sometimes that as a Muslim pays Zakah, Allah opens for him Fresh Avenue of income so that he receives more than he has paid in zakah. It happens sometimes that although payment of zakah seems to reduce wealth to the extent of payment, Allah blesses the remaining wealth so it provides more benefit than expected from it. Consequences of lack of blessings in wealth Today, everyone believes in numbers. No one understands what one means by blessings. It is the name given to benefit beyond expectation from something- For example, someone earns a lot of money someday and takes his earnings home only to find a child ill and only one visit to a doctor costs him all his day's earnings. This means that there was lack of blessings in his earnings. Or, he encounters bandits on the way who disown him of his earnings. This is also an example of lack of blessings in his wealth. Or, the man buys food from his earnings and eats it only to get indigestion. This again is an example of lack of blessings in his earnings. On the other hand, blessings in a man's earnings allow him to reap more benefit from his little earnings than he had expected. Allah showers blessings on him who does what Allah has commanded him to do. Therefore, we must pay zakah on our wealth in the manner Allah and His Messenger (saws) have instructed us to pay and make a correct calculation, not a mere conjecture. The Nisab of Zakah Allah has prescribed a Nisab (standard) for Zakah. Nisab is the minimum amount of property liable to payment of zakah. If anyone owns property less than the Nisab then he is not liable to pay zakah but when he possess the nisab he becomes liable to pay zakah on it. The nisab is :fifty two and a half tolas of silver or its value in cash or jewellery or commercial merchandise. The person who has this much wealth is known as Sahib Nisab (owner of the property liable to zakah). It is not necessary that each rupee should have been owned for a year Zakah is payable by the Sahib Nisab when he has the nisab in his hands for a year. Zakah is then wajib on him. There is a misconception generally that a man should have every part of his money or wealth for a year to be called a Sahib Nisab and only then will zakah be wajib on him. It is not so. Rather, if a man becomes a Sahib Nisab at one time say the 1st of Ramadan and then again on the next 1st Ramadan he is a Sahib Nisab. He is liable to pay zakah even if during the year he did not constantly have that much wealth. On the 1st Ramadan when the first year is over and the next begins he will pay zakah on what he owns even if he may have had some of the wealth only for a day. Zakah is payable on the wealth one owns on the date of Zakah For example, a man had a hundred thousand rupees on the 1st of Ramadan. Next year two days before this date he received another fifty thousand rupees so on the 1st Ramadan he had a hundred and fifty thousand rupees. It is now fard (absolute obligation) to pay zakah on this amount of a hundred and fifty thousand rupees. He cannot argue that he has had fifty thousand rupees for only two days so he will not pay zakah on that amount because that money has not been with him for a year. Rather, he will consider the date of payment of zakah, the date when he became a Sahib Nisab, and value his assets and pay zakah on these assets. The value may be more than the last year's value or it may have become less. For example, he had a hundred thousand rupees last year and he may have a hundred and fifty thousand in the current year so he will pay zakah on the current value of a hundred and fifty thousand rupees. Or, he may have only fifty thousand rupees this year then he will pay zakah on the amount of fifty thousand rupees only. The amount of money spent during the year is not calculated and no zakah is paid on the money so spent. Allah has spared man from the intricacies of accounting and has prescribed an easy method so that he has not to worry about the money that he has spent and used up. In the same way, whatever money is received during the year has not to be recorded separately. It is so simple that whatever money and assets a man has on the date of zakah, he will pay zakah on that amount. This is the meaning of the words 'passing of a year.' On what heads is Zakah payable It is one of the several favours of Allah on us that He has not made it fard (obligatory) on us to pay zakah on every item we possess, for there are different heads of assets a man may own. The items on which zakah is fard are: (1) Cash in any form like currency notes or coins. (2) Gold and Silver whether jewelry or coins. Some people suppose that jewelry used by women is not liable to zakah which is a wrong notion. The truth is that zakah is payable on the jewelry that is worn or used and made of gold or silver; however, zakah is not applied on jewelry made of any other metal such as platinum. Similarly, zakah is not paid on pearl or jewel as long as they are in personal use and not for business purposes. We must not apply reasoning in these matters We must remember that zakah is a form of worship and a duty imposed on us by Allah. Some people try to reason out the wisdom behind different rulings and ask why zakah is applied on some things and not on others. To pay zakah is to perform a worship whether we understand the reason behind it or not. Thus, we cannot ask why zakah is payable on gold and silver and not on Pearls, jewels and platinum. It is like asking why the Maghrib prayer is not reduced during a journey while the Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers are reduced to the Qasr. Qasr for these three prayers two is rakaat each instead of four while one is travelling. Or, it is like asking why a passenger who travels luxuriously by first class in an airline is allowed to offer Qasr prayers while another traveling with great difficulty in a local bus within his city not allowed to offer Qasr prayers. The answer to all such questions is the same that these are rules of worship prescribed by Allah and these rules must be respected otherwise the worship will be meaningless. To offer worship is to obey the Command of Allah It is also like asking why Hajj is observed on 9th Zul Hajjah and not on just any day convenient to a pilgrim, and why stay just one day at 'Arafah and not three days. Obviously, if anyone stays at Arafah for three days instead of one day his Hajj will not be valid because he does not follow the method prescribed by Allah. Again, a man cannot say that he will perform the Rami of the Jamarat all together on the fourth day instead of the three days of Hajj. Rami is the casting of pebbles on the Jamarat, the pillars marking places where Satan tried to tempt Sayyidina Ismail (as) This also is a form of worship and a worship should be performed in its prescribed manner otherwise it is invalid and meaningless. Thus they raise an objection on the levy of zakah on gold and silver and not on pearl is to question the philosophy of worship-Nevertheless, Allah has prescribed zakah on gold and silver whether in use or not, and on cash money. Method of valuing merchandise of trade Zakah is also paid on merchandise of trade. For instance, if someone has stock-in-trade at his shop then he will have to pay zakah on all his stock. However, at the time of valuation the shop-keeper is at liberty to value his stock at the price his good would fetch if sold in bulk. There is a retail price, a wholesale price and a price that would apply to the entire stock sold together. So, there is a scope to price the stock at such a price and then pay zakah at 2 1/2%; however, it is safer to use the wholesale price. What is stock-in-trade Everything that a man buys with intent to re-sell is stock-in-trade. Thus, if anyone buys a piece of land to re-sell at a higher price, or a house or car, then these things are his trading merchandise. Zakah is wajib (obligatory) on all these things because he had acquired them with intent to sell. Many people buy a piece of land as an investment intending to sell it later at a higher price and making a profit in the process. Zakah is payable on the value of this land. However, if anyone buys a piece of land with the hope that if he has an opportunity he will construct a house thereon for his personal use, or give it on rent or alternatively, sell it off so having' no definite intentions;. he has not made a choice of the three options then zakah is not payable on that piece of land. Zakah is only wajib when the intention at the time of buying was clearly to re-sell. Even if anyone buys a piece of land with intent to construct a house for himself but later on he changes his mind and decides to sell it, a mere change of intention does not involve any liability on him to pay Zakah; only after he actually sells the land and receives the sale proceeds will he have to pay zakah on that. So, everything that is bought with intent to re-sell is stock-in-trade and attracts zakah at two-and-a-half percent The date of valuation It must be remembered too that the date of valuation is the date of calculation of zakah. If a piece of land was purchased for a hundred thousand rupees and values a million rupees on that date then will zakah be paid, on the latter value and not on one hundred thousand rupees. Zakah on share certificates Share Certificates are also stock-in-trade. There are two possibilities: a man may buy shares to receive annual profit from the company and another may buy them to sell them at a higher price. In the second case where a man buys shares with intent to do business and sell them at a higher price then zakah is wajib on the full market value of the shares. For instance, if the purchase price was Rs.50 and the current market value is Rs.60 on the day of calculating zakah then the shares will be valued at Rs.60 and zakah is to be paid at 2 1/2%. However, in the first case where the man did no intend to re-sell his shares at the time of purchase but hoped to receive annual profit on them he is allowed to find out the fixed assets of the company and its liquid assets and he may pay zakah on the proportion of liquid assets in his shares. The fixed assets include building-machinery, cars, etc. while the liquid assets comprise of cash, stock-in-trade, raw material and finished goods-Suppose, the fixed assets form forty percent of its overall assets and the liquid assets form sixty percent, the share-holder will value his share holdings at the market value and pay zakah on sixty percent of that value. Thus, if the market value of each share is Rs.60 and the assets on which zakah is payable comprise 60% of the assets while the remaining do not attract zakah then the value of each share liable to zakah is Rs.36. If this data cannot be found out from any company then zakah will be paid on the full market value. Every other financial instrument apart from shares will be categorised with cash whether they are bonds or certificates. Zakah will be paid on their face value. Factory Assets that attract Zakah The finished product in a factory is liable to be valued for zakah. In the same way, zakah is payable on the merchandise at different stages of production and on raw materials. However, zakah is not payable on factory machinery, building, cars etc. In the same way, if anyone is a partner in a business then he will be liable to pay Zakah on the market value of his share in business. In short, zakah is payable on cash which includes cash at bank and financial instruments, on stock-in-trade that includes finished products, raw material and merchandise under different stages of production, on share certificates which are also included in stock-in-trade, and on everything else that is classified as stock-in-trade which anyone has bought with intent to re-sell. At the time of paying zakah the gross value of all these things must be found out and zakah paid on that value. Zakah on Loans Receivable Apart from these, certain sums of money are receivable from other people. Either loans are given to them or sales are made to them on credit. So, when one calculates the gross value on which he has to pay Zakah, he must include sums receivable from all such sundry debtors. Although Shari'ah tells us that until sums receivable are not actually received Zakah is not payable on them yet when they are received Zakah is paid for every past year it was payable on them but not paid. For example, if anyone had loaned another person a sum of a hundred thousand rupees and he receives it back after five years then although it was not Wajib for him to pay Zakah on this sum of money for the five years yet once he had received it back then he will have to pay Zakah for each of those five years. Now, since it becomes very difficult sometimes to pay previous dues of Zakah all together so it is better to pay it each year regularly on the loan receivable. So, when a man calculates the Zakah payable to him, he may include sums receivable in the gross value. Debts be deducted The debts payable must be added up and their total deducted from the gross value of possessions on which Zakah is payable. On the net value, Zakah is paid at 2 1/ 2%. It is better to keep apart the Zakah payable and disburse it among those entitled to receive it from time to time. Loans are of two kinds We must understand that loans are of two kinds. The first kind is that loan which one ordinarily borrows for personal meds or to meet contingencies. The second type of loans are those which the capitalists take to finance their commercial projects for expansion. For instance, they borrow to set up a factory, buy machinery, import trading merchandise or to set up additional factories, etc. Now, if this second kind of borrowing is deducted from the gross value of possessions to arrive at the net wealth that attracts zakah, then not only will these capitalists find themselves not liable to pay zakah but also in fact, some of them might find that they are entitled to receive zakah. This is because they borrow from the financial institutions more than what they possess of zakah leviable wealth. They are poor people from this point of view. Therefore, Shari ah has distinguished the different borrowings when the question of deduction arises. When are commercial borrowings deducted The first kind of loans will be deducted from the gross value and zakah will be paid on the net value. As for the second kind of borrowings, if anyone borrows money for commercial purpose to finance anything on which zakah is levied (for instance, raw material) then the borrowings will be deducted from the gross value. But. if the borrowings are to finance such things as do not attract zakah then the loans will not be deducted from the gross value. Examples of borrowings Suppose someone borrows from a bank ten million rupees to buy machinery. Since zakah is not levied on plant and machinery, the loan will not be deducted from the gross value of his assets on which zakah is payable. But, if he purchased raw material from the borrowed money then the value of borrowings will be deducted from the gross zakah leviable value because the raw material itself attracts zakah, and is already included in the gross value. In short, normal borrowings are deducted from the gross value but commercial borrowings are not deducted if used to finance something on which Zakah is not paid, but deducted if used to finance anything on which Zakah is paid. These were rules concerning payment of Zakah. Zakah is paid to the entitled Let us now see the rules concerning disbursement of zakah. My respected father, Mawlana Mufti Muhammad Shafi (rah) used to say that Allah has not asked us to just give out zakah but He has commanded us to pay it carefully and distribute it to the proper entitled people, not give it out injudiciously. The directions of Shari ah should be heeded while distributing zakah. Some people pay zakah but do not care to distribute it to the right people and do not care if it is put to proper use. They hand over the zakah money to someone without ensuring that he uses it for proper causes. There are many institutions that collect zakah and there may be many among them who do not make sure that money under this head is put to proper use. Therefore, zakah must not just be handed over but must be paid out with care. Who is entitled? Shari ah has prescribed the principle that zakah must be paid to only those who are not themselves Sahib Nisab. Even those people, who have in their possession anything more than their needs and which is worth as much as the value of fifty two and half tolas of silver, are not entitled to receive zakah. Such people are entitled to it who do not have anything equal to the value of fifty two and a half tola of silver after meeting their needs, whether cash or anything of that value. The entitled must be handed over ownership The Shari ah commands us that the person entitled to zakah must be made owner of it when the amount is paid over to him. This means that he should have a free say in his property. This is why zakah cannot be used to construct a building and cannot be paid as salary of the employees of an institution. If it was allowed to use zakah to build and establish institutions then it would have been misused, the buildings require much money and the institutions pay heavy salaries. Therefore, one who is not a Sahib Nisab must be paid zakah and transferred ownership over it. Zakah must be paid to only such people and only then is zakah validly paid. The relatives who may be paid Zakah The duty to pay zakah encourages the Muslim to spend the money under this head in a proper cause. He looks out for the right people and makes out a list of those entitled to receive it. He then disburses the amount to these people and it is one of his responsibilities to do so. One must pay zakah to those who are entitled and who live in his neighbourhood, who are his acquaintances, relatives and friends. The most excellent act in the payment of zakah is to pay it to those of one's relatives who are entitled and this secures him a dual reward - against payment of Zakah and against strengthening ties of relationship. Zakah may be paid to every relative who is entitled to it except two the relationship of father and son so neither father nor son can Pay it to the other, and the marital relationship so the spouses cannot pay of zakah to one another. All other relationship do not bar payment of Zakah, for example, one can pay it to a brother and a sister, an uncle or an aunt whether paternal or maternal, the only condition is that they should be entitled to it. The command to pay Zakah to a widow and to orphans Some people suppose that a widow must be paid zakah preferably but the condition stands here too that she must be one who is entitled to it and not a Sahib Nisab. If she is thus entitled then it is excellent to pay zakah to her. But, if she is a widow but not entitled then being a widow does not qualify her to receive zakah. In the same way, it is excellent to pay zakah to an orphan provided he is entitled to it but if he is not entitled being a Sahib Nisab then it does not qualify him to receive the zakah, although he is an orphan. These rules must be borne in mind while paying zakah to anyone. Deduction of Zakah from Bank Accounts For some time now, zakah is collected by the government and the financial institutions do it for the government as also some companies who deduct zakah and pay it to the government. This calls for some comments. As far as banks and financial institutions are concerned, zakah of a person stands paid when deducted by them and he is not required to pay that again. However, he may form an intention on the 1st of Ramadan as a precautionary measure that he is paying the zakah so that his duty in this regard is discharged and he may not pay it again. Some people are in doubt that before the full year passed on their entire wealth, zakah is being deducted on all of it. I have stated earlier in this discourse that it is not necessary that a full year should pass on every part of the wealth. If anyone is a Sahib Nisab then even the wealth he gets a day before the year ends will be added to the gross value and the zakah deducted on it is correctly charged because zakah is wajib on that wealth. Deduction of loan from the Bank Balance However, someone may have all his wealth in cash in a bank account and not have anything else with himself. Then, he may also be a debtor and have to pay to other people, the bank will deduct zakah on the due date and he will not be able to deduct the ""payables"" from his gross wealth. There is one solution for that. He may withdraw the money from his account or transfer it to a current account before zakah is deducted because zakah is not deducted from a current account. Let me mention here in passing that everyone must maintain a current account and not a savings account because interest is paid on the savings accounts and that is unlawful. When he withdraws his money from the savings account, or transfers it, he will be able to take into account the ""Payables"" while calculating zakah. Alternatively, he may write to the Bank that he is not a Sahib Nisab and not liable to pay zakah. According to law, the Bank will not deduct zakah from his account when he writes to them in this way. Deduction of Zakah on Shares by the Company There is also the question of shares. When the company pays the annual dividend, it also deducts zakah but it calculates zakah on its face value while it should have been on the market value. So, while the zakah has been duly paid to the extent of the face value, the shareholder must calculate the difference between the market value and face value on the basis of the explanation under the head ""Zakah On Share Certificates"". For instance, the face value of a share is fifty rupees on which the company deducts zakah but the market value is sixty rupees, so the share-holder must pay zakah on ten rupees by himself. This applies to share certificates and N.I.T. Units. Thus, whenever zakah has been deducted on face value, the difference between the market value and face value must be calculated and zakah paid thereon. The date of Zakah Shari ah has not fixed a date for calculating zakah nor any period or date for its payment. In fact, every person may have his own date. In the eyes of Shari ah the true date begins when anyone becomes a Sahib Nisab. If anyone becomes a Sahib Nisab on the 1st Muhurrum then his date for zakah is that date and in future, he will calculate his zakah on the 1st of Muhurrum. But, often people do not remember when they became Sahib Nisab so they may fix any date when it is easy for them to calculate their liability. They may follow that date every year in future and it is good to pay a little more as a precautionary measure. Can one fix a date in Ramadan Normally, people pay zakah in the month of Ramadan because a Hadith tells us that observance of a fard (absolute obligation) in Ramadan entitles to a reward equal to seventy times. Thus payment of zakah will also fetch them a reward seventy times the normal reward. This is a correct thinking and commendable too but if anyone remembers his date when he became a Sahib Nisab then it is wrong for him to seek a date in Ramadan. He must calculate his zakah on the date he remembers; however, if he pays the calculated zakah in small amounts then he may pay the remaining in the month of Ramadan. If he does not remember his date then there is an excuse for him to fix a date in Ramadan. But he must pay a little more so that he may make up for any shortage because of difference in date. Then He may go by that date every year and calculate his wealth accordingly. He may add up his wealth on that date, cash, gold holdings, shares, stock-in-trade, etc. and get their values on that date. He may not then change the date again. This was a little comment on zakah. May Allah cause us to observe the commands that call on us to pay zakah. Aameen. Taken from Discourses on Islamic Way of Life Vol Ix" 65,"JESUS and the Ahmadiyya Movement - Mirza Ghulam Qadiani",5567,637,636,"We are living in troubled and confusing times. Moral decline is apparent to even the least perceptive. Humanism has replaced piety as the highest ideal. The consequence of this attitude is to become soft on falsehood, evil and sin.

Introduction

We are living in troubled and confusing times. Moral decline is apparent to even the least perceptive. Humanism has replaced piety as the highest ideal. The consequence of this attitude is to become soft on falsehood, evil and sin. One learns instead to accept every individual and small group’s point of view as having validity just because they believe in it, no matter how erroneous that idea may be. Many are also chasing after materialistic values. Few can find any peace in the world. And so in most of the major religious traditions, one awaits the Messiah, the Second coming, hoping and believing that this is the only way out of our spiritual and moral morass. The Christians and Muslims also, each according to the understanding of Messiahship within their own religious tradition, are awaiting Jesus’ miraculous reappearance from the Heaven. Therefore the terrain is fertile for the emergence of all kinds of false prophets and spiritual teachers.

Mirza Ghulam A.Qadiani (Mirza) is one of this century’s self-proclaimed Messiahs. He lived for 68 years and during that time converted thousands of people to his religion known as Ahmadiyyat/Qadianiat. His followers are likewise known as Ahmadis, Qadianis, Mirzais and Lahoris. Mirza proclaimed himself as the Promised Messiah and Prophet of God. He has confused people about the nature of Prophethood and he has confused people about Jesus. After Mirza declared himself to be the Promised Messiah, grave difficulties confronted him in validating a claim rendered spurious by his not fitting Jesus’ foretold description. He therefore resorted to first denying the miraculous reappearance of Jesus by suggesting a hitherto unknown history, according to which Jesus fled to Kashmir after escaping the scene of his alleged crucifixion, where after hiding for many years he died and now lies buried in Kashmir.

By fabricating this story Mirza tried to remove Jesus from the scene, but the problem still remained that the Promised Messiah was to be no other than Jesus, son of Mary. This wrinkle was ironed out by Mirza as follows:

God named me Mary in the third volume of Barahin-i-Ahmadiyyah. I was nurtured for a period of two years in a Mary-like conditioned was bought up in a womanly seclusion. Then the spirit of Jesus was breathed into me just as (it was breathed) into Mary. Thus I was considered to be pregnant in a metaphorical manner. After a period of several months, not more than ten, I was made Jesus out of Mary by the revelation embodied in the last parts of the forth volume of Barahin-I-Ahmadiyyah; and thus I became Jesus, son of Mary. But God did not inform me about this secret during the time of Barahin-i-Ahmadiyyah.
Kashti-I-Nuh:
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 19, p.50

Mirza’s future claims of being the recipient of Devine revelations became an easy matter after this marvellous act of jugglery. He could now assert:
I swear by God in whose hands my soul is that it is He Who has sent me and has named me a Prophet; it is He Who has called me the Promised Messiah and has shown big signs to testify me; these signs reach three hundred thousand.
Haqiqat al-Wahi:
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 22, p.503

However, another small hurdle came his way. Jesus used to perform miracles. There was public demand for Mirza to do likewise to substantiate his claims of being the Promised Messiah. Having already tested the gullibility of his audience, he justified his inability in this field by denying all the miracles of Jesus. After failing to perform miracles, Mirza tried to prove his superiority over Jesus by accusing him of having a very bad character. Mirza further thrust the charge of alcoholism and promiscuity on Jesus. He accused Jesus of plagiarising the teachings of the Old Testament and claimed that the coming of Jesus ruined the world. Mirza called the great miracles of Jesus acts of mesmerism, cunning and deceit. Mirza tried to disgrace Jesus by saying that he evolved from the blood of prostitutes, and thus had an inclination for harlots. Mirza’s followers have split into two groups. One believes that he was a prophet and the promised messiah, while the other group recognises him as the promised Messiah and Reformer. However, the latter group is likewise guilty of hearsy and disbelief because the person whom they recognise as a reformer made the false claim of being a Prophet and the Promised Messiah. Let it also be remembered that Mirza Qadiani declared all those who did not believe in him to be the children of prostitutes. Thus it is clear that the claims of any auxiliary group are no more than a marketing ploy to sell their religion by camouflaging its more serious implications.
We owe thanks to Dr. Jamal Badawi, Dr. Sajida S. Alvi, Qari Irshad Ansari, Nisa A. Rochelle and Aziz-al Ihsan for their kind help in various phases of this publication.


Part One
Jesus According to Mirza Ghulam A. Qadiani

Chapter 1
Jesus’ Character Belittled by Mirza

In complete defiance of Devine Revelations, Mirza Ghulam A.Qadiani (Mirza) invented a new belief and a new faith, by declaring that Jesus was dead and that he (Mirza) was the Promised Messiah. The true believers were naturally disgusted by this because nothing about Mirza fit the details prophesied about the return of Jesus. People also demanded that he should perform miracles like the former Messiah (Jesus) to verify his claim. At this point Mirza began defaming our beloved Jesus and lost no opportunity to deny the great miracles, mission and the upright character of Jesus. In trying to prove his own excellence over Jesus, Mirza wrote the following heartbreaking obscenities that are being presented to the public as an eye opener.

Mirza Ghulam A. Qadiani made many accusations about the character of Jesus to improve his own image as the Promised Messiah.despite the fact that no authentic religious source suggests that Jesus was foulmouthed, Mirza had the meanness to say:

(Jesus) had the habit of uttering obscenities and frequently using foul language.
(Zamimah Anjam-I Atham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 11, p.289

It should be remembered that he (Jesus) had also to some extent the habit of lying.
(Zamimah Anjam-I Atham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 11, p.289

A cunning and wicked (person) who had the soul of the Messiah from head to toe.
(Zamimah Anjam-I Atham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 11, p.289

In the following remarks, Mirza slandered those who believe in Jesus by deviously thrusting the blame of his obscene insults on Christians:

What is your opinion about the character of the Messiah? (it is that Jesus) was an alcoholic and gluttonous person, neither abstinent nor a pious worshipper, nor a reality seeker. He was a proud and a self-conceited claimant of Divinity.
(Nur al-Quran):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 9, p. 387

The root cause of all the damage that alcohol consumption has had on the Europeans was that Jesus used to drink alcohol, perhaps because of some disease or an old habit.
(Kashti-I Nuh):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 19, p. 71

Mirza would often engage in self-admiration. For example, while expressing his own reliance on God for the cure of his aliments he used this occasion as an opportunity to criticise Jesus. The following remark of Mirza is a testimony of his evil objectives:

Once a friend advised me that opium is good for diabetics so there is no harm in taking opium for the purpose of treatment. I replied, ‘thank you very much for your sympathetic advice. But if I get into the habit of taking opium, I am afraid the people will mock that the first Messiah (Jesus) was a alcoholic and the second a drug addict’.
(Nasim-I Da’wat):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 19, p. 434

It is well known that the messengers of God have often been accused, defamed and rejected. However Mirza never spared an opportunity of capitalizing on these accusations to prove that Jesus was worthless. He singled out Jesus for mudslinging because Mirza viewed Jesus as the one competing with him for Messiahship. One can witness his irrational and desperate attempts to improve his own public image by digging out slanderous remarks about Jesus. Mirza would then dwell on these remarks to eventually draw the most negative conclusions. The following demonstrates that Mirza liberally seconded the false accusations about Jesus.

Jesus could not portray himself as a pious man because people knew that he was a gluttonous alcoholic.
(Satt Bachan):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 10, p. 296

In the next two accusations, Mirza’s slanderous imagination has really run amok. These atrocious and blasphemous remarks clearly demonstrate Mirza’s shameful distortion of the biblical episodes as a way to deride our beloved Jesus:

Jesus had an inclination for prostitutes perhaps due to his ancestral relationship relationship with them, otherwise no pious man could allow a young prostitute to touch his head with her filthy hands, and massaged his head with the unclean perfume purchased with the earnings of adultery, and rub his feet with her hair. Let the intelligent judge what sort of character such a person must possess.
(ZamimahAnjam-IAtham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 11, p. 29

A beautiful prostitute is sitting so close to him as though she is embracing him. Sometimes she massages his head with perfume or holds his feet, or sometimes she lays her beautiful black hair on his feet and plays in his lap. In this situation Mr Messiah is sitting in ecstasy. If someone rises to object, he is scolded besides his young age, the habit of alcoholism and being a bachelor, a beautiful prostitute is lying in front of him touching her body with his. Is the behaviour of a virtuous person? And what evidence or proof is there that Jesus did not get sexually provoked by the touch of the prostitute. Alas! Jesus could not even have the facility of sexual intercourse with any wife of his own after passing his glance upon that adulterous. What sexual excitement would have been provoked by the touching of that wretched adulterous and her playfulness! The sexual excitement and arousal would have done its work to the full. This is the reason why Jesus could not even open his mouth to say, ‘Oh adulterous! Keep away from me’ it is well established in the Bible that woman was one of the prostitutes, notorious for adultery in the entire city.
(Nur al Quran):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol 9, p. 449


In the above quotations, Mirza has exposed his true nature. The disgusting statements and accusations contained in the above quotations are not to be found in the Holy Bible. By ridiculing Jesus, Mirza has tried to improve his own image as the Promised Messiah. We shall quote the actual passages from the Bible to enable the general public to assess the extent of the slander and falsehood perpetrated against Jesus Christ (Peace be upon him) by the false Messiah namely Mirza Qadiani.

According to the New Testament this episode is written as follows:

And one of the pharisees desired him that he would eat with him. He went into the pharisees house and sat down to meat. And behold, a woman in the city, which was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus sat at meat in the pharisees house, brought an alabaster box of ointment, and stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and then wiped them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with ointment. Now when the pharisee which had bidden him saw it, he spoke within himself, saying, this man if he were a prophet, would have known who and what manner of woman this is that toucheth him for she is a sinner and Jesus answering said unto him, Simon, I have somewhat to say unto thee. And he said, Master, say on. There was a certain creditor which had two debtors; the one owed 500 pence, and the other 50. And when they had nothing to pay, he frankly forgave them both. Tell me therefore, which of them will love him most? Simon answered and said, I suppose that he, to him he forgave most. And he said unto him, thou hath rightly judged. And he turned to the woman, and said unto Simon, seeth thou this woman? I entered into thine house, thou givest me no water for my feet: but she hath washed my feet with tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head. Thou givst me no kiss; but this woman since the time I canme in, has not ceased to kiss my feet. My head with oil thou didst not anoint; but this woman has anointed my head with ointment. Therefore I say unto thee, her sins which are many, are forgiven; but she loved much; but to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little. And he said unto her, thy sins are forgiven. And they sat at meat with him began to say within themselves, who is this that forgivth sins also? And he said to the woman, thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace. The New Testament St Luke, Ch. 7:36-50

The above is confirmed in the Gospel according to John as follows:

Then took Mary a pound of ointment of Spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair; and the house was filled with odour of the ointment. Then said one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, which should betray him, why was not this ointment sold for 300 pence, and given to the poor? This he said, not that he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief and had the bag, and bare what was put therin. Then said Jesus, let her alone; against the day of my burying had she kept this. For the poor always Ye have with you; but Ye have not always.The New Testament St John, Ch. 12: 3-8

And according to Matthew the story is narrated in the following manner:

Now that Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, there came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head as he sat at meat. But when his disciples saw it, they had indignation, saying, to what purpose is this waste? For this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to the poor. Then Jesus understood it, he said unto them, why trouble Ye the woman? For she hath wrought a good work upon me. For ye have the poor always with you; but me ye have not always. For in that she had poured this ointment on my body, she did it for my burial. Verily I say unto you, wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her. The New Testament St Matthew, Ch 26: 6-13


We have quoted the actual episodes from the Bible. The immoral woman came to Jesus crying and weeping, seeking forgiveness for her sins. Hence Jesus said, ‘Your sins are forgiven’. Mirza’s insulting distortion which he has highlighted in his writings are as follows:- as though she is embracing him;- she is playing in his lap;-Mr. Jesus is sitting in ecstasy;- a beautiful prostitute is lying in front;- her body is touching his body;- Jesus’ sexual provocation, etc.
The Bible certainly does not contain such base episodes nor does it depict Jesus in these terms. By these insults Mirza tried to thrust the blame on the Bible to achieve his evil objectives.


Chapter 2
Jesus’ Teachings Belittled by Mirza

Following are the views of Mirza about the teachings of Jesus:

(Jesus the Messiah) came o a particular nation and alas! The world did not get any spiritual benefit from him. He left an example of such a prophethood whose harm proved to be greater than its good. Sufferings and conflict increased due to his coming.
(Ittimam al Hujjat):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol 8, p. 308

It is extremely shameful that the Sermon of the Mount that forms the core of the New Testament was plagiarised by (Jesus, the Messiah) from the Jewish book the Talmud, and then he pretended as if it were his own teachings. But since the time this plagiarism has been discovered the Christians have been suffering a great shame. Jesus committed this act (of forgery) to perhaps gain influence by presenting some good teachings… The unfortunate thing is that these teachings are an affront to the rules of wisdom and upright conscience.
(Zamimah Anjam-I Atham):
Ruhani Khaza’in Vol. 11, p. 290

It is surprising that Jesus, peace be upon him, did not himself act upon the teachings of good character.
Chashma –I Masihi):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 20, p. 346

The teachings of Jesus ruined the whole of Europe due to permitting unrestrained liberty and unconditional (licentiousness). So much so that this (looseness) resulted in all (being involved) in adultery and fornication like pigs and dogs. And (this) immorality has spread to such an extent that it is even written on the wrappers of foreign (European) sweets and candies: ‘Kiss me, O my sweetheart’. Now who is responsible for these sins? The burden of these sins is undoubtedly on Jesus.
(Nur al-Quran):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 9. P. 416


Although the Messiah (Jesus)kept healing physical ailments by this practice (of mesmerism), in terms of instilling firm belief and guidance in the hearts regarding the Oneness of God and in establishing religious steadfastness, his achievements were so poor that he was almost a failure.
(Azalah –I Auham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 3, p. 258
Mirza’s following remarks not only belittles Jesus’ teachings, but it also refutes the established religious beliefs that Jesus is alive and is destined to return to the earth.

It is unjustly said about the person (Jesus) who is buried in the locality of Khanyar, Sirinagar, Kashmir, that he is sitting in the Heavens. Alas! How great an injustice! God, in keeping to His promises has the power over everything. But He can never send a person to this world the second time whose first coming caused so much harm that I ruined the world.
(Dafi’ al Bala):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 18, p. 235


Don’t you know that manliness and virility are praiseworthy attributes of men. Being impotent is not a commendable quality just as being deaf and dumb are not commendable. Yes, this objection is indeed very great, that the Messiah being completely deprived of the greatest of the masculine qualities (viz. Virility) could not leave a practical example of a perfect and upright social life with his wives. Therefore, the European women took advantage of the extremely shameful laxity and crossed the limits of moderation whose consequences were the unspeakable acts, fornication and adultery.
(Nur al-Quran):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 9, pp. 392-393


The above is an example of Mirza’s heartbreaking and insulting statements in which he openly slandered, accused and defamed Jesus, the Messiah. Because of sheer antagonism, Mirza Qadiani harbored extreme malice against Jesus, therefore he went as far as accusing him of being an alcoholic. Thrusting the sin of promiscuity on Jesus is most absurd and childish.


Chapter 3
Mirza’s Denial of Jesus’ Miracles & Prophecies

As explained in the introduction, miracles were another obstacle for Mirza in his attempts to substantiate his claim of being the Promised Messiah. So to justify his inability to perform miracles, he adopted the following irrational approach to deny the miracles and prophecies of our beloved Jesus, despite the Biblical and Quranic affirmation of the same. Mirza says:

The Christians have written about many miracles of (Jesus) but the fact is that he performed no miracle.
(Zamimah Anjam –I Atham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 11, p. 290


It is no wonder that God Almighty might have given Jesus some intellectual knowhow so that by pressing a trigger or by somehow blowing on it, the clay-toy took flight like a bird, or if it didn’t fly it might have walked. Because the Messiah, son of Mary, had also been working as a carpenter with his father Joseph for twenty two years, and it is obvious that carpentry is a skill in which the faculty for inventing different sorts of machines and instruments is sharpened.
(Azalah-I Auham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 3, p. 254


Besides this, it is also conceivable that such miracles might have taken place by the way of mesmerism, for play and entertainment, rather than as a reality, because in mesmerism there are such marvels which come about by the expert practitioner casting the heat of his own spirit on (lifeles things) to make them appear as living beings… However, Jesus was inferior to (the Prophet) Elisha (in acts of mesmerism), because even the corpse of Elisha performed the reviving of the dead person whose bones it touched. But Jesus’ dead body could not at all revive the thieves who were crucified along with Jesus despite their bodies being in contact with Jesus’ body.
(Azalah-I Auham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 3, p. 255


It is clear that Mirza regarded the great miracles of Jesus as being merely the acts of mesmerism. It should be pointed out that mesmerism was practised by jugglers and magicians. Nowadays, hypnotism is also used by health professionals and crime investigators. In fact this was precisely what Mirza intended, namely to prove that the role and achievements of Jesus were not extraordinary. In the above quote Mirza renders Jesus inferior to the Prophet Elisha, whereas in the following remark Mirza professes his own superiority over Jesus by saying that he remained aloof from, (what Mirza calls) the demeaning and hateful practice of mesmerism. Let it be known that this practice (of mesmerism) is not as honourable as it is deemed by the public. If this humble one, (Mirza) had not regarded this practice as hateful and detestable, I had a strong hope from the grace of God Almighty, that this humble one (Mirza) would not have been inferior to the Messiah, son of Mary, in showing wonderful acts (of mesmerism).
(Azalah-I Auham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 3, p. 257


The number of objections and doubts about the miracles and prophecies of the Messiah are so great that no other prophet’s miracles or prophecies have been doubted so much. Doesn’t the story of the Pond belittle the Messiah’s miracles.
(Azalah-I Auham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 3, p. 106


Mirza has taken the reference about the pool from what is regarded as a debatable verse of the Bible (John 5:3,4). These verses are not to be found in the ancient manuscripts such as Codex Vaticanux, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Bezac, Codex Syriac and the Latin Vulgate. Therefore the modern versions such as the Revised Standard, New American Standard, etc., have deleted these verses and put them in the footnotes. However, Mirza’s remark is not tenable even in the light of the Biblical verses in question, because the sick man described in the Bible had the infirmity for thirty eight years without getting cured. Jesus cured this lame person by his word of mouth and the man walked immediately. This is not an isolated example of Jesus healing others without any physical means. For example, Lazarus was revived by Jesus without even touching his body or his grave. Mirza had the least concern about the actual details concerning the great miracles of Jesus. He was merely fishing for excuses and whenever he found any remote or vague episode he abused it as a justification for making all sorts of horrendous conclusions. The following will prove how Mirza draws evil conclusions to accuse Jesus of cunning and deceit:

Perhaps he (Jesus, the Messiah) may have healed some blind and cured some other ailments by ordinary means. Due to (Jesus’) bad luck, during his time there was a pond which was a source of great miracles. It can be assumed that he also used (the miraculous) clay of the same pond. The complete reality of his miracles is unfolded by this pond. And a categorical inference drawn from the existence of this pond is that if at all he performed any miracles they were not his own, but rather attributable to this pond, and he had nothing to his credit except cunning deceit.
(Zamimah Anjam-I Atham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 11, p. 291


The Messiah’s miracles were worthless and insignificant due to the pond which was a source of wonders even before the Messiah’s birth. All kinds of sick, the lepers and the crippled etc, used to be cured by one dip in this pond.
(Azalah-I Auham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 3, p. 263


It is also possible that the Messiah used to bring the clay of the pond which had the spiritual effect of the Holy Spirit. Anyhow this miracle (of creating birds and making them fly) was merely a kind of play.
(Azalah-I Auham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 3, p. 263


The foregoing are the horrendous teachings professed by Mirza. The great miracles that the Bible and the Quran have attributed to Jesus, have been reduced to the level of mesmerism by Mirza. As pointed out earlier, the reason behind the denial of miracles was that the opponents of Mirza demanded that if he was a true similitude of Jesus, then why could he not perform miracles like the former Messiah. Since his claims of Messiah-hood were based on falsehood he did not have the lightest ability of performing miracles. Therefore to quiten this demand he thought it suitable to deny the miracles of Jesus by interpreting them as being metaphoric expressions – the spiritual effects of clay – mesmerism – obscene tricks etc. This he did to cast doubts upon their magnificance, as Mirza himself writes:

The face is that (Jesus) did not perform any miracle.
(Zamimah Anjam –I Atham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 11, p. 290


From the above quotations it is clear that Mirza Qadiani had no regard for Jesus. While it was perfectly normal and acceptable to Mirza that the clay of the pool had miraculous powers, he raised a great hue and cry about the possibility of Jesus being gifted with the ability to perform miracles. Mirza then went on to deny and belittle Jesus’ prophecies.

Mirza Accuses Jesus of False Prophecies

Mirza has written about the prophecies of Jesus in a demeaning manner. As before, Mirza first thrust the blame for his accusation on others and then regarded this as an unbridled license allowing him to draw defamatory conclusions as becomes clear from his writings:

Alas! To whom can we express our mourning that three prophecies of the Messiah proved to be false!
(A’jaz –I Ahmadi):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 19, p. 121


Doesn’t the story of the pond dwindle the glamour of the Messiah’s miracles? And the state of his prophecies is worse than that! What kind of prophecies is worse than that! What kind of prophecies are these that there will be earthquakes, lives will be destroyed, wars will be fought, famine will befall? And the thing that is more sorrowful than this is the fact that the number of the prophecies of Mr. Messiah which did not come true is more than those which did.
(Azalah-I Auham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 3, p. 106


The prophecies of this helpless man (Jesus) were merely that there will be earthquakes, famines and wars… Why did this Israelite term these common occurences as prophecies?
(Zamimah Anjam-I Atham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 11, p. 288


The above illustrates Mirza’s outright denial of Jesus’ prophecies. The prophecies of Jesus, the Messiah were never false. Since this article addresses those who believe in this fundamental premise, the need was not felt to pursue Mirza’s allegations by stating the prophecies in question.
These were just a few examples to illustrate Mirza’s relentless mission to belittle Jesus. To achieve this sad objective Mirza did not rely only on the issue of miracles and prophecies. As a matter of fact he utilised diverse tricks such as his attempts to run down Jesus by comparing him with other prophets. As an example, Mirza has written the following:

Jesus peace be upon him, repented for his sins at the hands of John the Baptist and became one of his select disciples. This decides the excellence of John the Baptist over Jesus, because it is not proven that John the Baptist ever repented at the hands of anyone.
(Dafi’ al Bala):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 18, p. 220

Chapter 4
Mirza Claims Excellence over Jesus


Mirza’s objective in belittling Jesus was simply to declare his own excellence over Jesus. After having disgraced Jesus, Mirza could now assert:

God sent the promised Messiah (Mirza) amongst this community who is better in all his glory than the first Messiah (Jesus).
(Dafi’ al Bala):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 18, p. 233


Unto this nation God sent His Promised Messiah (Mirza), who is better than the first Messiah in all his glory… I swear by God in whose hands my soul is that if the Messiah , the son of Mary, were my contemporary he could not have done the works that I can do, and the signs (miracles) which I am bringing about he could never have performed.
(Haqiqat al-Wahi):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 22, p. 152


After all when God and His apostle and all the prophets have declared the supremacy of the second Messiah (Mirza) of this last period because of his great achievements, then it is a devilish temptation to say, ‘Why do you proclaim yourself superior to the first Messiah, the son of Mary’?
(Haqiqat al-Wahi):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 22, p. 159


Give up the mention of the son of Mary. (For) superior to him is Ghulam Ahmed.
(Dafi’ al Bala):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 18, p. 240


Mirza proclaimed his superiority over Jesus who was gifted with a revealed book and was honoured with magnificent miracles, and whose qualities and miracles have been stated by God at numerous places in the Bible and the Quran.


Chapter 5
Mirza Insults Jesus’ Family & Mary


Mirza has not even spared Mary, the illustrious mother of Jesus, nor his grandmothers. Mirza launched these verbal assaults sometimes under the pretense of argument and debate and sometimes as concluding remarks after commenting on Biblical issues.
Mirza adopted the most base and disgusting style of discourse. He justified this meanness by making the accusation that Jesus also had a very abusive manner of speech. Mirza thus departed from the clean and polite manners of communication taught in Divine Revelations. Following are the heartbreaking and disgraceful remarks Mirza made about Jesus’ family:

The family of Jesus was perfectly holy and immaculate. Jesus’ three paternal and maternal grandmothers were fornicators and prostitutes, from whose blood the body of Jesus came into existence.
(Zamimah Anjam-I Atham):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 11, p. 291


It is obvious that Mirza has no spared no effort to malign the perfection of Jesus by linking him with evil. It should be remembered that Jesus did not have a parental geneology like other human beings. Thus the possibility of Jesus having paternal grandmothers does not arise. By saying that Jesus had paternal grandmothers Mirza is implying that Joseph was the biological father of Jesus. Hence this assertion of Mirza is tantamount to a denial of the virgin birth as will also be demonstrated later in other references.
The following quote will illustrate Mirza’s relentless mission to prove that Jesus was worthless:

You may have tried to find a solution to the objection (raised) about the Messiah’s paternal and maternal grandmothers. I am tried of thinking (of a justification of this). Up to now no nice solution has occurred to me. What a glorious god he is whose paternal and maternal grandmothers are of such repute!
(Nur al-Quran):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 9, p. 394


As pointed out earlier, Jesus’ miraculous birth precludes the possibility of his having any paternal grandmothers. But these far reaching implications were neither important nor an impediment for Mirza. Once he had concocted a framework for debate with his contemporaries, it did not matter to him whether making such debasing accusations was sanctioned by Divine teachings or not. Mirza could not restrain himself from making these blasphemous remarks anyway, because these accusations were well planned and thought out to enable him to eventually portray himself as being superior to Jesus.


Mary’s Pregnancy Before Marriage

To disgrace Mary, Mirza writes:

And Mary’s eminence is such that she put off her marriage for a long time, but then at the insistent pressure of the leaders of the community, due to pregnancy, she married. However people raise objections about how she could get married while pregnant, (such marriages) being against the teachings of the Torah. And people also question why (Mary) breached the oath of celibacy. People also argue about why the foundations of polygamy were laid (by this marriage ). In other words why did Mary agree to marry Joseph, the carpenter, despite his already having a wife. But I would say (i.e. Mirza) that all these were compelling circumstances. In this situation they were compelling circumstances. In this situation they were to be pitied instead of considering their actions as objectionable.
(Kashti-I Nuh):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 19, p. 18

It should be pointed out that according to Christianity and Islam, the birth of Jesus was not the result of Mary’s union with any man. Therefore all the above mentioned hue and cry about pregnancy before marriage is simply an attempt by Mirza to accuse Mary of a great sin. Secondly, according to Christianity Joseph was not already married as claimed by Mirza.
While coining another far-fetched theory about the Afghans being in fact Israelites, Mirza cunningly blended in the following remark that evidently disgraces Mary due to its obvious implications. Mirza’s devious grafting of Biblical issues to his vague theories and his subsequent concluding remarks and inferences give rise to a heinous portrait of Jesus and his illustrious mother. Mirza has clearly stated in his allegations, that:
Mary’s going out with her fiancee Joseph before wedlock is a strong witness of this Israelite custom. Going out with fiances amongst the noble ones in some frontier tribes has exceeded the limits to such an extent that sometimes pregnancy comes before wedlock, but is not looked down upon.
(Ayyam al-Sulh):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 14, p. 300


Mirza has clearly implied in the above allegations that:
a.) Mary the truthful had an intimate relationship with her fiance before marriage, and used to go out with him and thus became pregnant before marriage.
b.) Mary was not a perfect believer because she broke her pledge with God to remain a virgin. Not only did she break her covenant but her marriage was also unlawful (according to Mirza’s assertion) having been performed in the state of pregnancy.
c.) Mary’s engagement to Joseph the carpenter and her marriage to him were unlawful (because of his already being married). Therefore the conclusions that derives from Mirza’s statement is that all four sons and both daughters of Mary the truthful were illegitimate (God forbid).

It should be pointed out that there is no Biblical reference, which proves that Joseph was already married. According to Islam, Mary was never engaged or married to Joseph whether or not he had a wife. Jesus was the only offspring of Mary, according to Christianity and Islam. Any Biblical reference to Jesus’ brothers and sisters does not refer to real brothers and sisters as claimed by Mirza. In order to prove that Mary was unchaste and breached her covenant to remain a celibate, Mirza attributed six children to Mary:

Jesus, the Messiah, had four brothers and two sisters; all of them were his real brothers and real sisters. I mean that they were the offspring of Joseph and Mary.
(Kashti-I Nuh):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 19, p. 18


Part 2

Conclusions & The Virtues of Jesus

Chapter 6
Conclusions

When the Christians and Muslims objected to the blasphemous writings and claims of Mirza Qadiani, he adopted different positions to deceive the masses. By sometimes praising Jesus and in the very next instant becoming downright blasphemous, Mirza tried to confuse the public. Therefore much in the same way that Mirza had coined the theory of Jesus’ death in Kashmir, he concocted another hoax to explain that he was insulting an imaginary Jesus. Sometimes he thrust the blame for his insults on the Jews and at other times he justified his meanness by saying that his insults were based on the Biblical portrait of Jesus. He therefore cunningly misused the various episodes of the Bible to arrive at horrendous conclusions. For example, after a lengthy discussion of a Biblical commentary (as outlined in Matthew 4:1-11 and Luke 4:1-13), Mirza had the audacity to conclude:

Jesus had become insane due to epilepsy.
(Satt Bachan):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 10, p. 295


After elaborating the promiscuity of Europeans, Mirza held Jesus responsible for it and said:

I wish such a person (Jesus) had not come to the world.
(Nur al-Quran):
Ruhani Khaza’in, Vol. 9, p. 417


In view of their heretical beliefs, the Muslim World has unanimously declared the Ahmadiyya and the Qadianis to be non-Muslims. They are not to be confused with any sect within Islam. They are therefore debarred from making the pilgrimage to the Holy Kabbah (the House of worship in Mecca constructed by Abraham and Ishmael).
The followers of Mirza Qadiani maintain missionary organisations in Europe and North America, where they wrongly pose as Muslims to invite people to Islam. But what they actually invite to has nothing to do with Islam, and is no more than patent disbelief. Mirza and his followers have themselves declared their disassociation from Muslims and have conceded their total departure from Islamic articles of faith.
It is clear beyond the shadow of a doubt that, regardless of their verbal claims and attempts at outward hoax and disguise, Mirza and his followers follow neither the teachings of Christianity nor Islam.
They are confusing the public about Jesus in particular by spreading the claims of Mirza Qadiani. The intelligent-sia of North America and Europe is therefore urged to understand this problem and guard against this degrading and offensive Qadiani/Ahmadiyya religion, whose followers are spreading in cities like London, Paris, Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, Toronto, Montreal, Edmonton etc.

Chapter 7
Common Beliefs About Jesus

The emergence of false Messiahs and false Prophets has been foretold both in the Christian and Islamic sources. This helps us recognise pretenders by comparing them with the prophesied details about the Promised Messiah. Listed below are the warnings about false prophets and Anti-Christs according to Christianity and Islam:

Then if a man shall say unto you. Lo here is Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; insomuch that if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.
St Matthew Ch 24:23, 24.


God’s Messenger, Muhammed (S.A.W) said: The Doomsday will not befall till thirty Anti-Christs appear, each one asserting to be the Prophet of God.

And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight. And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel; which also said: Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? This same Jesus, shall so come in a like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.
Acts of the Apostles Ch 1:9-11

God’s Messenger (S.A.W) said: God will send the Messiah, son of Mary. He will come down near the white tower to the east of Damascus dressed in two red clothes, placing his hands upon the wings of two angels…
Muslim, Tirmizi

God’s Messenger (S.A.W) said: Jesus has not died so far and is destined to return to you.
Ibn Kaseer
Chapter 8
Jesus: The Beloved Messenger of God


No religion in the world, outside Christianity, makes it an article of faith to believe in, love and honour Jesus (peace be upon him) except Islam. Indeed. A muslim who renounces the belief in Jesus (p.b.u.h) renounces his faith as a muslim.

Lo! Those who disbelieve in God and His messengers, and seek to make distinction between God and His messengers, and say: We believe in some and disbelieve in others, and seek to choose a way in between; Such are disbelievers in truth; and for disbelievers We prepare a shameful doom.
(Quran 4: 150-151)

Say: We believe in God and what is revealed to us and what was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and what was entrusted to Moses and Jesus and the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have surrendered.
(Quran 3: 84)

According to the Quran [the word of God revealed to His last messenger, Prophet Muhammed (sallallaho alaihiwasallam)], Jesus (p.b.u.h) was one of the greatest five messengers of God (Quran 33:7 and 42:13).
The story of Jesus (p.b.u.h) in the Quran begins with praise for his mother and his family.

God selected Adam and Noah, Abraham’s House and Imran’s house over [everyone in] the Universe. They were descendants of one another. God is Alert, Aware. [Remember] when the wife of Imran said: My Lord I have vowed for You whatever is in my womb. Accept it from me. See! You, only You are the Hearer, the Knower! When she gave birth she said: ‘My God I have given birth to a daughter.’ – God was quite Aware of what she had given birth to, for a male is not like a female – I have named her Mary, and ask You to protect her and her offspring from Satan the Outcast.
Her Lord accepted her in a handsome manner and caused her to grow like a lovely plant, and appointed Zachariah to take care of her. Every time Zachariah entered the sanctuary to ‘see’ her, he found she had already been supplied with food. He said: Mary, ‘Whence cometh unto you this (food)?’ She said: ‘It comes from God, for God provides for anyone He wishes without any reckoning.’
(Quran 3:33-37)

And when the angels said: O Mary! See! God has chosen you and made you pure, and has preferred you above (all) the women of creation. O Mary! Be obedient to your Lord, prostrate yourself and bow with those who bow (in worship).
(Quran 3:42,43)

The entire Quran is free from any statement that may be construed in any way to reflect negatively on Jesus (p.b.u.h). On the contrary, the Quran is replete with praises for him as one of the greatest Prophets of God. His virgin birth is clearly stated:

(And remember) when the angelssaid: O Mary! God gives you glad tidings of a word from Him, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, illustrious in the world and the Hereafter and one of those brought near (unto God). He will speak to mankind in his cradle and in his manhood, and he is one of the righteous. She said: ‘My Lord, how can I have a child while no human being has ever touched me?’ He said: So (it will be). God creates anything He wishes. Whenever He decides upon some matter, He merely tells it: Be!, and it is.
(Quran 3:45-47)

The story is also told in the Sura of ‘Mary’ as follows:

And make mention of Mary in the Book, when she had withdrawn from her people to a chamber looking East, and had chosen seclusion from them. Then We sent to her Our spirit and it assumed for her the likeness of a perfect man. She said: I seek refuge in the Compassionate One from you, if you are God fearing. He said: I am only a messenger of your Lord, that I may bestow on you a faultless son. She said: How can I have a son when no mortal has touched me, neither have I been unchaste? He said: So (it will be) Your Lord says: It is easy for Me. And (it will be) that We may make of him a revelation for mankind and a mercy from Us, and it is a thing ordained. And she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a far place. And the pangs of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree. She said: Oh, would that I had become a thing of naught, forgotten! Then (one) cried to her from below her, saying: Grieve not! Your Lord has placed a rivulet beneath you. And shake the trunk of the palm tree towards you. You will cause ripe dates to fall on you. So eat and drink and be consoled. And if you meet any mortal, say: I have vowed a fast to the Compassionate, and may not speak this day to any person.
She carried him back to her family. They said: Mary you have brought something hard to believe! O sister of Aaron! Your father wasno evil man, nor was your mother a loose woman. She pointed to him. They said: How can we talk to someone who is achild in the cradle? He said: I am God’s servant. He has given me a book and made me a prophet. He has made me blessed wherever I may be, and has enjoined on me prayer and almsgiving so long as I remain alive. And (has made me) dutiful toward her who bore me, and has not made me arrogant, unblest. Peace on me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!
(Quran 19:16-32)

His miraculous birth is compared with that of John the Baptist (Quran 19:19) and the creation of Adam from neither male or female intervention:

Jesus’ case with God was the same as Adam’s: He created him from dust; then told him: ‘Be!’ and he was.
(Quran 3:59)

Jesus is called a word from God (Quran 3:45), an expression used to refer to John the Bapist and others (Quran 3:39;2:1 17).
He is called a spirit from God (Quran 4:171), a term which is used elsewhere in the Quran to refer to others (e.g 15:29 & 32:9). He is called a ‘pure child’ (Quran 19:19), a term similar to that used in reference to another great Prophet: John the Baptist (19:13). He is described as one who is honoured in this life and in the hereafter and among those nearest to God (Quran 3:45), that he was strenghthened with the holy spirit, Arcangel Gabriel (2:87, 253; 16:102). The Quran indicates that Jesus (p.b.u.h) performed miracles with the permission of God.

I have brought you a sign from your Lord. I shall create something in the shape of a bird for you out of clay, and blow into it so it will become a ‘real’ bird with God’s permission. I shall cure those who are blind from birth and lepers, and revive the dead with God’s permission. I shall announce to you what eat and what you store up in your houses. That will serve as a sign for you if you are believers.
(Quran 3:49)

The mission of Jesus (p.b.u.h) was intended specifically to the Israelites (3:49, 5:75, 61:6). His teachings were the same as all other Prophets, to worship God alone and to associate none with Him in His Divine Attributes.
It is true that Muslims do not agree with their Christian brethren that Jesus (p.b.u.h) was God-Incarnate.
It is also true that such honest differences are shared with Muslims by many modern Christian theologians, multitudes of lay Christians (privately), and even by some clergy.
What is not true, however, is that any of such differences should be construed to express any disrespect to Jesus (peace be upon him) or to belittle him. Any person claiming any allegiance to Islam who believes otherwise is severing his relationship to Islam and can no longer be part of the Muslim Ummah (Community of believers).

He (or she) would be violating the clear word of God (the Quran) and disobeying the universal messenger to all mankind, Prophet Muhammed (p.b.u.h) who said:

I am closest (in love) to Jesus, the son of Mary, in this life and the Hereafter.



 

" 66,"Islamic Belief on Finality of Prophethood According to the Quran Sunnah and Ijma and Qiyas",5568,637,636,"The holy Quran and the holy Prophet's Ahadith (teachings) eloquently prove that prophethood (‘nabuwwat’ and ‘risalat’) came to an end with our Prophet Muhammad(SAW). By Muhammad Yusuf Ludhianvi

Islamic Belief on Finality of Prophethood

According to the Quran Sunnah and Ijma and Quyas

The holy Quran and the holy Prophet's Ahadith (teachings) eloquently prove that prophethood (‘nabuwwat’ and ‘risalat’) came to an end with our Prophet Muhammad(SAW). There are decisive verses to that effect. Being the last Prophet in the chain of prophethood, no one ever shall now succeed him to that status of dignity.


"Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things."
(Holy Quran, 33:40)

Interpreters of the Holy Quran
All the interpreters of the Holy Quran agree on the meaning of ‘Khatam-un-Nabieen’ that our Prophet(SAW) was the last of all prophets and none shall be exalted to the lofty position of prophethood after him. Here are a few examples:

Imam Hafiz Ibn-e-Katheer (Allah’s mercy on him)
"This verse is conclusive of the precept that our Prophet(SAW) is the last and that there shall be no ‘Nabi’ (Prophet) after him. When there shall be no ‘Nabi’ to follow him, the ordainment of a ‘Rasool’ (Messenger) can not arise by logic of anteriority because the status of a ‘Rasool’ is more exclusive then that of a ‘Nabi’. Every ‘Nabi’ is not a ‘Rasool’, but every ‘Rasool’ is a ‘Nabi’. There exists a continuous and unbroken chain of recitations of Ahadith from a large number of venerable ‘sahabah’ or Companions of the Prophet (Allah be pleased with them), that there shall be no ‘Nabi’ or ‘Rasool’ after Muhammad(SAW)". (Tafseer Ibn-e-Khateer, Vol. 3, P. 453)

Note: Every prophet is called a ‘Nabi’ whether he was given shariat or not; and the prophet who was given a shariat is called a ‘Rasool’.

Hujjat ul Islam, Imam Ghazali
"No doubt the Ummah (all Muslims) has unanimously understood from this word (‘Khatam-un-Nabieen’) and its circumstantial reference to mean non-existence of a ‘Nabi’ or ‘Rasool’ ever after Muhammad(SAW) and that (this word calls for) no reservation or tacit interpretation in it; hence its dissident is certainly the one who rejects the Ummah's unanimity". (Al Iqtisad fil Etiqad, P. 123)

Finality of Prophethood and Ahadith
The Prophet(SAW) unequivocally declared that he was the final Prophet. There are a large number of Ahadith to sustain this article of Islamic faith. Not only that but the Prophet(SAW) was also pleased to bring forth such expositions of this word (‘Khatam-un-Nabieen’) that all doubts relating to his finality in prophethood stand void and misinterpretations exposed. Many people having theological distinctions to their credit have stressed upon the unbroken and consecutive nature of those Ahadith which concern finality of prophethood. Opinions of some of them are quoted below:

Hafiz Ibn-e-Hazam says on page 77 of his Kitab-ul-Fasl:
"All those personages who have dwelt upon the subject of Muhammad'(SAW) prophethood, his miracles and expounded the holy Quran, have stated that he(SAW) had informed that there would be no prophet after him".

Hafiz Ibne-Khateer writes under the caption, "finality of prophethood":
"And on this (Finality of Prophethood) there have come from Allah's Messenger(SAW) "mutawatir" (absolutely certain and numerous) Ahadith which have by an unbroken chain of his companions (Allah be pleased with them)".

Allama Syed Mahmood Aloosi writes in Tafseer Roohul-Mani:
"That he (Muhammad(SAW)) was the final prophet, is ordained by the Quran, acknowledged by the Sunnah and agreed upon by the Ummah; hence a claimant to the contrary will be (determined as) Kaffir (unbeliever) and put to death if he is persistent".
To conclude therefore finality of prophethood is an article of faith by the Quran’s text and Mutawatir Ahadith. Some are reproduced below:

HADITH: (1)
The Last Brick
“From Abu Huraira, (Allah be pleased with him): Allah’s messenger(SAW) said:
“Certainly my example and the example of prophets earlier than me is like the example of a palace most elegant and most beautiful constructed by a person except (that he left in it) a blank space for a brick in one of its corners and that made the people (who were) going around it wonder (at its marvellousness) and exclaimed (in perplexion): “Why not is this brick inlaid in here!” The Prophet(SAW) said, “I am that (corner’s last) brick and I am the last of the prophets”.
Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 1, p.501 & Sahih Muslim, Vol. 2, p.248

The above Hadith is also related by Hazrat Jabir bin Abdullah, (Allah be pleased with him,) and is included in Musnad Ahmad, Sahih Muslim and Jama-e-Tirmizi. Sahih Muslim’s narration ends with theses words:

“Said Allah’s messenger(SAW) “So I am in place of this brick; I came and so I completed the chain of the prophets”.
The above Hadith is also related by Hazrat Abi bin Kaab, (Allah be pleased with him,) as recorded in Musnad Ahmed and Tirmizi”.

“My example among the prophets has a likeness (in the sense) that a man constructed a palace most lovely and perfect and extremely elegant but left the place of one brick incomplete in it (for subsequent inlaying); then people went around the palace and wondered (on its excellence) and said, “Would that space for one brick be also filled up!” The holy Prophet(SAW) said, “I am in place of this brick among the prophets”.
(Musnad Ahmed, Vol.1, p.137 & Tirmizi, Vol.2, p.201)

HADITH (2)
Line of Prophethood Terminated
“From Abu Huraira, (Allah be pleased with him): Allah’s messenger Muhammad(SAW) said: “I have been bestowed with excellence over (other) Prophets in six respects: (1) I have been gifted with comprehensive words, (2) I have been helped through awe (being put in the hearts of enemies) (3) spoils have been made lawful to me, (4) the whole earth turned into a mosque for me and a means of purification, (5) I have been ordained as the Prophet for all humanity, and (6) the line of the Prophets has been terminated with me”.
(Sahih Muslim, Vol.1, p.199, Mishkat, p.512)

One Hadith containing similar subject matter is narrated in Sahihain from